CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE
Rationale of the Study Many educational researchers agree that the need for belonging is one of the most important needs of all for students to function well in all types of learning environments (Connell & Well Born, 1991; Deci & Ryan, 1991; Finn, 1989; Osterman, 2000). The feeling of belonging may have a direct and powerful influence on students’ motivation (Goodenow, 1993). For example, perceived support and the sense of belonging are expected to increase students beliefs in their success and accordingly to increase their academic motivation.
In fact, studies consistently reveal that when students experience a sense of belonging in educational environments, they are more motivated, more engaged in school and classroom activities and more dedicated to school (Osterman, 2000). Moreover, existing research suggests that students who feel that they belong to a learning environment report higher enjoyment, enthusiasm, happiness, interest, and more confidence in engaging in learning activities, whereas those who feel isolated report greater anxiety, boredom, frustration, and sadness during the academic engagement that directly affects academic performance (Furrer & Skinner, 2003).
Maslow (1971) believed that most adjustment and emotional illness in our society could be traced to the failure to gratify the basic human need for belonging. Students who exhaust their energies attempting to meet this deficiency have no reserves left for higher level cognitive function. Another theory from Adler (1939) also believed that failure in school usually slimmed from feeling unconnected to the teacher, other students in the school, and community.
Being an irregular student has advantages and disadvantages. One disadvantage is having to deal with different classmates from one subject to another. Thus it is difficult for them to develop new ties and make friends. Oftentimes, they do things by themselves. Most of the irregular students are older so it is easy for them to be respected by their classmates. However, with age also comes the expectation that as an irregular student, you are better than them. Being an irregular student is seen negatively by others.
Reasons for becoming an irregular student may vary but most of the time what comes to people’s mind is failure in a subject. The researchers conduct this study for the purpose of identifying and finding out the mean Motivation and Group Belongingness of Second Year and Third Year Regular and Irregular BS Marine Engineering Students in Cebu Technological University-Carmen Campus. It aims to know if there is a significant difference in their academic motivation and group belongingness.
Theoretical Background of the Study Maslow (1971) believed that most adjustment and emotional illness in our society could be traced to the failure to gratify the basic human need for belonging. Students ho exhaust their energies attempting to meet this deficiency have no reserves left for higher level cognitive function. “Elders Theory of Belongingness”Crandall (1981) found that when students felt they do not belong, they felt helpless and no sense of control over their environments.
Goodenow (1993) found that when children felt they belong, they were more motivated, have higher expectations of success and believed in the value of their academic work. The desire of social bonds and connections with other has a long MYHISTORYS!!! in psychological research. It has been referred to as the need for affection between people(Murray, 1938),the need for positive regard for others (Rogers, 1951), belongingness (Baumeister and Leary, 1995; Goodenow, 1993; Maslow, 1954), affiliation motivation (Mc Clelland, 1987), and the need for relatedness (Deci and Ryan, 1991, Ryan, 1993;Valleland, 1997).
It has also been defined in a number of ways. For example,Deci and Ryan (1997) suggested that the need for relatedness, encompasses a persons striving to relate to and care for others, to feel that those others are relating authentically to one`s self, and to feel a satisfying and coherent involvent with the social world more generally (p. 243). Vallerand suggested that the need for relatedness involves feeling connected (or feeling that one belongs in a social milieu)(p. 30).
Goodenow proposed that a sense of belonging at school reflects the extent to which students feel personally accepted, respected, included and supported by others in the school`s social environment. (p. 80). Osterman (2000), found that satisfaction of the need for belonging in educational environment is significantly associated with students academic engagement and involvement in school and classroom activities, academic and social behaviours, motives and attitudes expectancies, values and goals, emotional functioning, and the development of fundamental psychological processes (eq. ntrinsic motivation, self regulation, internalization and autonomy) and psychological outcomes like self concept, self-esteem, and self-efficacy. Conceptual Framework Figure 1 Figure 1 shows the dependent variables which are Academic Motivation and Group Belongingness and the independent variable is the Type of Students which are categorized into: Regular students and Irregular students. Based on the literature, the researchers hypothesized that the type of student affects academic motivation and group belongingness.
