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I take this opportunity to acknowledge all the help and support I received from various quarters without which this project would not have been successfully completed.

To begin with, I would like to express my gratitude towards Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation for bestowing us with an opportunity to work on this project. I would like to thank Mr. J. Rajan, Assistant General Manager, GCMMF, Chennai, for extending his support at all stages of the project. I would also like to extend my heartfelt gratitude to Prof. R. C. Natarajan for his continuous guidance through the project. I would also like to thank the other faculty of TAPMI for their support.

I would also take this opportunity to thank the Convener and Projects Committee of BrandScan 2007 for facilitating the project completion. I value the effort of my Support Group and other team members from PGP II, and appreciate the wholehearted support extended by my team members from PGP I. I would also like to thank the residents of Udupi and Manipal for providing us with the required research data. For Team Amul Harish Gehlot Project Leader -1- BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Beverages Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool

E X E C U T I V E S U M M A RY Data Objective Top of the Mind Recall * (numbers in parenthesises are the percentage of responses representing the first recalled brand name in the category) Key Findings and Observations Pepsi (25), Coca Cola (24), Amul Kool (11), Other Carbonated Drinks (4), Other Juices (19); Observation: Segment is closely associated and dominated by carbonated beverages. Pepsi (93), Coca Cola (96), Thums Up (47), Maaza (33), Amul Kool (24), Appy Fizz (22); Observation: People know about the brand – Amul Kool.

Pepsi, Coca Cola, Limca, Frooti (all 100), Appy Fizz, Mountain Dew, Maaza (98 to 99), Amul (94) Observation: Amul Kool has the lowest recognition amongst the surveyed brands. 1. Taste 3. Health 1. Brand 3. Habitual 5. Socialization 1. Travelling 3. Snacks Supplement 5. Along with meals 7. Alternative to food 2. Thirst Quenching 4. Energy 2. Relaxation 4. Rejuvenation 6. Style 2. Parties 4. In-between work 6. With Breakfast Research Objective : To measure the Brand Awareness and Category Recall of Amul Kool Unaided Recall * (numbers in parenthesises are the percentage of people who could recall the particular brand without any aid)

Aided Recall * (numbers in parenthesises are the percentage of people who could recognise the particular brand when names were mentioned) Research Objective : To identify the Benefits and Purchase Drivers of Cold Beverages Ranking of Functional Benefits Ranking of Purchase Drivers – Experiential Ranking of Purchase Drivers – Occasion-driven Research Objective : To map the Brands on Benefits and Purchase Drivers Rating of Amul Kool and competitors on Benefits *( Gap is the difference between Amul Kool’s score and that of the highest scoring brand as a percentage of the latter ) . Taste: Amul Kool rated Average with a GAP of 8% 2. Thirst Quenching: Amul Kool rated Lowest with a GAP of 15% (Note that Taste and Thirst Quenching Ability are the most important benefits as ranked by the respondents) 2 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool Rating of Amul Kool and competitors on Experiential Purchase Drivers 1. Brand: Amul Kool rated just below Average with a GAP of 11% 2.

Relaxation: Amul Kool rated 2nd Lowest with a GAP of 10% Rating of Amul Kool and competitors on Occasion-driven Purchase Drivers 1. Travelling: Amul Kool rated Lowest with a GAP 19% 2. Parties: Amul Kool rated Lowest with a GAP of 4% Research Objective : To determine the Brand Association of Amul Kool Agreement/disagreement of respondents on identified associations, customers’ perceptions on what they think about Amul Kool. *(Strength Scale: Comparison with Competitors; Uniqueness Scale: Shared, Non Unique, Somewhat Unique, Unique & Very Unique; Favourability: On the basis of ranks given by the respondents)

Association with Benefits: a) I think following drinks are tasty => Strength: 2nd highest after Frooti , Uniqueness: Unique Association, Favourability: 1st Ranked Benefit b) These brands quench my thirst => Strength: Weakest, Favorability: 2nd Ranked Benefit Association with Experiential Benefits: a) I can relax while drinking => Strength: Strong, Uniqueness: Somewhat unique, Favourability: 2nd Ranked Factor Association with Occasion Driven Drivers: a) While traveling, I have it => Strength:

Very Low, Uniqueness: Non-unique Association Favourability: 1st Ranked factor b) These brands, I have in parties=> Strength: Negligible, Favorability: Very Important Association through Projective Technique: Strongly Associated with Milk: No other cold beverage has the same association (Very unique) Moderately Associated with Health (Real, Tropicana, Nandini, & Frooti having the same association) Celebrity Association: Strongly Associated with Sportsmen : Sachin Tendulkar, Virendra Sehwag, Sania Mirza, and Harbhajan Singh Research Objective : To determine the Brand Personality and User Imagery Open ended questions to capture what Amul Kool would be if it were a person, and Rating on Semantic Differential Scale 3 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal 1. Brand Personification: A Cool and Healthy person 2. User Imagery (Rating on Semantic Differential Scale): Health Conscious and Educated

Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 PROJECT BACKGROUND ………………………………………………………………….. 7 1. 1 COMPANY BACKGROUND…………………………………………………………………………… 8 1. 2 MANAGEMENT PROBLEM …………………………………………………………………………… 9 1. 3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE(S) …………………………………………………………………………. 10 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY …………………………………………………………. 12 2. RESEARCH PROCESS ……………………………………………………………………………….. 13 2. 1. 1 2. 1. 2 2. 1. 3 Pre BrandScan (Exploratory Research Phase)………………………………… 13 BrandScan Phase (Disguised Conclusive Research) ……………………….. 15 Post BrandScan Phase (Validation Conclusive Research)………………… 16 2. 2 RESPONDENTS PROFILE …………………………………………………………………………… 16 2. 3 RESEARCH TOOLS…………………………………………………………………………………… 16 3 ANALYSIS…………………………………………………………………………………………. 18 3. BRAND AWARENESS, CATEGORY RECALL AND RECOGNITION ………………………. 19 3. 2 PRODUCT BENEFITS AND PURCHASE DRIVERS ……………………………………………. 22 3. 3 BRAND MAPPING/BRAND PERCEPTION………………………………………………………. 27 3. 4 BRAND ASSOCIATION FOR AMUL KOOL …………………………………………………….. 42 3. 5 BRAND PERSONALITY AND USER IMAGERY………………………………………………… 54 4 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS …………………………………. 56 4. 1 CONCLUSIONS ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 57 4. RECOMMENDATIONS ………………………………………………………………………………. 58 5 6 ANNEXURE ……………………………………………………………………………………… 60 TEAM AMUL…………………………………………………………………………………….. 83 4 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Beverages Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool LIST OF FIGURES Figure i : Top-of-the-mind recall of various brands …………………………………. 19 Figure ii : Unaided recall of various brands………………………………………………. 0 Figure iii : Functional based benefits………………………………………………………… 23 Figure iv : Experiential or emotional benefits…………………………………………… 24 Figure v : Need Gap Analysis for Amul Kool ………………………………………….. 37 Figure vi : Perceptual map for functional based benefits………………………….. 38 Figure vii : Perceptual map for experiential or emotional benefits……………. 40 Figure viii : Perceptual map for occasion-driven reasons for consumption 41 Figure ix : User Imagery for Amul Kool…………………………………………………… 55 5

BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Beverages Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool LIST OF TABLES Table i : Growth in GCMMF portfolio ……………………………………………………… 8 Table ii : Research Tools used for the Analysis ………………………………………… 17 Table iii : Brand recognition in terms of percentage of respondents………… 21 Table iv : Ranking of functional based benefits………………………………………… 23 Table v : Ranking of experiential or emotional benefits …………………………… 5 Table vi : Trend shown by occasion-driven reasons for consumption……… 25 Table vii : Importance of occasion-driven reasons for consumption ……….. 26 Table viii : Trend shown by functional based benefits for various brands .. 29 Table ix : Ranking of functional based benefits for Amul Kool……………….. 29 Table x : Trend shown by experiential or emotional based benefits for various brands ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 31 Table xi : Ranking of experiential or emotional based benefits for Amul Kool …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2 Table xii : Trend shown by occasion-driven reasons for consumption for various brands ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34 Table xiii : Ranking of occasion-driven reasons for consumption for Amul Kool …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 35 Table xiv : Need Gap Analysis for Amul Kool ………………………………………… 36 Table xv : Brand Association depicting Strength, Uniqueness, and Favourability…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 0 Table xvi : Brand Association through projective technique…………………….. 51 Table xvii : Celebrity Association through projective technique ………………. 52 Table xviii : Brand Meaning through projective technique……………………….. 53 Table xix : Brand Personality through projective technique……………………… 54 6 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Beverages Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool 1 PROJECT BACKGROUND 1. 1 COMPANY BACKGROUND …………………………………………………………………… 8 1. 2 MANAGEMENT PROBLEM ………………………………………………………………….. 9 1. 3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE(S) ………………………………………………………………….. 10 7 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Beverages Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool 1. 1 COMPANY BACKGROUND AMUL, registered on 14 December 1946, is a dairy cooperative movement in India. It is marketed and managed by an apex cooperative organisation, Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd. (GCMMF), which is the largest food products marketing organisation in India.

