Research Hameed Khan Topic: Animation: A way of introducing literature and moral values to children at adolescence by comparing William Shakespeare’s ‘Hamlet’ and ‘The Lion King’ Animation Long Term Paper on ‘Preparing a Research Proposal ’ Title: Animation: A way of introducing literature and moral values to children at adolescence by comparing William Shakespeare’s ‘Hamlet’ and ‘The Lion King’ Animation . There is no doubt that today’s entertainment has lost most of its touch with the more classical influences of its predecessors.

However, in mid-1994, Walt Disney Pictures released what could arguably be the best animated feature of all time in The Lion King. With a moral base unlike most of the movies released at the time, The Lion King placed a children’s facade on a very serious story of responsibility and revenge. However, this theme is one of the oldest in history, and it is not the least apparent in one of the oldest works of literature by The Bard himself, William Shakespeare.

The work that Disney’s The Lion King parallels is none other than Hamlet: Prince of Denmark and the film shadows this work so closely, that parallels between the main characters themselves are wildly apparent. This very close comparison has led critics “to compare the movie to Hamlet in the importance of its themes”. But with a closer inspection of the characters themselves do we see just how apparent these similarities are.

The movie addresses in one way or another all of the important contemporary dilemmas: bravery, responsibility, vulnerability, preparedness, stewardship, faith, science, the importance of history, family and the environment. In these days of personal uncertainty and political cynicism, The Lion King provides clear moral guidance wrapped up in an entertaining and wholesome shell. Introduction: In The Lion King, the role of the young prince whose father is murdered is played by a cub named Simba, whose naivety procures him more than his fair share of hardships and troubles.

By the acts in the story alone, one can see that Simba is a direct representation of Shakespeare’s Hamlet Jr. , but not only that, each of them shares similar actions in the play. Interpretations if Simba’s actions are as profound as Hamlet’s, particularly of why Hamlet delayed in exacting vengeance for his father’s death (Harrison 236). Both Simba and Hamlet Jr. “delay” their action of retribution for their respective father’s deaths. The loss of their paternal companion leaves Hamlet incredibly melancholy and Simba without a royal teacher and father during his tender years.

Each of them runs from their responsibility, although inside themselves they know what must be done: Hamlet attempts to validate his suspicions while Simba hides from his past. However, some have attempted to theorize that Hamlet’s delay is due to his mental instability, his madness over the death of his father. Eliot refutes this, calling the characterization “a simple ruse, and to the end, we may assume, understood as a ruse to the audience” .

Simba exhibits this same behavior, venting his feelings in mournful retaliation against responsibility, most notably when his childhood friend Nala attempts to persuade him to return to the Pride Lands. This delay between our characters adds a more haunting effect between the two works. It’s surprising that today’s audiences can be so moved by themes that were first implemented in literature almost four hundred years before. Similarly, the characters of Hamlet Sr. and Mufasa bear a striking resemblance to one another, not only in their actions, but their meanings as well.

Hamlet Sr. , the once king of Denmark, ruled his kingdom in peace and prosperity, evident in the conversations in Act I, Scene I between Marcellus and Horatio about the creations of implements of war in Denmark under the new king, Claudius. Mufasa, too, ruled peacefully over the Pride Lands, only worrying about his son and his responsibilities. But, after their deaths, they each become more than the kings they once were. They become the heralds for their sons, compelling them to avenge their deaths and take responsibility for what their uncles have done. Each deceased king pproaches his son in the same way: via an apparition that gives a direct, if not opaque, monologue driving their princes to action and each ghost leaves the interpretation of their messages open to their sons. Neither Hamlet Sr. nor Mufasa tell their respective sons directly to destroy their murderers, although Hamlet Sr. does name the perpetrator directly, it is Hamlet that decides that action must be taken. It is this direct allusion of one major character with an integral part in advancing the work to another that helps solidify Shakespeare’s influence as a writer of great literature.