Regular students are more academically motivated and are most likely to feel a sense of belongingness compared to irregular students.
Statement of the Problem The main purpose of the study is to determine the academic motivation and group belongingness of BS Marine Regular and Irregular students. Specifically, it attempts to answer the following questions:
1. What is the mean Academic Motivation and mean Group Belongingness of the second year and hird year Regular and Irregular students of Marine Engineering Department in Cebu Technological University-Carmen Campus?
2. Is there a difference between the Regular and Irregular students’ Academic Motivation and Group Belongingness?
3. Which between the Regular and Irregular students of Marine Engineering Department in Cebu Technological University-Carmen Campus have higher Academic Motivation and Group Belongingness?
Statement of Hypotheses
1. There is a difference in the Regular and Irregular students’ Academic Motivation and Group Belongingness.
2. Regular students have higher Academic Motivation than the Irregular students of Marine Engineering Department.
3. Regular students have higher Group Belongingness than the Irregular students of Marine Engineering Department. S
ignificance of the Study
1. Second year and Third year Regular and Irregular students of Marine Engineering Department in Cebu Technological University-Carmen Campus that they will be able to know their academic motivation and group belongingness;
2. Parents to guide their children and to give guidance and moral support in the success of their studies;
3. Teachers/instructors to educate and direct their students in their academic works. Scope and Limitations of the Study The study was limited to the focus of the mean Motivation and Group Belongingness of second year and third year Regular and Irregular students of Marine Engineering Department in Cebu Technological University-Carmen Campus.
The venture focuses on the second year and third year Regular and Irregular students of Marine Engineering Department in Cebu Technological University-Carmen Campus with the basis of Regular students who had the regular academic class schedule and Irregular students who have subjects as prescribed by the University Registrar. The research was accomplished at Cebu Technological University-Carmen Campus which is located at Poblacion, Carmen, Cebu. The study was conducted from the month of July until the month of October in the year 2012.
Research Method Used This venture is a descriptive research using the comparative method since Academic Motivation and Group Belongingness of second year and third year Regular and Irregular students of Marine Engineering Department in Cebu Technological University-Carmen Campus are being compared. The study also examined the factors that affect the Academic Motivation and Group Belongingness of the said respondents. Research Instrument A rating scale was used to measure Academic Motivation and Group Belongingness of the respondents.
It contained the statements that represent academic values and group belongingness. The respondents were to respond with Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree. Motivating factors were also presented and the respondents were forced to rank them with one (1) as the factor that motivates them the most and six (6) as the factor that motivates them the least. Research Respondents As the research was performed at the Marine Engineering Department in Cebu Technological University-Carmen Campus, second year and third year undergraduates were chosen to be the respondents of the study.
There were a total of one thousand ninety-nine (1099) Marine Engineering students in which ninety-seven (97) are irregular students and one thousand two (1002) are regular students. The researchers used purposive sampling in data gathering for Regular students. For every section of the second and third year levels, four students were selected to represent their population. On the other hand, all the Irregular second year and third year students were included in the study. There were 128 regular students and 97 irregular students. All in all, there were 225 respondents in the study.
Research Statistics Used Independent Sample T-test was used to determine if there is a significant difference in the academic motivation of regular and irregular students. Likewise, it was also used to know if there is a significant difference in their group belongingness. Independent Sample T-test method compares the mean scores of two groups on a given variable and to determine the mean performance of two groups are significantly different, written this formula: To get the mean academic motivation and mean group belongingness, this was used: = x where X = sum of all scores = number of respondents To get the Standard deviation: Definition of Terms Group Belongingness – is the human emotional need to be an accepted member of a group such as classmates and schoolmates. Motivation – is the desire of the students to study, participate, and attend class regularly. Regular students – are students who have fixed schedules and carry the prescribed study load for the semester. Irregular students – are students who have no permanent section and can choose schedules.