The product range includes milk powder, liquid milk, flavoured milk, sweetened condensed milk, infant milk, butter, ghee, cheese, chocolate, ice cream, yoghurt, cream, Indian sweets, pizza and health food drinks. Besides the Indian market, AMUL has penetrated into overseas markets such as Mauritius, United Arab Emirates, USA, Bangladesh, Australia, China, Singapore, Hong Kong and some South African countries. GCMMF Portfolio Growth on last year (in value) Milk Procurement Sales (Overall) Sales Amul Milk Sales Amul Ghee & Sagar Sales Milk UHT Sales Flavoured Milk Segment Sales Cheese Sales Amul Lite & Delicious Margarine 4. 5 percent 13. 4 percent 40 percent 28 percent 25 percent 55 percent 20 percent 58 percent Table i : Growth in GCMMF portfolio The milk procurement in year 2006-2007 was 6. million Kg per day and the combined sales was Rs. 42. 77 billion. Amul has managed to register double-digit value growth in Butter and Milk Powders. Moreover, it has launched Probiotic and Sugar-free Ice-cream during last year to cater to the growing health conscious segment. New range of chocolates with world-class packaging, under the brand name Amul Chocozoo, has been launched. 8 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool Challenges: At present, the organized sector (both cooperative and private) and the traditional sector are catering to milk market in India.

Recent changes in the preferences of the Indian consumer, attracted by supermarkets and malls, are heading towards a different retail format. This puts forth a challenge for dairy parlours that are a part of traditional retail sector. Competition is also on a rise with other cold beverages available in the market due to these changes in retailing. Amul is coming up with its own Amul Preferred Outlets (APOs) all across the country to fight such competition. Other challenges that add to the struggle of dairy industry include the recent ban on export of milk powder and massive loss in milk procurement due to rains and floods in June and August in 2006.

The increase in international SMP prices from US$ 3000 per MT to US$ 5000 per MT due to the ban has resulted into an opportunity loss of realization of better prices that Indian dairy industry could have obtained due to removal of subsidy in Europe and a recent drought in Australia. The Brand Amul Kool Product The variants include flavoured milk, chocolate milk, Kool Cafe in various packaging like glass bottles, cans, and tetra-packs in various sizes and flavours. Promotion It is promoted as a health and energetic drink. The name ‘Kool’ suggests targeting the youth. Price The price range of its products or variants is Rs. 10. 00 to Rs. 20. 00.

Place The product is made available at parlours, retail outlets, and kirana stores. 1. 2 MANAGEMENT PROBLEM The management problem behind this project was the observations of “the dip-stick study conducted on Amul Kool” by Project Committee members of TAPMI. The study 9 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool also suggested “probable research objectives”. These research objectives were discussed thoroughly with Mr. J. Rajan, General Manager, GCMMF Ltd. , Chennai. The research objectives selected are mentioned below. From the interactions with Mr. J.

Rajan we found that he was deeply concerned about finding out not satisfactorily met needs by cold beverages category at present, especially by Pepsi and Coca Cola who are market leaders. The objective behind this as understood by research team is that Amul Kool wants to target the market served by Pepsi and Coca Cola. If Amul Kool can capture a significant pie of their (Pepsi/Coca-Cola) market and increase the market at the same time, Amul Kool would have a sizeable market to serve. Association study and user imagery were seen as important tools to suggest marketing strategies for the above mentioned market segment. 1. 3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE(S)

RESEARCH OJECTIVE 1: To measure the Brand Awareness and Category Recall of Amul Kool To measure the depth (Top of the mind, Unaided and Added recall) of the brand’s presence in the consumers’ mind. Awareness will be the first step to tap the cold beverage market. Also, whether people perceive Amul Kool as a part of the cold beverages segment. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE 2: To identify the Benefits and Purchase Drivers of Cold Beverages To identify what are the major purchase drivers in this segment, so that Amul Kool can embrace these purchase drivers in its offering. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE 3: To map the Brands on Benefits and Purchase Drivers To measure the performance of various brands on purchase drivers in the consumers’ mind, in order to identify competitive positions for Amul Kool.

This will help to identify not satisfactorily met needs of the consumers by any of the present offerings as well as 10 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool the gap in meeting identified needs of the consumer by Amul Kool’s offering. Also it will provide discriminating power of various purchase drivers. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE 4: To determine the Brand Association of Amul Kool To understand what “Amul Kool” stands for (image of Amul Kool) in the consumers’ mind on various parameters (functional, emotional brand association), and measuring strength, niqueness and favourability of these associations. Use this data to strategize which are the most favourable associations that Amul Kool should position on. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE 5: To determine the Brand Personality and User Imagery To understand what “Amul Kool” stands for in the consumers’ mind as a personality and what they think about the users of Amul Kool. These parameters are part of emotional association of a brand, and measuring strength, uniqueness and favourability of these associations. Use this data to strategize which are the most favourable associations that Amul Kool should position on. 11 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal

Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 2. 1 RESEARCH PROCESS ……………………………………………………………….. 13 2. 2 RESPONDENTS PROFILE …………………………………………………………… 16 2. 3 RESEARCH TOOLS ………………………………………………………………….. 16 12 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool Based on the research and business objectives, a cross sectional study was carried out that represents a snapshot at a point of time.

The research comprised qualitative primary research and quantitative primary research. The information collection was done broadly at three levels. Following is the brief of the research methodology. 2. 1 RESEARCH PROCESS The three phases of research are explained in detail below. Work Flow: Qualitative Exploratory Research Phase FGDs, In-depth Interviews Quantitative Exploratory Research Questionnaire formed on the basis of earlier research phase, Factor analysis was done Designing of games to collect data through disguised approach Game Design 00 Conclusion and Recommendations Inferences from data analysis and Recommendations Data Analysis Using Appropriate Statistical Techniques

BrandScan 2007 Continuous monitoring on conduction of the games to ensure validity of the data collected 2. 1. 1 PRE BRANDSCAN (EXPLORATORY RESEARCH PHASE) Objective of this phase of the study was to gain deeper understanding of various needs of cold beverages while purchasing. It was the beginning of the understanding of consumer buying behaviour regarding cold beverages. One of the objectives of this study was to identify the broad product attributes that are desired by the respondents. The overall consumer behaviour and attitude were studied. 13 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool 2. 1. 1. Qualitative Exploratory Research Phase a) In-depth interviews: 11 In-depth interviews were conducted. There was an indicative list of questions used to facilitate and guide the interview process. They were aimed at giving a direction to the interviews Initial few questions were closed ended to put interviewee on ease. These were followed by open-ended questions. b) Focused Group Discussions: 12 focused group discussions were conducted. Each group had 5 to 8 respondents. Respondents were users and non users of Amul Kool, as well as those who don’t consume any of cold beverages at all. Two moderators were present for each of the FGD. Output of the Phase: From this phase, three sub category of need have been identified.

They are: a) Functional Benefits, b) Experiential or Emotional Purchase Drivers, c) Occasion-driven Purchase Drivers. From this phase total 15 functional benefits, 25 experiential purchase drivers, and 14 occasion-driven purchase drivers have been found out. The list of these identified needs is attached as Annexure A. 2. 1. 1. 2 Quantitative Exploratory Research Phase On the basis of the output from Qualitative Exploratory Research Phase, all three types of needs parameters were included in the preliminary questionnaires. These were reduced to 8 functional benefits, 14 experiential purchase drivers, and 10 occasion-driven purchase drivers. The same are attached as an annexure B.