But it isn’t just the protagonists that allude to one another; the villains in both The Lion King and Hamlet can be directly and similarly compared to one another. Both Scar, from The Lion King and Claudius, from Hamlet, are brothers of the king, murder their sibling to usurp the throne, and take their brother’s wife as their queen (There is no direct proof of this conjecture for Scar, but since Scar calls upon Sarabi, the former mate of King Mufasa, in The Lion King to report on the status of the Pride Lands, it stands to reason that she is Queen of Pride Rock. . It is not so much the characterizations of the characters in this instance than the actions that provide proof of how Shakespearean literature invokes writers today. Claudius, at first, appears satisfied by his deeds, enjoying the life of a king, parading around to view his belongings, wedding his own brother’s wife, and holding banquets in his own honor, all the while preparing for war with a neighboring Scandinavian country.

Scar revels in his ill-gotten spoils as well, allowing his hyannic henchmen to hunt the Pride Lands to practical defoliation while he reclines in the pride’s cave, tormenting his majordomo Zazu and eating more than his fair share of the kills. Scar, like Claudius, grossly exploits his new-found power and drives his kingdom into war. But here is where the similarity begins to diverge. In Hamlet, we see Claudius repenting for his sins against his brother, repealing the fact that he committed that heinous deed and begging forgiveness from his Lord.

Scar, on the other hand, never once doubts his actions, and goes with them to their final conclusion. Scar even goes as far as to taunt the prince, Simba, has he hangs of the precipice of Pride Rock: “And now here’s my little secret. I killed Mufasa! ” One could argue that the act of confessing to the crimes is an additional parallel between the characters, but their motives for doing so are not alike. Claudius is making an attempt to repent for the sin cast upon his soul, while Scar is bawdily declaring his cleverness over his kind-hearted yet naive brother.

With the major characters in both works aside, the similarities between secondary characters in The Lion King and Hamlet are still quite striking. The insight of one work in another is so deep that The Lion King goes as far to allude Hamlet’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern with Timon and Pumbaa. A comparison here, if not the greatest comparison, is the fact that both pairs of characters in both works are provided as relief from the main focus of the stories.

Timon and Pumbaa provide a welcome resort from his responsibilities and hauntings of his past by introducing him to the carefree life of “Hakuna Matata”, while Rosencrantz and Guildenstern allow the audience to know that Prince Hamlet does enjoy a life outside of the royal house, mingling with fellow scholars-to-be and friends. However, Hamlet’s friends are charged by his nemesis, Claudius, to bring Hamlet before the King on numerous occasions. There is no direct evidence that Timon and Pumbaa are in the employment of Scar, nevertheless, the sidekick pair in The Lion King provide a very similar function, whether they realize it or not.

Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are a constant reminder to Hamlet about the revenge that must be exacted upon Claudius by being messengers to the mournful prince whenever Claudius needs them to be. By locating Hamlet and announcing that the king wishes to have court with him, they play an important role in the foreward progress of the play, and the downward spiral of Hamlet’s sadness. Timon and Pumbaa, similarly, at one time attempt to procure their leonine friend’s past from his memory. Simba falters, at first, his carefree life shattered by the memories of what brought him to the jungle in the first place.

But when he finally gives in and tells them when his own father entrusted him too, Timon and Pumbaa laugh uproariously, disbelieving what they hear. But it is this jogging of Simba’s memory at the prodding of Timon and Pumbaa that moves the story onward, and brings Simba’s melancholy back to him. And when the past finally becomes fully clear to Timon and Pumbaa with the arrival of the lioness Nala, they not only attempt to bring Simba to his senses in their own blunt, of not comical, way, they attempt to confront him and make him face his past.

They fail in this, but they still bring to Simba’s mind the events in his childhood, and the pain that it brought to him. Although Timon and Pumbaa had no intention of doing so, they performed the same act of reminding the main character of their responsibility to their father, and to their kingdoms that Rosencrantz and Guildenstern did to Hamlet Jr. Another secondary character to the protagonist and antagonist are the respective queens of each work, Sarabi from The Lion King and Gertrude from Hamlet: Prince of Denmark.