The preliminary questionnaires have been conducted to 80 respondents each. Factor analysis was used extensively at this stage. Factor Analysis was done on data obtained from the questionnaires to reduce the number of total variables. Output of the Factor Analysis has been attached as an annexure C. 14 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool Output of the Phase: From Factor Analysis 4 functional benefits, 6 experiential purchase drivers, and 7 occasion-driven purchase drivers have been identified for further study. See annexure C for the list containing these needs/factors. 2. 1. 1. Game Design In this phase, games were developed to collect required data as identified from Factor Analysis output of the previous phase. Care was taken to ensure that games were sufficiently disguised. These were designed keeping target segment and theme of stall in mind. The objective was primarily to find association of Amul Kool and other brands with benefits, attributes and occasion of use of cold beverages, need gap analysis and user imagery. Though games were designed with the primary objective of data collection, other aspects like entertainment for the respondents and increasing the involvement of respondents were also taken into consideration.

Output of the Phase: A detailed description of games with their research objectives has been attached as an annexure D. 2. 1. 2 BRANDSCAN PHASE (DISGUISED CONCLUSIVE RESEARCH) The BrandScan stall was designed with the theme of “Railway Platform”. The theme was selected with the information needs in view and fit with the nature of disguised games. The games were closely monitored to ensure that they are disguised and the responses are valid. It was also made sure that only data from target segment get recorded. Output of the Phase: Essential data from each game has been captured with detailed demographic description of each of the respondent. 15 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal

Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool 2. 1. 3 POST BRANDSCAN PHASE (VALIDATION CONCLUSIVE RESEARCH) The Post-BrandScan research was conducted in the form of questionnaires. The questionnaires were used to complement the data for all the objectives. The questionnaire has been attached as an annexure E. 2. 2 RESPONDENTS PROFILE Identifying variables: Gender: Age: Marital Status: Both Male and Female Between 16 to 30 years Both Married, and Unmarried It has been taken care that there would be an equal mixes of respondents from both genders, all ages between 16 to 30 years during all the three phases.

The sampling method used was judgemental sampling. Total sample size was 180. 2. 3 RESEARCH TOOLS Research Objective Measuring Brand Awareness and Category Recall Identifying Benefits and Purchase Drivers Brand Mapping on Rating of Amul Kool and Purchase Drivers its competitors on identified needs 16 7,8, 9 Ranking of benefits and of purchase drivers 3, 4, 5 Factor Analysis Frequency Analysis Means, Mode Median, Standard Deviation Frequency Analysis Perceptual Maps Means BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Data Objective Top of the Mind Recall, Unaided and Aided Recall Question Number 1, 2, 6 Analysis Technique Frequency Analysis

Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool Research Objective Brand Association of Amul Kool Agreement/disagreement of respondents on identified associations, customers’ perceptions on what they think about Amul Kool Brand Personality and User Imagery Open ended question to capture what Amul Kool would be if it were a person, and Rating on Semantic Differential Scale Table ii : Research Tools used for the Analysis Data Objective Question Number Analysis Technique 10, 11, 12, Frequency Analysis 13, 14 Means 15, 16 Frequency Analysis Means 17 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool 3 ANALYSIS 3. BRAND AWARENESS, CATEGORY RECALL AND RECOGNITION………. 19 3. 2 PRODUCT BENEFITS AND PURCHASE DRIVERS ……………………………. 22 3. 3 BRAND MAPPING/BRAND PERCEPTION ……………………………………… 27 3. 4 BRAND ASSOCIATION FOR AMUL KOOL …………………………………….. 42 3. 5 BRAND PERSONALITY AND USER IMAGERY ……………………………….. 54 18 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool 3. 1 BRAND AWARENESS, CATEGORY RECALL AND RECOGNITION Brand awareness measures the accessibility of brand in memory.

The Brand Awareness has two components breadth and depth. This section captures the depth of the awareness extensively and width of the brand awareness is captured in a later section. Depth of Brand Awareness consists of Recall and Recognition. We have used Top of the mind recall and unaided recall as two tests of recall and aided recall tests using brand names to test brand recognition. 3. 1. 1 Top of the Mind Recall (ToM) It is a measure used to test the most prominent brand associated with the category, or the first brand which comes to respondents’ mind when they think about the category. Pepsi and Coco-Cola dominated the ToM study, with 25 per cent and 24 per cent respectively.

Also, a formidable sub-category that arose out of the survey was juices (Real, Tropicana) or semi-juices (Frooti, Maaza) that formed another 19 per cent of the respondents. Amul Kool constituted 11 per cent of the responses which places it below the carbonated drinks as other carbonated beverages (7up, Sprite, Limca, Thumbs Up, Mountain Dew) formed another 4 per cent, resulting in almost half (53 per cent) of the people thinking of carbonated beverages instantly when they think of cold beverages. Others which included local brands and some national brands constituted a significant 17 per cent of responses. Amul Kool 17% 11% Pepsi 25% Coca Cola Other carbonated drinks 19% 4% 24% Other Juices Others Figure i : Top-of-the-mind recall of various brands 19 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal

Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool Key Observations (3. 1. 1): a) The segment is closely associated and dominated by carbonated beverages. b) All brands having a high ToM are brands which are heavily and continuously advertised. 3. 1. 2 Unaided Recall People were asked to write all names that they can think of or recollect from the category – “cold beverages”. The results, given ToM scores, were surprising as Amul Kool scored higher than brands like Real, Tropicana, Frooti, and other such beverages which we earlier classified as juices or semi-juices. Thus, a very small section of response set i. e. pproximately 20 per cent associate juices and semi-juices with the cold beverages segment. Others are either unaware or think of it as a different category, with the latter being more likely. Interpreting the graph below, Carbonated Drinks dominated again as Top six places were occupied by them. Coca-Cola and Pepsi dominated with 96 per cent and 94 per cent of respondents recalling them. Thumbs up came third with 47 per cent, followed by Limca (35 per cent), Maaza (33 per cent) and Mountain Dew (25 per cent). Amul Kool had 24 per cent of the people recalling it. P er centag e o f R espo ndents 100. 0% 90. 0% 80. 0% 70. 0% 60. 0% 50. 0% 40. 0% 30. 0% 20. 0% 10. 0% 0. 0% 93. 5% 95. 7% 46. 8% 34. 5% 23. % 18. 0% 21. 6% 20. 1% 10. 1% 0. 7% 33. 1% 25. 2% ps i ca la al ti na z in i ol p a az M M Re a sU Co Li m F iz Pe i ca Ko Fr nd Na Co Ap Tr mb ul Brands Figure ii : Unaided recall of various brands 20 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal ou nta i Am Tu nD py op ca ew oo Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool Key Observations (3. 1. 2): a) People know about the brand Amul Kool. b) People associate Amul Kool more with cold beverages when compared to other health-oriented beverages like juices and semi-juices being associated with coldbeverages segment. 3. 1. Brand Recognition – Aided Recall using brand names: The results are consistent with popular beliefs that the national brands have high recognition levels and almost everyone knows them. All Brands, except Nandini – a regional milk brand, enjoyed more than 90 per cent recall. Pepsi, Coca-Cola, Limca and Frooti enjoyed 100 per cent recognition, while most others languished in late 90’s (97+). Nandini was the lowest with 58 per cent, then Amul Kool with 93 per cent and finally the two juice brands Real and Tropicana having 94 per cent recognition. The numbers support our earlier argument that juices are not seen by consumers in their mind as cold beverages (though we will later see that their behaviour considers them as substitutes), but relatively Amul Kool is.

Brands Amul Kool Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Appy Fizz Real Tropicana Nandini Thumbs Up Maaza Mountain Dew Percentage of Respondents 93. 6 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 97. 9 94. 3 94. 3 57. 9 98. 6 98. 6 97. 9 Table iii : Brand recognition in terms of percentage of respondents 21 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool Key Observations (3. 1. 3): a) Amul Kool has the lowest recognition amongst national brands (93 per cent). b) Regional brands have very low recognition when compared to national brands – 58 per cent vs. 93 per cent to 100 per cent. 3. 2 PRODUCT BENEFITS AND PURCHASE DRIVERS

The reasons to consume have been divided by our research into three parts which we arrived at after in-depth exploratory research: a) Functional Benefits b) Experiential or Emotional Purchase Drivers c) Occasion-driven Purchase Drivers The above three should not be seen in isolation but in conjunction, as together they guide the – Interest, Evaluation and Trial – phases of the AIETA model used to influence consumer behaviour in FMCG products. 3. 2. 1 Functional based Benefits From the various functions or attributes through factor analysis we arrived at these 4 benefits – Taste, Energy, Health and Thirst Quenching – as the underlying benefits driving selection of those attributes.

We asked our respondents to rank these parameters in order of preference. The graph below gives us an indication of how a consumer prioritizes these benefits in his/her mind. We see that taste is the over-riding factor with 49 per cent people giving it rank 1, and another 39 per cent ranking it second. Thirst quenching ability of a drink was the second most important factor with 32 per cent people marking it rank 1 and another 39 per cent marking it rank 2. This was followed by health with 17 per cent marking it rank 1 and another 14 per cent rank 2. Energy was the least sought after benefit with only 5 per cent people ranking it 1st. 22 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal

Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool 100% 90% 80% 16. 80% 4. 8% 32. 00% 13. 60% 12. 00% 31. 20% 38. 40% Health 39. 20% 46. 40% 37. 60% Energy Thirst Quenching Taste % of Respondents 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 48. 80% 39. 20% 12. 80% 6. 40% 16. 80% 5. 60% Rank 4 Rank 1 Rank 2 Rank 3 Ranking Figure iii : Functional based benefits Hence, the ranking that emerges out of this is: Benefit Taste Thirst Quenching Health Energy Rank 1 2 3 4 Table iv : Ranking of functional based benefits Key Observations (3. 2. 1): a) Taste and Thirst Quenching ability are two most sought after functional benefits. ) Energy – highlight of the Amul Kool campaign ranks lowest in consumer prioritization of functional benefits. 3. 2. 2 Experiential or Emotional Benefits Ranking was used to study the consumer prioritization of Experiential Benefits, as consumer uses two or three benefits to evaluate and make a trial. 23 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool 100% 90% 80% %age of Respondents 21. 6% 5. 8% 15. 1% 30. 9% 23. 7% 2. 9% 12. 2% 14. 4% 37. 4% 16. 5% Rank 1 Rank 2 15. 8% Rank 3 12. 2% Rank 4 24. 5% 15. 8% 13. 7% 15. 8% 10. 8% 8. 6% 20. 1% 7. 2% 28. 8% 28. 1% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 18. 7% 7. 2% 23. 0% 20. 9% 23. 7% 3. 6% 8. % Habitual Socialization Relaxation Rejuvenation Style Brand 25. 2% 11. 5% 13. 7% 23. 0% 20. 9% 10. 1% Rank 5 7. 9% Rank 6 Figure iv : Experiential or emotional benefits Brand was a clear rank one with 37 per cent ranking it first and 17 per cent ranking it second. A drink which relaxes you was not far off as a benefit with 46 per cent people ranking it within top two ranks and 70 per cent within top three ranks. (This might need a re-look at the campaign – energy or relaxation). Habitual and rejuvenation were a close third and fourth respectively, with 37 per cent ranking “habitual” in first or second compared to 36 per cent for rejuvenation.

What made “habitual” a third rank was the cumulative percentage till third rank which in its case was 53 per cent and 47 per cent was rejuvenation. Socialization is ranked fifth and style sixth. Please note that the research team feels that style’s ranking should not be taken at face value as most people are not up-front about their hedonistic pleasures especially something like style from a cold beverage product. The six parameters are ranked in the following table based on the exercise done above. It can be seen clearly that brand is the top ranked benefit, whereas style turns out to be lowest ranked benefit. 24 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal

Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool Benefit Brand Relaxation Habitual Rejuvenation Socialization Style Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 Table v : Ranking of experiential or emotional benefits Key Observation (3. 2. 2): a) Brand and Relaxation are the most sought after experiential benefits. 3. 2. 3 Occasion-driven reasons for consumption Since occasions are not a trade-off choice which a consumer makes but a series of events which most individuals go through, we used rating scale to measure the “likelihood” of consumption of beverages on these occasions. We used seven broad definitions of occasions to encompass most occasions a consumer buys a beverage.

The occasions identified were: With Breakfast, as an alternative to food (hungry with no time to eat or cannot eat), while traveling, with meals, in-between work, as snacks supplement and in parties. These seven events broadly encompass all touch points of the consumer with this category. Occasions Alternative to food With breakfast While Traveling In Parties Along with meals In Between Work Snacks Supplement Average Rating 3. 16 3. 43 6. 93 7. 76 4. 34 4. 76 6. 28 Standard Deviation 2. 537 2. 785 2. 620 2. 425 2. 538 2. 403 2. 640 2 2 7 8 4 5 7 1 1 10 10 5 5 8 Median Mode Table vi : Trend shown by occasion-driven reasons for consumption 25 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal

Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool Parties and Traveling were highest rated occasions for consumption of cold beverages, the mode in these two cases was 10 signifying that maximum people rated these occasions as “Always having a cold beverage at a party or while traveling”. Also, median was 8 for parties and 7 for traveling with averages just lower than this number. Thus, meanmedian-mode analysis rates these two occasions as the most likely for the maximum number of people. (Please note that just a mean or median is only half a story without the other two in rating analysis). The other highly ranked category was Snacks supplement with a mode of 8, median of 7 and an average of 6. 3 suggesting extreme values on the lower end.

This means that though most people have beverages with snacks, there are some who completely do not. Thus we can say that “Most people are likely to have beverages with snacks while a few will hardly ever”. In Between work and along with meals occasions follow next in frequency of beverage consumption, mean-median-mode of around 5. But while, “in between work” has Mean greater than Median, “along with work” has Mean less than Median, suggestion that “in between work has a rightward skew while along with work has a leftward skew. Thus, we would rank In-between work higher in terms of likelihood of purchase of cold beverages. “Alternative to food” and “With Breakfast” were the lowest ranked with mode of 1 and median of 2.

We feel that consumers perceiving juices and semi-juices as different from cold beverages in their minds is one of the reasons for low rating to “with breakfast” and our exploratory research does show “With breakfast” as a lucrative occasion to stimulate consumption. This also justifies the launch of largetetra pack, similar to those of juices, for Amul Kool. Occasion Traveling Parties Snacks Supplement In-between work Along with meals With Breakfast Alternative to food Importance * 1 1 3 4 5 6 7 Table vii : Importance of occasion-driven reasons for consumption *Higher rated occasions have been assigned higher importance. 26 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool This table is generated by our research group’s data analysis.

The table gives us the “likelihood” of consumption of cold beverages in this situation. Cold beverages close association with carbonated drinks and exclusion of juices and semi-juices are seen as main reasons of “with breakfast” occasion ranked so low in consumer’s mind, though there usage pattern study should put it much higher. Key Observations (3. 2. 3): a) Travel and parties are most likely occasions for beverage consumption. b) This is followed by snacks supplement. c) Lucrative and unexplored segment is “in-between work”. 3. 3 BRAND MAPPING/BRAND PERCEPTION In this section we analyze on how various brands perform on the parameters discussed in previous section.

The study deals in consumer perception of various brands on the identified parameters, and therefore is divided into the same three aspects as classified in the previous section: a) Brand Mapping on Functional based Benefits b) Brand Mapping on Experiential or Emotional Benefits c) Brand Mapping on Occasion-driven reasons for consumption. For analysis two methods have been used: a) Rating and Ranking Method b) Need Gap Analysis c) Perceptual Maps 3. 3. 1 Rating and Ranking Method Rating and Ranking Method is useful way to understand product differences and to provide specific performance targets for management. It focuses on average rating of brands on each of the purchase driver.