Each of them are nearly complete mirror images of one another, each having the same place in the social hierarchy, equal amounts of power over their kingdoms, and emotional ties to the main protagonists of the stories. Sarabi is the Queen of Pride Rock, leader of the lionesses since the reign of King Mufasa. Although she is not the reason Scar usurped the throne from his brother, it is a near certainty that she has stayed on as Queen because she is quite adept at her duties. Gertrude, likewise, is adept at her duties as well, although they take on a quite different task than Sarabi.

She is mainly for show, for Claudius to own and adorn with his newly gotten wealth. Both Sarabi and Gertrude are Queens, but both show little or no power over their subjects. Sarabi is nearly killed by Scar when she dares to question one of his decisions, which shows the place of the lionesses in the pride: pawns in Scar’s quest for power. Any deviation from being simple huntresses results in pain, and perhaps death at the paws of Scar and his multitude of hyenas. Gertrude, too, never appears to order anyone, although she certainly has the capacity to do so.

She instead plays the weakened queen, doing as her husband bids her and plaintively bending to Claudius’s will. But even though these similarities are surprisingly close for non-primary characters, it is their emotional connection to their sons that spurns the stories along. Gertrude’s marriage to Claudius enrages Hamlet to no end, driving him more and more out of his delay to act upon his father’s death. It is her willing forgetfulness of her former husband that pushes Hamlet to the brink, their emotional bond that pains them both to ends that he must act on, and she tries deeply to hide.

Sarabi, too, has such an effect on her son Simba. When Nala finds Simba, and realizes that he is not dead, as Scar had said, she is enthralled and wonders aloud about the feelings of his mother. This has a noticeable affect on Simba. He recoils, the responsibility that he believes is his is once again thrust upon him, and the thought of his mother’s feelings towards his past deeds sends him further into sadness, furthering the story. And when Simba does return to Pride Rock, he is enraged when he sees how Scar is treating his mother, just as Hamlet is enraged at how Claudius treats his mother as well.

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In a way, it is the queen in each work that adds to the deep melancholy of the main characters and drives them to action. This movie both reflects and shapes our cultural consciousness about contemporary social and political change, speaking forcefully to the question of who should hold power and how people should acquire it. The movie reinforces hierarchy, especially primogeniture, in nearly all of its 26 scenes, either through what the characters say, how they are displayed, or both.

The message presented at every turn is that we are better off with our traditional leadership, that those individuals are both wise and benevolent, protecting the health and welfare of all members of the group, even the most vulnerable. At the same time, the movie attacks those outside the traditional group of leaders who rise to power “illegitimately,” showing us how they are inherently unfit to hold positions of authority and can bring disaster down upon all of us.

The Lion King, even though it is an American movie, does not promote what we might have come to think of as “American” values, those which support meritocracy and democracy. Finally, the movie reinforces the submissive and passive role of the citizen. At a time when we might consider democracy to be challenged, The Lion King doesn’t make a strong case for inclusion, diversity and broader political participation. In fact, it does just the opposite, arguing essentially from an aristocratic position for the return to old-fashioned values and maintenance of the status quo.

Purpose of Study: The main agenda behind doing this research is to highlight the fact that modern entertainment media is a very powerful source to teach literature and moral values to students when they are at a turning point in life. The time when they learn what life is all about. Although much of modern entertainment may look like new entertainment on the surface, if we probe deeply enough, we can find connections to some of the greatest literature of all time.

Shakespeare is probably one of the most influential writers of all time, if not all time, and his greatest works, not limited to Hamlet: Prince of Denmark, are the basis of many stories written today. His plays are continuously redone and reperformed, his sonnets quoted in many a song and story, his histories the basis of many school lessons, and his influences are more than profound in many cases, and in the case of The Lion King, those influences are the basis of the story, not only of the main protagonist and antagonist, but of secondary characters as well.

All these Dramas, Poetry and Stories do impart Value education to children in many ways. I intend to research on to what extent does entertainment is of any use in teaching literature to students looking forward to take literature as a subject for specialization and of be any use to keep the moral values of these students intact? Review of Literature: There has been research on comparison between literature and Animation earlier. But my research mainly deals with the factor that had been left untouched yet, that both Hamlet and The Lion King show similarities in plot and characterization.

The cinematic adaptation appeals to the children as well as the adults. Whereas Hamlet only circles around literature students. Doing a complete analysis of the film adaptation gives us a detailed structure of what amount of principles and beliefs that influence the behavior and way of life of the future generation can be extracted from this modern media of value education through entertainment and detailed knowledge of how literature can be thought to students at pre-graduation level. * Hierarchy and Legitimacy

Scene 1 of the movie depicts all the animals on the African savannah gathering to pay tribute to the new heir, Simba. The lyrics of “The Circle of Life” present life as overwhelming, explaining why we need our traditional leaders: “There’s more to see than can ever be seen/More to do than can ever be done. . . . /It’s the Circle of Life/And it moves us all/Through despair and hope/Through faith and love/Till we find our place/On the path unwinding. ” One by one, the critical characters are introduced and their “places” are identified. Mufasa, the ajestic patriarch, watches from the point of Pride Rock while his loyal subjects gather below for the presentation of his new-born son. Zazu, the horn-bill, appears first and clarifies his role, first as the most-loyal subject by bowing low, and then as Mufasa’s trusted advisor, allowing him unusual familiarity with the king, although he always refers to him as “sire. ” While the assembled zebras part and bow down, making a path for Rafiki, the old shaman, he is embraced by Mufasa, treated with the deference and respect usually accorded a society’s senior priests.

His first action is to anoint the young Simba, to validate him as the heir apparent, and to present him to the crowd assembled below. As in many of the scenes in The Lion King, the music and visuals carry messages as important as the dialogue. In this first scene, for example, there is no conversation. Instead the message of class difference is conveyed through the different levels on which characters appear. Throughout the movie, those with power appear above those who are powerless; for example, the most powerful characters are usually up on ledges, and those who are vulnerable are down on the valley floor.

Mufasa gazes down upon the mass of animals gathering below him; Pride Rock, his “throne,” is the highest point in the Pride Lands. Camera angle also tells us about power relationships, close-up for those in power, panoramas and long shots for the mass of undifferentiated animals who have no status. The change in the complexity of the musical arrangement, the drop from a full orchestral arrangement, in which there is little differentiation between instruments, to a instrumental solo as the scene moves from the group of subjects to the single important character, identifies to whom we should shift our attention.

In this first scene, lest the youngest among us miss all these clues, Simba is highlighted by a sunbeam as Rafiki holds him up before the mass of animals, who then, cued by this natural sign of individuation, howl and stamp their feet in approval and bow down in a mass display of obeisance. The problems of hierarchy, legitimacy, and power are explored in Scene 2 in which Scar is introduced. His first line, and ironically the first piece of dialogue, may be thought of as a basic premise of the movie: “Life’s not fair, is it? (Much of what currently upsets conservatives are attempts to achieve social, political and economic “fairness” by such legislative means as affirmative action, guaranteed health insurance, easier voter registration, the minimum wage, and a host of additional government regulations. ) The scene explores the sources of “unfairness:” differences in physical size or strength, differences in lineage or position, and differences in cleverness or intelligence. Obviously, the mouse is vulnerable in this scene because he is small, but he is saved by a Zazu whose power derives initially from his ability to distract Scar.

When Zazu is threatened in turn, he is rescued by Mufasa, who just orders Scar to drop the bird. Mufasa’s authority comes from his position as king, which Scar questions by not attending Simba’s presentation, but his power comes, according to Scar, from “Brute Strength. ” Scar’s power, by his own admission, derives from his “brains. ” Some critics have argued that Scar’s accent, tone of voice, appearance, movement and word choice (“curtsy,” “shallow end of the gene pool”) suggest that he is homosexual, and that his role as supreme villain attests to powerful strains of homophobia in our cultural consciousness.