We will use this method for brand mapping separately for each category classified in the previous section. 27 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool 3. 3. 1. 1 Brand Mapping on Functional based Benefits Average Rating Taste Amul Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Real Appy Fizz Energy Amul Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Real Appy Fizz Health Amul Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Real Appy Fizz Thirst Amul Pepsi Coca Cola 5. 48 6. 38 6. 45 7. 02 3. 17 3. 07 5. 54 3. 59 6. 91 5. 23 6. 24 4. 60 4. 52 5. 68 4. 63 6. 22 5. 49 6. 55 6. 56 6. 65 7. 13 5. 68 6. 56 6. 16 Standard Deviation 2. 56 2. 41 2. 3 2. 69 2. 89 2. 86 3. 10 2. 35 2. 21 2. 22 2. 29 2. 63 2. 94 2. 90 2. 46 1. 93 1. 87 2. 37 2. 41 2. 85 2. 66 2. 51 2. 47 2. 63 28 Median 7. 00 7. 00 7. 00 8. 00 6. 00 7. 00 7. 00 7. 00 5. 00 5. 00 6. 00 5. 00 7. 00 6. 00 8. 00 3. 00 3. 00 6. 00 3. 00 8. 00 5. 00 5. 00 7. 00 7. 00 Mode 8. 00 8. 00 7. 00 9. 00 8. 00 8. 00 8. 00 7. 00 5. 00 5. 00 5. 00 5. 00 8. 00 8. 00 8. 00 2. 00 1. 00 7. 00 2. 00 9. 00 5. 00 5. 00 8. 00 8. 00 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool Average Rating Frooti Limca Real Appy Fizz 6. 11 5. 84 6. 6 5. 72 Standard Deviation 2. 77 2. 99 2. 76 2. 92 Median 7. 00 7. 00 7. 00 6. 00 Mode 7. 00 8. 00 7. 00 6. 00 Table viii : Trend shown by functional based benefits for various brands As we identified earlier that Taste and Thirst quenching are the most important functional benefit purchase drivers. The table above clearly demonstrates that while Amul Kool enjoys the same taste perception as the majority of the category (thus, no point of difference just a point of parity), it is the lowest rated in its ability to quench thirst. All the three figures, mean-median-mode, are the lowest in the category when it comes to thirst quenching ability.

In terms of health benefits, its highest rated in the category along with Real. Amul Kool’s association with milk and Real’s association with juice i. e. both of their association with natural and healthy products seem to give them this high rating. But, how relevant is this to the consumer is to be seen as health does not seem to be amongst the top 2 drivers in this segment. A similar story unfolds in energy where Real and Amul Kool lead the category because of their association with “fresh juices” and “milk” respectively. But again, energy is the lowest ranked functional purchase driver and thus, a question mark on how much will this competitive advantage lead to sales.

The following table tells us about Amul Kool’s performance on these benefits: Benefit Taste Thirst Quenching Health Energy Consumer Rank 1 2 3 4 Amul Kool (10 point scale) Average as compared to others Lowest Highest Highest Table ix : Ranking of functional based benefits for Amul Kool This table illustrates that Amul Kool is rated high on those benefits that are less important for a respondent while buying a cold beverage. 29 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool 3. 3. 1. 2 Brand Mapping on Experiential or Emotional Benefits

Average Rating Brand Amul Kool Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Real Appy Fizz Style Amul Kool Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Real Appy Fizz Rejuvenation Amul Kool Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Real Appy Fizz Relaxation Amul Kool Pepsi Coca Cola 5. 90 6. 19 6. 13 30 5. 60 6. 01 5. 95 6. 00 5. 35 6. 43 5. 73 5. 49 6. 86 6. 91 5. 84 5. 52 6. 24 6. 18 6. 54 7. 27 7. 37 6. 73 6. 00 6. 97 6. 30 Standard Deviation 2. 47 2. 55 2. 63 2. 75 2. 99 2. 76 3. 18 2. 07 2. 63 2. 61 2. 61 2. 82 2. 63 3. 17 2. 05 2. 43 2. 54 2. 73 2. 91 2. 62 2. 78 2. 09 2. 43 2. 44 Median 7. 00 8. 00 8. 00 7. 50 7. 00 8. 00 7. 00 5. 00 8. 00 6. 00 6. 00 6. 00 7. 00 7. 00 6. 00 6. 00 6. 00 6. 00 6. 00 7. 00 7. 00 6. 00 7. 00 7. 00 Mode 7. 00 9. 00 8. 0 8. 00 9. 00 8. 00 9. 00 5. 00 8. 00 7. 00 7. 00 8. 00 7. 00 7. 00 5. 00 7. 00 7. 00 8. 00 6. 00 8. 00 7. 00 6. 00 7. 00 7. 00 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool Average Rating Frooti Limca Real Appy Fizz Socialization Amul Kool Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Real Appy Fizz Habitual Amul Kool Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Real Appy Fizz 3. 75 5. 28 5. 31 4. 46 4. 05 4. 91 4. 64 2. 21 2. 99 2. 99 2. 95 2. 78 2. 81 3. 13 4. 00 6. 00 6. 00 5. 00 4. 00 5. 00 5. 00 1. 00 8. 00 7. 00 1. 00 1. 00 4. 00 1. 00 4. 65 6. 52 6. 47 5. 7 4. 86 5. 64 5. 69 2. 04 2. 59 2. 59 2. 54 2. 93 2. 53 2. 95 5. 00 7. 00 7. 00 6. 00 5. 00 5. 00 6. 00 5. 00 8. 00 8. 00 7. 00 7. 00 5. 00 7. 00 6. 28 5. 40 6. 57 5. 78 Standard Deviation 2. 77 3. 06 2. 63 2. 86 Median 7. 00 6. 00 7. 00 6. 00 Mode 7. 00 8. 00 7. 00 5. 00 Table x : Trend shown by experiential or emotional based benefits for various brands The above table is the crux of the matter in understanding position of Amul Kool vis-avis other brands as Experiential benefit in low-ticket, low involvement FMCG products is more important than functional benefits, and this is where successful brands in the category seem to engage the consumer.

The high rating of market leaders Pepsi and Coca-Cola in this segment is further testimony to that. The following table illustrates Amul Kool’s performance when evaluated based on the trends observed above. 31 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool Amul Kool (10 point scale) Just Below Average, Parent Brand “Amul” leads to some credibility 3rd Lowest Lowest 2nd Lowest Lowest Lowest Benefit Brand Relaxation Habitual Rejuvenation Socialization Style Consumer Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 Table xi : Ranking of experiential or emotional based benefits for Amul Kool Amul Kool seems to lack the emotional relationship with its customers.

Low scores seem to be effecting adoption as well as re-purchase rates of the product, important parameters for success in this segment. 3. 3. 1. 3 Brand Mapping on Occasion-driven reasons for consumption Average Rating Alternative to food Amul Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Real Appy Fizz Breakfast Supplement Amul Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Standard Deviation Median Mode 5. 59 3. 78 3. 87 4. 71 3. 48 5. 01 4. 12 7. 46 2. 78 2. 79 2. 81 2. 60 2. 88 2. 88 5. 00 3. 00 4. 00 5. 00 3. 00 5. 00 4. 00 1. 00 1. 00 1. 00 5. 00 1. 00 8. 00 1. 00 5. 63 3. 40 3. 45 5. 00 3. 26 32 2. 80 2. 47 2. 60 4. 21 2. 76 6. 00 3. 00 3. 00 5. 00 2. 50 7. 00 1. 00 1. 00 5. 00 1. 00 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal

Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool Average Rating Real Appy Fizz Traveling Partner Amul Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Real Appy Fizz In Parties Amul Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Real Appy Fizz Complementary to Dinner/Lunch Amul Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Real Appy Fizz In between work Amul 5. 25 33 2. 51 6. 00 7. 00 4. 35 5. 33 5. 33 4. 71 3. 98 4. 70 4. 20 2. 43 2. 95 2. 93 2. 67 2. 83 2. 84 2. 71 5. 00 6. 00 6. 00 5. 00 4. 50 5. 00 5. 00 5. 00 7. 00 7. 00 5. 00 5. 00 5. 00 5. 00 3. 32 7. 20 7. 12 4. 92 5. 47 5. 13 5. 09 2. 52 2. 58 2. 61 2. 52 2. 95 2. 91 2. 85 2. 00 8. 00 8. 00 5. 00 6. 00 6. 00 5. 00 1. 00 9. 00 8. 00 5. 00 7. 00 6. 00 4. 00 5. 73 3. 82 Standard Deviation 3. 08 2. 91 Median 7. 00 3. 00 Mode 8. 00 2. 00 5. 28 6. 29 6. 49 6. 03 5. 13 6. 09 5. 38 3. 48 2. 60 2. 4 2. 55 3. 01 2. 65 2. 98 5. 00 7. 00 7. 00 6. 00 6. 00 6. 00 6. 00 5. 00 7. 00 7. 00 7. 00 6. 00 7. 00 5. 00 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool Average Rating Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Real Appy Fizz Snacks Partner Amul Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Real Appy Fizz 5. 40 6. 28 6. 41 5. 69 5. 24 5. 45 5. 15 2. 57 2. 67 2. 61 2. 68 3. 09 2. 82 3. 12 6. 00 7. 00 7. 00 6. 00 6. 00 6. 00 5. 00 8. 00 8. 00 8. 00 8. 00 5. 00 7. 00 5. 00 5. 56 5. 65 5. 51 4. 75 5. 61 4. 84 Standard Deviation 2. 68 2. 64 2. 58 2. 91 2. 75 2. 6 Median 6. 00 6. 00 6. 00 5. 00 6. 00 5. 00 Mode 7. 00 7. 00 5. 00 7. 00 7. 00 5. 00 Table xii : Trend shown by occasion-driven reasons for consumption for various brands As can be seen in the above table, Amul Kool is rated very low at traveling and parties. Pepsi and Coca Cola are the most preferred brand at such occasions. On the other hand, Amul Kool is one of the most preferred beverages during breakfast. The table shown below compares Amul Kool with respect to the relative importance of these occasions. Breakfast supplement is the only occasion where it is above the competition convincingly, probably because of it being a milk product.