Those who have focused on these features of his characterization point out that Scar rises to power through unnatural means, including deceit and fratricide, and that his “administration” results in the near-destruction of the Pride Lands and the potential extinction or exile of all the animals. They also point to Zazu’s sympathetic comment to Mufasa that “there’s one in every family,” and lambaste his (albeit mocking) suggestion that Scar be reduced to a useless ornament (“a handsome throw rug”) which would permit Mufasa to “take him out and beat him . . . henever he gets dirty. ” Some viewers have argued that this interpretation resides “in the eye of the beholder” and not “in the movie,” but cultural critics would point out that texts reflect as well as shape our cultural consciousness and can invoke an audience as well as address one already identified. Adding another dimension to the question of legitimacy, it is curious that although they are brothers, Mufasa speaks with an American accent and Scar’s is clearly identifiable as British (hence “illegitimate” or “foreign” in contemporary American society). The Role of Nature Scene 3 follows to remind us that Simba is the legitimate heir by virtue of his class and lineage, that he has been presented to his subjects and then anointed in a public ceremony, with the event now recorded for posterity in a cave painting (the movie’s version of a public record or historical document). What follows (in Scene 4) is another argument for hierarchy and patriarchy, this time derived from nature.

In this father-son encounter (Sarabi recedes into the background here; women clearly are secondary yet numerous, generally unnamed, and lacking influence in this culture), Mufasa explains how what they “own” is defined and measured by natural processes (“Everything the light touches is our kingdom. ” “A king’s time as ruler rises and falls like the sun. “). Just as we can infer from Scene 2 that illegitimate power is unnatural, so we learn here that legitimate power is organic, harmonious, predictable and regular, attuned with the natural order of birth and death and based on respect for all species.

The succession, to occur in some distant future, is already determined, and in this father-son colloquy, Mufasa emphasizes the orderliness of it all. The movie makes use of our cultural knowledge of nature. There are numerous references to being higher or lower on the food chain, and selection of animals and their characterizations make use of the actual qualities of the animals. The warthog, for example, is an ugly African pig that usually travels in small family groups (much like the trio of Pumbaa, Timon and Simba). They are indiscriminate eaters and often use the burrows created by other animals.

Hyenas, in addition to having a weird howl, are scavengers, feeding on the carrion left behind by other animals. Even the weather in this movie reflects what is going on in the plot: clouds stream across the sky when conflict threatens, the winds of change blow when the plot turns, and the sunrises and sunsets flash by in rapid succession to signal the passage of time. The movie also depends on our knowledge of human development, especially the behavior of the young. The jaunty “I Just Can’t Wait to Be King” (Scene 7) shows just how immature and incomplete the young Simba’s understanding of the responsibilities of leadership is.

To him, preparation for kingship is limited to “brushing up on looking down” and “working on his ROAR,” and the primary benefits of the job are being able to ignore orders from others, being free to “run around all day” and “do it all his way. ” Coupled with “Hakuna Matata” (Scene 14), another bouncy carpe diem number that emphasizes just how alienated from work and his adult responsibilities Simba has become as he drifts around the African plains with Pumbaa and Timon, we can see how unsuited Simba is for the role of king.

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Even Nala recognizes (in Scene 20) that the older Simba is somehow less mature than she expected he would be, and yet she falls in love with him anyway, restoring “the perfect harmony” alluded to in the lovely ballad, “Can You Feel the Love Tonight? ” While a psychological interpretation of the movie would move through these scenes, showing how Simba eventually comes to take his leadership responsibilities more seriously, a cultural analysis finds them more problematic, for these are the songs we hum as we leave the theater and the lyrics we sing under our breath without thinking about the values they promote.

The context may be ironic in the movie, but we forget that quickly enough. * The Importance of Borders In Scene 4, Mufasa carefully explains to his son that there is land beyond their authority, an area to the north that Simba calls “the shadowy place,” and one role of the king is to make sure the borders are not breached. The Pride Lands are economically healthy and ecologically sound in part because the scavenging hyenas (“those slobbering, mangy, stupid poachers”) are excluded, relegated to the colorless Elephant Graveyard where there is neither sufficient food nor water to sustain them.

When they take over the Pride Lands in league with Scar, they destroy the “balance of nature” and the land withers; their presence nearly destroys the entire society. Some critics have suggested that selecting Whoopi Goldberg, Cheech Marin, and Jim Cummings as the voices of Shenzi, Banzai, and Ed, the three speaking hyenas, reflects a variety of racist and ethnic biases; Mark Leeper notes, “Outwardly the film has a love of African rhythms and language and yearns for a united world–everyone but hyenas united.

But the core is just a bit ugly and scary. ” The Pride Lands has, in effect, its own Proposition. While its borders are not impermeable, the hyenas are prevented from any role but that of scavenger. Perhaps Scene 10 (‘Be Prepared’) presents the most troubling picture of the hyenas and their pact with Scar. Set in the hyena cave where it is dark and gray, the scene opens with Shenzi, Banzai, and Ed licking their wounds (both figuratively and literally) after Mufasa has saved Simba from their clutches in the Elephant Graveyard.

They clearly are out of control: Ed is laughing hysterically and chewing on his own back leg, unaware that it is his own, and Banzai and Shenzi are castigating lions in general and boosting their own morale in the process. They are momentarily startled when Scar appears, but unlike Mufasa, he presents no threat to them because he has no real power. Indeed, during this scene he reveals to the hyenas and to the viewers his general plan to kill Mufasa and Simba and assume the throne himself. The song’s refrain “Be Prepared! ironically echoes the Boy Scout motto as hundreds of hyenas, singing “in tight, crisp phrasing and enunciation,” goose-step past in tight military formation, fires casting their eerie shadows against the walls of the cave and a crescent moon (looking at first like a hammer and sickle) appearing high above the cavern walls. Obviously Scar views the hyenas as “thick,” “crude and unspeakably plain,” with deficient “powers of retention” and “vacant expressions,” yet he promises them that if they support him in his efforts to wrest power from Mufasa, they will “never go hungry again. Scar has contempt for his accomplices, even while he enlists their aid. Contrasting these miscreants with the wise, patient patriarch stacks the deck. * Religion Not surprisingly, The Lion King makes use of many religious images and echoes, affirming faith and folklore while rejecting science. Beginning with the baptism of Simba in the opening scene, the movie is full of familiar rituals. In Scene 9, for example, just after Mufasa has chastised Simba for disobeying him, he explains the mystery of the stars to his son: “The great kings of the past look down on us from those stars. . . Just remember that those kings will always be there to guide you. And so will I. ” Indeed, Simba repeats this explanation to Timon and Pumbaa at the end of Scene 16 (although Timon translates it into “You mean a bunch of royal dead guys are watching us? ” and dismisses Simba’s explanation in favor of his own, that the stars are fireflies “stuck up on that big bluish-black thing. “), although he is troubled by the memories of his father’s promise. After Nala finds Simba and urges him to return to save the Pride from sure destruction, Simba bitterly addresses the stars and his father, “You said you’d always be there for me. This crisis of faith, in Scene 20, continues until Rafiki forces him to look in the pool where he sees the face of Mufasa emerge from the clouds. Mufasa says sadly, “Simba. You have forgotten me. ” When Simba cries that he is not who he used to be, Mufasa admonishes him, “You are my son, the true king. ” Finally, after Simba vanquishes Scar and the Pride Lands are consumed by fire and then cleansed by the rains, Mufasa appears again in the heavens with a single word, “Remember. In fact, Simba has become the savior, restoring the Pride Lands and saving the lives of the animals. Even Christianity seems to support the restoration of “The Circle of Life. ” * Conclusion Of course, this is not the way an allegory of the modern egalitarian and inclusive society should conclude. The story should end, as Scar implies it will in Scene 12, with the lions and hyenas coming together “in a great and glorious future,” one in which everyone has enough to eat, a role to play, and an equal say in the governance of the Pride.

In the new society, the border between the Pride Lands and the Elephant Graveyard would disappear, the hyenas would be transformed into productive members of a global society, contributing their efforts in promoting the welfare of the whole group, and Scar would learn how to be a wise leader, making sure that no one was taxed beyond his or her ability or left needy. Future leaders would emerge from the Pride based on merit, not birth. Some readers will object to this analysis, arguing that The Lion King is a children’s movie after all and shouldn’t be interpreted as speaking to adult issues.