But as we see, in the two most likely occasions of consumption, traveling and parties, Amul Kool ranks the lowest. As a supplement to snacks and as a beverage “between work”, Amul Kool meets the category average. This table also shows no clear point of differentiation except its association with health due to it being a milk product. Thus, the advantage Amul Kool enjoys is because of a specific attribute rather than successful branding or positioning. 34 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool Amul Kool (10 point scale) Lowest, 1 rating point below average Lowest, 2. rating point below average On Par with Category Average On Par with Category Average nd 2 lowest, 0. 5 rating points below average 2nd highest, after Real. 1. 2 rating points above average DATA NOT RELIABLE. Standard Deviation of 7. 5 on a 10 point scale. Occasion Traveling Parties Snacks Supplement In-between work Along with meals With Breakfast Alternative to food Consumer Rank 1 1 3 4 5 6 7 Table xiii : Ranking of occasion-driven reasons for consumption for Amul Kool Key Observations (3. 3. 1): a) Amul Kool is rated high on parameters like health and energy which are not considered important by respondents while purchasing cold beverages. b) Amul Kool is rated low on almost all of the experiential or emotional based benefits. ) Amul Kool is rated low on highly preferred occasions for purchase like traveling and parties. 3. 3. 2 Need Gap Analysis for Amul Kool The need gap analysis for the brand Amul Kool is prepared by comparing the rating given by respondents on various parameters to Amul Kool and its competitors. The ideal rating is considered to be the one that is highest among all the given brands. The gap is calculated by evaluating the difference between the ideal rating and Amul Kool rating. Then, we calculate gap percentage for Amul Kool with respect to the ideal rating for a given parameter. The following table gives us an overview of various gaps for Amul Kool. 35 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal

Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool Highest Average Rating (Ideal) 7. 13 6. 24 7. 02 6. 45 Parameters Functional based Benefits Taste Energy Health Thirst Experiential or Emotional based Benefits Brand Style Rejuvenation Relaxation Socialization Habitual Occasion Driven Reasons for Consumption Alternative to Food Breakfast Supplement Traveling Partner In Parties Complementary to Dinner/Lunch In between work Snacks Partner Amul Kool Average Rating 6. 55 6. 24 7. 02 5. 48 Gap -0. 58 0. 00 0. 00 -0. 97 Gap Percentage -8. 18% 0. 00% 0. 00% -14. 98% 6. 54 5. 49 5. 60 5. 90 4. 65 3. 75 7. 37 6. 91 6. 43 6. 57 6. 52 5. 31 -0. 82 -1. 42 -0. 84 -0. 66 -1. 87 -1. 56 -11. 0% -20. 52% -13. 04% -10. 12% -28. 69% -29. 39% 5. 59 5. 63 5. 28 3. 32 4. 35 5. 25 5. 40 5. 59 5. 73 6. 49 7. 20 5. 33 5. 65 6. 41 0. 00 -0. 10 -1. 21 -3. 87 -0. 99 -0. 39 -1. 01 0. 00% -1. 75% -18. 58% -53. 82% -18. 51% -6. 98% -15. 72% Table xiv : Need Gap Analysis for Amul Kool There are three parameters where Amul Kool has zero per cent gap, that is, it is rated highest on these parameters. Among these parameters, energy and health are functional or attribute based benefits, and usage as an alternative to food is an occasion driven reason for consumption. The following graph makes it easier for us to decipher the major gap areas for Amul Kool. 6 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool Snacks Partner -15. 72% -6. 98% -18. 51% -53. 82% -18. 58% -1. 75% 0. 00% In between work Complementary to Dinner/Lunch In Parties Traveling Partner Breakfast Supplement Alternative to Food Habitual Socialization Relaxation Rejuvenation -11. 20% -14. 98% 0. 00% 0. 00% -8. 18% -60. 00% -50. 00% -40. 00% -30. 00% -20. 00% -10. 00% 0. 00% Style Brand Thirst Health Energy Taste Param eters -29. 39% -28. 69% -10. 12% -13. 04% -20. 52% 1 Gap Percentage Figure v : Need Gap Analysis for Amul Kool

If we analyze the gaps with respect to each category, we observe the following: a) Functional or Attribute based Benefits: The major gap observed in this area is in thirst (14. 98 per cent). Respondents do not perceive it to be an ideal thirst quencher. b) Experiential or Emotional based Benefits: All parameters under this category show a gap percentage above 10 per cent. The major gaps can be observed in case of habitual (29. 39 per cent), socialization (28. 69 per cent), and style (20. 52 per cent). Rejuvenation also shows a noticeable gap of 13. 04 per cent. c) Occasion driven reasons for Consumption: We observe a highest gap for Amul Kool in case of buying cold beverages for a party (53. 82 per cent). Respondents do not perceive it as a party drink.

The other gaps observed under this category include usage as a traveling partner (18. 58 per cent), usage as complementary to dinner or lunch (18. 51 per cent), and usage as a snacks partner (15. 72 per cent). On the other hand, respondents like to have it as a supplement to breakfast. 37 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool Key Observations (3. 3. 2): a) Gaps are generally observed in experiential or emotional benefits and occasion-driven reasons for consumption. b) Parties, habitual, socialization, and style are some of the main parameters where we observe major gaps. 3. 3. Perceptual Maps Perceptual Maps can be understood as pictorial representation of the competitive landscape from a customer’s point of view. These are based on the belief that while buying a product/service customers do not work through a list of criteria. Customers simplify various aspects and issues into generalizations (subconscious to them) about a product or an organization. Based on these generalizations they take buying decisions. For detail of statistical tests please refer to annexure F Functional based Benefits 1. 60 Taste 1. 40 Energy 1. 20 Health 1. 00 0. 80 Thirst Quenching Amul Kool Pepsi F unctio n 2 0. 60 0. 40 Coca Cola Frooti 0. 50 1. 00 1. 50 0. 20 -1. 50 -1. 00 -0. 50 0. 00 0. 00 -0. 20 Limca Real Appy Fizz -0. 40 -0. 60 Function 1

Figure vi : Perceptual map for functional based benefits Following are the interpretations from the above map: (A) Discriminating Powers 38 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool a) Taste and Health variables have high discriminating power. b) Energy and Thirst Quenching variables have low discriminating power. (B) Generalizations a) X axis is comprised of Health and Thirst Quenching (minor contributor) b) Y axis is comprised of Taste and Energy (minor contributor) (C) Associations a) Health: Amul Kool and Real are highly associated with Health.

Frooti and Appy Fizz are lowly associated with Health. Pepsi and Coca Cola have scored negative on Health vector. Limca has also scored negative on Health vector but not as high as Pepsi and Coca Cola. No carbonated drink is associated with Health. b) Taste: Frooti has association with Taste. Appy Fizz has negative score on Taste vector. Amul Kool and Real are having no association with Taste. Pepsi and Coca Cola are also do not have any association with Taste. Hence only Frooti has some association with Taste. c) Energy and Thirst Quenching: Limca is only beverage associated with both Thirst Quenching and Energy and enjoying unique positioning.

Experiential or Emotional Benefits Following are the interpretations from the map shown below: (A) Discriminating Powers a) Brand, Style, Relaxation and Social variables have high discriminating power. b) Rejuvenation has moderate discrimination power. c) Habitual has low discriminating power. (B) Generalizations a) X axis is comprised of Social, Relaxation and Habitual, Rejuvenation. b) Y axis is comprised of Brand and Style. 39 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool (C) Associations a) Brand: Appy Fizz and Limca scored negative on variable Brand. Pepsi, Coca Cola, Thums Up, Frooti and Real have scored equal but very low on Brand. No drink has strong association with Brand. ) Social: Pepsi and Coca Cola have high associations with variable Social. Appy Fizz is having low association with variable Social.

c) Relaxation and Rejuvenation: Amul Kool has high association with variables Relaxation and Rejuvenation. However other brands Real, Limca, and Frooti are also having associations with Relaxation and Rejuvenation, hence diluting benefits of having high association with Relaxation and Rejuvenation of Amul Kool. (For detail of statistical tests please refer to annexure F) 1. 50 Brand Style 1. 00 Rejuvenation Relaxation Social 0. 50 F u n c tio n 2 Habitual Amul Kool 0. 00 0. 00 Pepsi 0. 20 0. 40 0. 60 0. 80 1. 00 -0. 80 -0. 0 -0. 40 -0. 20 Coca Cola Frooti -0. 50 Limca Real Appy Fizz -1. 00 Function 1 Figure vii : Perceptual map for experiential or emotional benefits 40 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool Occasion-driven Reasons for Consumption 0. 70 0. 60 Alternative to food Breakfast Supplement Travelling Partner In Parties Complementary to Dinner/Lunch In betw een w ork Snacks Partner Amul Kool 0. 50 0. 40 0.

30 F u n c ti o n 2 0. 20 Pepsi 0. 10 Coca Cola Frooti 0. 50 1. 00 -1. 50 -1. 00 -0. 50 0. 00 0. 00 -0. 10 Limca Real Appy Fizz 0. 20 Function 1 -0. 30 Figure viii : Perceptual map for occasion-driven reasons for consumption Following are the interpretations from above map: (A) Discriminating Powers: a) Variable Break Fast Supplement and variable In Parties have discriminating powers. b) Traveling Partner variable has medium discriminating power. c) Alternative to Food, Complementary to Dinner/Lunch, In Between Work, and Snacks Partner have low discriminating power. (B) Generalizations: a) X axis is comprised of variable “In Parties”. b) Y axis is comprised of variables Breakfast Supplement and Traveling Partner. 41 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal

Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool (C) Associations: a) In Party: Coca Cola and Pepsi are having high association with variable In Party which is major contributor of x-axis (high discriminating power). Whereas, Amul Kool has scored a high negative score on the same variable. b) Breakfast Supplement and Traveling Partner: Frooti and Amul Kool are having high association with Breakfast Supplement and Traveling Partner. Key Observations (3. 3. 3): a) Health and taste are the discriminating functional based benefits. b) Socialization and relaxation together form discriminating experiential/emotional benefits, similarly as brand and style together do. ) Breakfast supplement and traveling partner together and parties form discriminating occasion-driven reasons for consumption. (Annexure F) 3. 4 BRAND ASSOCIATION FOR AMUL KOOL Brand Image is defined as consumers’ perception of a brand and is measured as the brand associations held in their memory. Associations study has been done for all three categories of needs identified earlier, brand meaning to the consumers, user imagery, and brand personality. 3. 4. 1 Association with needs categories: We have used statements to create familiar situations for consumers, and then measure their response, as this gives a more natural or “real” life experience based response.

Following terms help in establishing meaning to these associations: a) Strength: It is the proportion of no. of respondents having an association for Amul Kool to total no. of respondents having same association in their mind. b) Uniqueness: It refers to the associations with Amul Kool and their exclusivity among the various brands available. (Refer to Annexure G for Uniqueness Index. ) c) Favourability: It refers to the importance of an association to the consumer while making a purchase. We have used ranking for this as derived in section 3. 2. 42 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool “I think following drinks are tasty. ”

Associations STRENGTH Brands Amul Kool Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Real Appy Fizz UNIQUENESS Uniqueness Index Number 85 47 56 91 33 78 62 of %age 61. 2 33. 8 40. 3 65. 5 23. 7 56. 1 44. 6 36. 5 Highest Unique association. An important factor and Amul Kool performs well. Respondents total Key Observations of Frooti has the highest strength followed by Amul Kool. Carbonated drinks have lower strength for taste, Limca having the lowest. FAVOURABILITY Importance of association “These drinks give me energy. ” Associations STRENGTH Brands Amul Kool Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Real Appy Fizz UNIQUENESS Uniqueness Index Number 83 19 23 51 18 82 46 of %age 59. 7 13. 7 16. 5 36. 7 12. 9 59. 0 33. 1 42. 4 Lowest Very unique association. Unimportant factor, though Amul Kool performs good. 3 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Key Observations of Amul Kool has the highest strength followed closely by Real. Carbonated drinks have very low strength. Respondents total FAVOURABILITY Importance of association Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool “I become healthy after drinking. ” Associations STRENGTH Brands Amul Kool Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Real Appy Fizz UNIQUENESS Uniqueness Index Number 78 5 5 36 8 70 30 of %age 56. 1 3. 6 3. 6 25. 9 5. 8 50. 4 21. 6 44. 9 2nd Lowest Very unique association. Not very important, but Amul Kool performs well.

Respondents total Key Observations of Amul Kool has the highest strength followed by Real. Again the carbonated drinks have very low strength. FAVOURABILITY Importance of association “These brands quench my thirst. ” Associations STRENGTH Brands Amul Kool Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Real Appy Fizz UNIQUENESS Number of 33 72 78 46 55 41 46 %age of 23. 7 51. 8 56. 1 33. 1 39. 6 29. 5 33. 1 12. 5 Non-unique association. FAVOURABILITY Importance of association 2nd Highest Amul Kool perceived bad on important factor. Respondents total Key Observations Carbonated drinks like Coca Cola and Pepsi have higher strength this time. Amul Kool has the lowest. Uniqueness Index 44 BrandScan 2007 T. A.

Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool “These brands add to my style. ” Associations STRENGTH Brands Amul Kool Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Real Appy Fizz UNIQUENESS FAVOURABILITY Number of Respondents 14 59 65 22 17 42 45 %age of total 10. 1 42. 4 46. 8 15. 8 12. 2 30. 2 32. 4 5. 8 Lowest No association exists. Unimportant factor, no trouble for Amul Kool. Key Observations Carbonated drinks have highest strength followed by Appy Fizz and Real. Amul Kool has the lowest strength. Uniqueness Index Importance of association “They rejuvenate me. ”

Associations STRENGTH Brands Amul Kool Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Real Appy Fizz UNIQUENESS Uniqueness Index Number 52 44 50 41 27 57 30 of %age 37. 4 31. 7 36. 0 29. 5 19. 4 41. 0 21. 6 25. 3 Average Somewhat unique. Neither important factor, nor Amul Kool unique. 45 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Key Observations of Amul Kool at par with carbonated drinks, juices fall below. Respondents total FAVOURABILITY Importance of association Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool “These brands help in socialization. ” Associations STRENGTH Brands Amul Kool Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Real Appy

Fizz UNIQUENESS Uniqueness Index Number 16 76 85 24 23 27 33 of %age 11. 5 54. 7 61. 2 17. 3 16. 5 19. 4 23. 7 7. 6 2nd Lowest No association exists. Unimportant, no big trouble for Amul Kool. Respondents total Key Observations of Coca Cola and Pepsi have very high strength as compared to all others. Amul Kool has the lowest. FAVOURABILITY Importance of association “I can relax while drinking. ” Associations STRENGTH Brands Amul Kool Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Real Appy Fizz UNIQUENESS Uniqueness Index Number 51 49 60 55 36 62 45 of %age 36. 7 35. 3 43. 2 39. 6 25. 9 44. 6 32. 4 22. 1 2nd Highest Somewhat unique. Important factor, but no brand stands strong alone.