But what is a children’s movie, if not one that transmits the dominant values of the culture to young children in an entertaining manner, while at the same time confirming those values for adults. This movie addresses an important social issue that affects children, in their schools, churches, parks and neighborhoods. Unfortunately, it suggests that excluding people because their appearance or their heritage or their habits differ from those of the people in power is an acceptable social and political policy, one supported by tradition, history, and religion.

The Lion King sugar-coats a bitter and powerful message about patriarchy, legitimacy and hierarchy. Hypothesis: On the basis of this detailed analysis, my hypothesis is that The Lion King is a shadowed representation of Hamlet, taking what is presentable to the young minds but enough to interest students into literature. The conclusion I drew out of it is that entertainment is not mere enjoyment but a very powerful and effective media to spread the teachings of literature among the young minds of future. Methodology:

My research method will include a detailed study of Hamlet text and the movie from every angle related to literature and its appeal to the audience, especially the novice level students of arts and literature. I will also concern this factor with the respective experts of both fields Literature and Cinema. Research Limitations: This study is limited by the study of a single literary text and a movie that resembles the similar plot, characters and moral values. A similar significant phenomenon can be observed in other works too but to study the comparison and representation in detail they have been excluded.

Significance: As previously given this study will help the future development of literature learning and widen the scope of limited medium of learning. The study is limited to only a single comparison so as to keep the study in detailed spectrum. Tentative Chapterization: 1. Introduction: 2. Comparison between Plot and Characters: Tentative plan: The Lion King, though very much based on Hamlet, has many different elements that we can make comparisons with Shakespeare’s work. It begins with the birth of Simba, the young cub of the King, Mufasa. This introduces the importance of the natural cycle.

As Mufasa says, “We are all connected in the great Circle of Life. ” The death of one King leads to the rise of another. This is also what happens in Hamlet. Simba is born to be the successor of the King and he cannot deny his destined role. As a carefree cub, Simba “just can’t wait to be king,” his attitude is quite different from Hamlet, who is also carefree in the beginning of the story, but does not want to be King. Similar to the plot in Hamlet, Mufasa’s spirit appears to Simba, and reminds him of his duty, and repeatedly tells Simba to “Remember” him when Simba runs away after thinking that he had caused the death of Mufasa.

This is similar as in Hamlet, the Ghost of old Hamlet appears to him and asks his son to take revenge on Claudius. Also there is comparison between secondary characters. 3. Detailed study of The Themes in the movie * Hierarchy and Legitimacy * The Role of Nature * The Importance of Borders 4. Influence of entertainment on Literature learners. Tentative Plan: A detailed study about how entertainment industry has influenced the younger generations and how it can help to expand the scope of learners of literature around the world. 5. Criticizing

There have been arguments that this kind of cultural analysis in fact, any close analysis at all ruins the entertainment value of the movie, forcing us to confront all kinds of unpleasant truths when we are expecting merely to be entertained. Granted that I see more layers of meaning every time I view the movie or listen to the music or read the script, but I still find the musical score stirring, the animations fanciful, and the antics of Timon and Pumbaa engaging. Just because we become aware of the multiple levels of meaning doesn’t mean that we have to deny the aesthetic appeal of this creation.

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Harcourt, Brace, & World, Inc. : New York, 1959. Adams, Joseph Quincy. A Life of William Shakespeare. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1923. Asimov, Isaac. Asimov’s Guide to Shakespeare. 2 vols. New Jersey: Random House Value Publishing, Inc. , 1970. Eliot, T. S. “Hamlet. ” Elizabethan Essays. Haskell House: New York, 1964. Brandes, Georg. “The Classic Tendency of the Tragedy. ” William Shakespeare, A Critical Study. 1898. Frederick Ungar Publishing Co: 1963. Taymor, Julie. The Lion King: Pride Rock on Broadway. Hyperion: New York, 1997.