Respondents total Key Observations of Real and Coca Cola have highest strength. Others do not have a major difference from the highest, except for Limca that has the lowest strength. FAVOURABILITY Importance of association 46 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool “I am habitual of drinking this brand. ” Associations STRENGTH Brands Amul Kool Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Real Appy Fizz UNIQUENESS Uniqueness Index Number 6 37 39 11 8 13 17 of %age 4. 3 26. 6 28. 1 7. 9 5. 8 9. 4 12. 2 2. 8 Average No association exists. Amul Kool does not figure in this average rated factor.

Respondents total Key Observations of Coca Cola and Pepsi have the highest strength, though not a very strong one. Amul Kool lies very low. FAVOURABILITY Importance of association “These brands, I have as an alternative to my food. ” Associations STRENGTH Brands Amul Kool Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Real Appy Fizz UNIQUENESS Uniqueness Index Number 40 12 14 20 5 39 12 of %age 28. 8 8. 6 10. 1 14. 4 3. 6 28. 1 8. 6 23. 4 Lowest Somewhat unique. Unimportant, though Amul Kool finds average place. 47 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Key Observations of Though not a very strong one, Amul Kool has the highest strength followed by Real.

Respondents total FAVOURABILITY Importance of association Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool “I consume them with breakfast. ” Associations STRENGTH Brands Amul Kool Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Real Appy Fizz UNIQUENESS Uniqueness Index Number 49 15 14 24 6 58 17 of %age 35. 3 10. 8 10. 1 17. 3 4. 3 41. 7 12. 2 27. 2 2nd Lowest Somewhat unique. Unimportant occasion, but Amul finds decent place. Respondents total Key Observations of Real has the highest strength followed by Amul Kool. Others have low strength. FAVOURABILITY Importance of parameter “While traveling, I have it. ”

Associations STRENGTH Brands Amul Kool Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Real Appy Fizz UNIQUENESS Uniqueness Index Number 31 69 83 48 29 49 31 Respondents total 22. 3 49. 6 59. 7 34. 5 20. 9 35. 3 22. 3 13. 4 Highest Non-unique association. Very important, Amul Kool needs to ponder. Key Observations of %age of Coca Cola has a very high strength, followed by Pepsi. Real and Frooti also show decent strength. Amul Kool has a very low strength as compared to others. FAVOURABILITY Importance of association 48 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool “These brands, I have in parties. ”

Associations STRENGTH Brands Amul Kool Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Real Appy Fizz UNIQUENESS Uniqueness Index Number 8 92 110 17 29 25 22 Respondents total 5. 8 66. 2 79. 1 12. 2 20. 9 18. 0 15. 8 3. 3 Negligible association exists. FAVOURABILITY Importance of association Highest Very important, Amul Kool needs to ponder. Key Observations of %age of A very high strength for Coca Cola and Pepsi, Coca Cola being the highest. Amul Kool has a negligible strength as compared to the formers. “With food, I can drink. ” Associations STRENGTH Brands Amul Kool Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Real Appy Fizz UNIQUENESS Uniqueness Index Number 41 58 68 48 22 52 36 of %age 29. 5 41. 7 48. 9 34. 15. 8 37. 4 25. 9 18. 4 3rd Lowest Non-unique association. Neither very important, nor does Amul Kool differs. 49 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Key Observations of Coca Cola and Pepsi have the highest strength, followed by Real and Frooti. Amul Kool shows average strength. Respondents total FAVOURABILITY Importance of association Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool “In between work , I have it. ” Associations STRENGTH Brands Amul Kool Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Real Appy Fizz UNIQUENESS Uniqueness Index Number 43 50 61 37 22 52 29 of %age 30. 9 36. 43. 9 26. 6 15. 8 37. 4 20. 9 18. 3 Average Non-unique association. Average importance, average performance. Respondents total Key Observations of Coca Cola has the highest strength, followed by Real and Pepsi. Amul Kool follows these. FAVOURABILITY Importance of association “With snacks, I can have it. ” Associations STRENGTH Brands Amul Kool Pepsi Coca Cola Frooti Limca Real Appy Fizz UNIQUENESS Uniqueness Index Number 49 65 76 51 38 59 48 of %age 35. 3 46. 8 54. 7 36. 7 27. 3 42. 4 34. 5 21. 5 3rd Highest Somewhat unique. Average importance, average performance. Table xv : Brand Association depicting Strength, Uniqueness, and Favourability

Key Observations of Coca Cola has the highest strength, followed by Pepsi and Real. Amul Kool displays average strength. Respondents total FAVOURABILITY Importance of association 3. 4. 2 Projective Technique for Association 50 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool Unstructured, indirect form of questioning has been used to encourage respondents to project their underlying motivations, beliefs, and attitudes for brand Amul Kool. Five open ended questions were used covering Brand Meaning to customers, describing typical user of Amul Kool, and Brand Personality. 3. 4. 2. Brand Association The following table illustrates various associations put forth by the respondents themselves and other cold beverages that they can recall under these associations. %age of Category Milk Healthy Refreshing Taste Alternative to soft drinks Appetizing Negative Opinion Misc. 1. 38 1. 38 1. 38 32. 41 —-Real ————————Respondents 33. 10 17. 24 7. 59 5. 52 Brands of cold beverages (other than Amul Kool) —-Real, Tropicana, Nandini, Frooti Milk, Frooti, Real Frooti, Appy Fizz, Coca Cola, Real, Nandini —-Other beverages not included in survey Lassi, Bournvita, Horlicks Local fruits juice —– Table xvi : Brand Association through projective technique

As we can see in the above table, milk is the foremost association (33. 1 per cent) that comes into respondents’ conscious when they think about Amul Kool. This association is shared by Lassi, Bournvita, and Horlicks with Amul Kool. Looking at the needs these other drinks serve we can conclude that milk association is unique to Amul Kool. Another significant association that comes out of this research is that it is perceived to be a healthy drink (17. 24 per cent). But the same is also associated with Real, Tropicana, Nandini, and Frooti which are noncarbonated cold beverages. Hence this association is not unique to Amul Kool and does not give any significant advantage over its competitors.

Two other associations that formed a decent part were refreshing and taste (association shared with Frooti, Appy Fizz, Coca Cola, Real, and 51 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool Nandini) which constituted 7. 59 per cent and 5. 52 per cent respectively. The negative opinion category included comments like poor branding and not so cool drink. Other associations obtained are alternative to soft drinks and usage as an appetizer. Miscellaneous category involved some comments which do not conclude anything substantial. 3. 4. 2. Celebrity Association When asked about celebrity that goes well with Amul Kool, the responses received were as follows in the table below. Category Sportsman Actors – Glamour Actors – Body Builders Actors – Credibility Politicians %age of Respondents 43. 62 26. 60 14. 89 9. 57 5. 32 Table xvii : Celebrity Association through projective technique Please note here that the classification of actors into three sub-categories has subjectivity attached to it. Glamour includes actors who have been popular for their style statements and fashion oriented approach. Body builders include actors who have received fame for their physique. And, credibility includes actors who are known for making calculated and sensible statements in public 43. 2 per cent of our respondents associate sport’s personalities (Sachin Tendulkar, Virendra Sehwag, Sania Mirza, and Harbhajan Singh) with brand Amul Kool possibly because most of them associate health with the brand. 26. 6 per cent of them associate the glamorous actors (John Abraham, Priety Zinta, Hrithik Roshan, and Shah Rukh Khan) with the brand which goes against the perceived low association towards style in our previous analyses. The body builders (Sunny Deol, Dara Singh, and Salman Khan) form 14. 89 per cent of the response which refers to those actors who are more popular for their physique. Other categories include actors who are considered to add credibility (Amitabh Bachchan, Anupam Kher, and Aamir Khan) to the products and politicians (Lalu Prasad Yadav, and Narendra Modi). 52 BrandScan 2007 T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal

Need Gap Analysis of Cold Drink Consumers, Association Study of Brand Amul Kool & User Imagery of Amul Kool 3. 4. 2. 3 Brand Meaning The next table shows the response regarding the perception of Amul Kool as a brand. It tries to decipher the brand image that is built in the consumers’ minds. Category Healthy Milk Energetic Tasty Kool Refreshing Thirst Quencher Misc. %age of Respondents 22. 46 20. 29 7. 97 4. 35 3. 62 2. 90 2. 17 42. 03 Table xviii : Brand Meaning through projective technique The brand image goes along with the brand association as we observe that even in the table shown above, 22. 46 per cent respond saying that Amul Kool is a