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History Review 2009 Session #2 1800-1850 Includes the following chapters from The American Pageant (12th edition): Ch 11-18 Ch. 11 The Triumphs and Travails of the Jeffersonian Republic, 1800-1812 John Adams: One of the greatest problems that John Adams and the Federalists faced in the election of 1800 was – Adams’s refusal to take the country to war against France [Alien and Sedition Acts] Thomas Jefferson:

In the election of 1800, the Federalists accused Thomas Jefferson of all of the following having robbed a widow having fathered numerous mulatto children by his own slave women being an atheist having robbed children of their trust funds In the 1800 election Thomas Jefferson won the state of New York because – Aaron Burr used his influence to turn the state to Jefferson The Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans presented themselves as all of the following: trict constructionists – protectors of agrarian purity believers of political and economic liberty – strong supporters of state’s rights They did not present themselves as believers in a strong central government Thomas Jefferson received the bulk of his support from the – South and West In 1800, Thomas Jefferson was chosen president by the – House of Representatives Thomas Jefferson’s “Revolution of 1800” was remarkable in that it – marked the peaceful and orderly transfer f power on the basis of election results accepted by all parties Thomas Jefferson was elected president by the House of Representatives when – a few Federalists refrained from voting Thomas Jefferson saw his election and his mission as president to include all of the following to return to the original spirit of the revolution restore the republican experiment check the growth of the republican experiment halt the decay of virtue But not to support the establishment of a strong army

As president, Thomas Jefferson’s stand on several political issues that he had previously championed – was reversed With Thomas Jefferson’s election as president, the Democratic-Republican party – grew less unified as the Federalist party began to fade and lose power Thomas Jefferson’s presidency was characterized by his – moderation in the administration of public policy On becoming president, Thomas Jefferson and the Republicans in Congress immediately repealed – the excise tax on whiskey [Whiskey Rebellion]

When it came to the major Federalist economic programs, Thomas Jefferson as president – left practically all of them intact Thomas Jefferson and his followers opposed John Adams’ last-minute appointment of new federal judges mainly because – it was an attempt by a defeated party to entrench itself in the government [“Midnight Judges”] Chief Justice John Marshall: The chief justice who carried out, more than any other federal official, the ideas of Alexander Hamilton oncerning a powerful federal government was – John Marshall [Federalist] Before he became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, John Marshall’s service at Valley Forge during the American Revolution convinced him – of the drawbacks of feeble central authority As chief justice of the United States, John Marshall helped to ensure that – the political and economic systems were based on a strong central government The legal precedent for judicial review was established when – the Supreme Court declared the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional The case of Marbury v.

Madison involved the question of who had the right to – declare an act of Congress unconstitutional [Judicial Review] John Marshall, as chief justice of the United States, helped to strengthen the judicial branch of government by – asserting the doctrine of judicial review of congressional legislation Thomas Jefferson (Again): Thomas Jefferson’s failed attempt to impeach and convict Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase for “high crimes and misdemeanors” meant that judicial independence and the separation of powers had been preserved Thomas Jefferson distrusted large standing armies because they – could be used to establish a dictatorship Thomas Jefferson saw navies as less dangerous than armies because – they could not march inland and endanger liberties Thomas Jefferson had strong misgivings about the wisdom of – maintaining a large standing army Thomas Jefferson’s first major foreign-policy decision was to – send a naval squadron to the Mediterranean Thomas Jefferson ceased his opposition to the expansion of the navy when the – Pasha of Tripoli declared war on the United States [Barbary Coast Pirates – North Africa – Libya today] To guard American shores, Thomas Jefferson – constructed two hundred tiny gunboats “Louisiana Purchase”:

In order to purchase New Orleans from France, Thomas Jefferson – decided to make an alliance with his old enemy Britain Napoleon chose to sell Louisiana to the United States because he had suffered misfortunes in Santo Domingo he hoped that the territory would one day help America to thwart the ambitions of the British he did not want to drive America into the arms of the British yellow fever killed many French troops Jefferson had authorized American negotiators to purchase only – New Orleans and the Floridas – from France Thomas Jefferson was conscience-stricken about the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France because – he believed that the purchase was unconstitutional [So, why did he do it then? ] How do you think the Indians that lived there felt about France selling the land? } Lewis and Clark’s expedition through the Louisiana Purchase territory yielded all of the following a rich harvest of scientific observations – maps hair-raising adventure stories – knowledge of the Indians of the region But it did not yield treaties with several Indian nations Lewis and Clark demonstrated the viability of – an overland trail to the Pacific Dueling can lead to death & in Burr’s case, treason! : After killing Alexander Hamilton in a duel, Aaron Burr – plotted to divide the United States What was so “impressive” about British sailors that caused them to kidnap American sailors? The British policy of impressments was a kind of – forced enlistment The British impressed American sailors into the British navy because – they needed more men The Chesapeake incident involved the flagrant use of – impressments Naval conflicts on the high seas for a young and weak nation lead to a mistake by President Jefferson: To deal with British and French violations of America’s neutrality, Thomas Jefferson – enacted an economic embargo [the Ograbme snapping turtle political cartoon] Thomas Jefferson’s embargo failed for all of the following reasons he underestimated the determination of the British Britain produced a bumper grain crop Latin America opened its ports for commerce he miscalculated the difficulty of enforcing it President Jefferson’s foreign policy of economic coercion – stimulated manufacturing in the United States Macon’s Bill No. 2 – permitted trade with all nations but promised that if either Britain or France lifted its commercial restrictions on American trade, the United States would stop trading with the other James Madison:

President James Madison made a major foreign-policy mistake when he – accepted Napoleon’s promise to recognize America’s rights [war with England] War with the world’s superpower again? : By 1810, the most insistent demand for a declaration of war against Britain came from – the West and South The war hawks demanded war with Britain because they wanted to do all of the following wipe out renewed Indian resistance [to expand in West & South] defend American rights gain more territory revenge the manhandling of American sailors The only argument not put forth by the war hawks as a justification for a declaration of war against Britain was hat – Britain’s commercial restrictions had come close to destroying America’s profitable New England shipping business War with Indians: The following events are in chronological order Embargo Act – war hawks enter Congress – Battle of Tippecanoe – declaration of war on Britain Tecumseh argued that Indians should – not cede control of land to whites unless all Indians agreed Native American leader Tecumseh was killed in 1813 at the – Battle of the Thames The battle of Tippecanoe resulted in – the death of the dream of an Indian confederacy War of 1812 (1812-1814): In 1812, James Madison turned to war – to restore confidence in the republican experiment [really? Seafaring New England opposed the War of 1812 because of all of the following the Northeast Federalists sympathized with England it resented the Republican’s sympathy with Napoleon Federalists opposed the acquisition of Canada it could result in more agrarian states Once begun, the War of 1812 was supported strongly by – the West and South Federalists opposed the acquisition of Canada because – it was too agrarian and would give more voted to the Democratic-Republicans During the War of 1812, the New England states – lent more money and sent more food to the British army than to the American army Ch. 12 The Second War For Independence And The Upsurge of Nationalism, 1812-1824 War of 1812 (1812-1814):

The War of 1812 was one of the worst-fought wars in United States history because – of widespread disunity When the United States entered the War of 1812, it was – militarily unprepared The War of 1812 was one of the worst-fought wars in American history for all of the following reasons disunity was widespread only a zealous minority supported the war the army was scandalously inadequate the militia was poorly trained Canada became an important battleground in the War of 1812 because – British forces were weakest there The performance of the United States’ Navy in the War of 1812 could be best described as – much better than that of the army America’s campaign against Canada in the War of 1812 was – poorly conceived because it split-up the military Perhaps the key battle of the War of 1812, because it protected the United States from full-scale invasion and possible dissolution, was the Battle of – Plattsburgh

British plans for their 1814 campaign did not include action in – Florida The British attack on Fort McHenry (Baltimore, MD) – inspired the writing of “The Star-Spangled Banner” The most devastating defeat suffered by the British during the War of 1812 took place at the Battle of – New Orleans (after the war was over) The Battle of New Orleans – saw British troops defeated by Andrew Jackson’s soldiers One result of the American naval victories during the War of 1812 was – a British naval blockade of the American coast At the peace conference at Ghent, the British began to withdraw many of its earlier demands for all of the following reasons reverses in upper New York – a loss at Baltimore ncreasing war weariness in Britain – concern about the still dangerous France But not because of the American victory at New Orleans The delegates of the Hartford Convention adopted resolutions that included a call for – a Constitutional amendment requiring a two-thirds vote in Congress before war was declared The resolutions from the Hartford Convention – helped to cause the death of the Federalist party War of 1812 Facts: Washington DC was invaded and burned. Dolly Madison saved a portrait of George Washington and other things from the Executive Mansion (it was not the “White House” yet) before the British over-ran the capitol Factoid: One of the nationally recognized American authors in the 1820s was – Washington Irving (Columbus round earth myth) Results of the War of 1812:

From a global perspective, the War of 1812 was – of little importance In diplomatic and economic terms, the War of 1812 – bred greater American independence (particularly economically) The outcome of the War of 1812 was – a stimulus to patriotic nationalism (for many) in the United States The Rush-Bagnot agreement – limited naval armaments on the Great Lakes After the War of 1812, Europe – returned to conservativism, illiberalism, and reaction One of the most important by-products of the War of 1812 was – a heightened spirit of nationalism (for many but not all) Post-War of 1812 nationalism could be seen in all of the following the way in which American painters depicted the beauty of American landscapes the building of a more handsome national capital an expanded army and navy development of a national literature But not in a revival of American religion At the end of the War of 1812, British manufacturers began dumping their goods in America at extremely low prices Tariffs: The Tariff of 1816 was the first in American history – that aimed to protect American industry Henry Clay & His American System: Henry Clay’s call for federally funded roads and canals received whole-hearted endorsement from – the West New England opposed the (Clay’s) American System’s federally constructed roads because – they would drain away needed population to the West Democratic-Republicans opposed Henry Clay’s American System because – they believed that it was unconstitutional (to tax citizens to pay for federal construction) Good Vibrations Early 19th Century Style:

The Era of Good Feelings – was a misnomer, because the period was a troubled one With the demise of the Federalist party – the Democratic-Republicans established one-party rule Panic! (Depression! ) [Take Zoloft! ]: The panic of 1819 brought with it all of the following unemployment – bank failures – debtor’s prisons – bankruptcies But not inflation One of the major causes of the panic of 1819 was – overspeculation in frontier lands The western land boom resulted from all of the following it was a continuation of the old westward movement land exhaustion in older tobacco states speculators accepted small down payments the frontier was pacified with the defeat of the Indians

But not the construction of railroad lines west of the Mississippi River One of the demands made by the West to help it grow was – cheap money Balance between slave and free states must be maintained in Congress: When the House of Representatives passed the Tallmadge Amendment in response to Missouri’s request for admission to the Union, the South thought that the amendment – would threaten the sectional balance The first state entirely west of the Mississippi River to be carved out of the Louisiana Territory was – Missouri As a result of the Missouri Compromise – slavery was banned north of the 36? 30′ in the Louisiana Purchase territory All of the following were results of the Missouri compromise extremists in both the North and South were not satisfied Missouri entered the Union as a slave state Maine entered the Union as a free state the balance between the North and South was kept even But sectionalism was not reduced

Federalist Chief Justice of the Supreme Court John Marshall: In interpreting the constitution, John Marshall – favored “loose construction” John Marshall uttered his famous legal dictum that “the power to tax involved the power to destroy” in – McCulloch v. Maryland In McCulloch v. Maryland, Cohens v. Virginia, and Gibbons v. Ogden, Chief Justice Marshall’s rulings limited the extent of – states’ rights John Marshall’s rulings upheld a defense of property rights against public pressure in – Fletcher v. Peck Old Northwest Territory: People moved into the Old Northwest for all of the following reasons better transportation – the Indian threat was gone [why? ] to achieve better social position – to get their own democratic community But not as a haven for runaway slaves

Settlers from the South who moved into the Old Northwest territory were known as – Butternuts When moving to the Old Northwest, settlers from the North wanted to do all of the following tame the land – tame the people – build canals – build roads [Clay’s American System] The United States’ most successful diplomat in the Era of Good Feelings was – John Quincy Adams The Treaty of 1818 with England – called for a ten-year joint occupation of the Oregon country by both American citizens and British subjects Andrew Jackson, that dude on the $20: Jackson in Florida vs. Seminoles & Maroons (runaway slaves living w/Seminoles – a mixed society – b/c Spain had to fight in South America (independence movements) Argentina 1816, Venezuela 1817, Chile 1818 John Quincy Adams defended him (later they run for president against each other & the mud is slung big-time) against those who wanted his (metaphoric) head for his actions in Florida – cruel warfare against Spanish & Indians (and his own men in some cases for harsh discipline) – Florida Purchase 1819 from Spain (Florida Cession) – plus claims on Oregon too in exchange for any US claims to Texas – plus USA has the newly purchased LA territory Perceived threats to the USA: US felt threatened by the powerful monarchies w/claims in North America – Much of Latin America was in revolution against Spain & Russia was in North America too – British trading in Latin America now too – all were threats to the new USA Monroe Doctrine:

Monroe Doctrine – John Quincy Adams – Sec of State for President Monroe – Monroe read a speech to Congress in 1823, and part of it was later labeled the Monroe Doctrine – no more colonization in the Americas (Western Hemisphere) – no European intervention – it was aimed at Russia & Europe – British wanted a joint declartation to this effect w/the USA, but the USA, knowing the British would enforce it, decided to announce it themselves – therefore, Latin America was somewhat protected from Europe (by the British – and Latin America knew it too) – thus, the USA sounded tough while the British had the muscle to back it up. Ch. 13 The Rise Of Jacksonian Democracy, 1824-1830 Slavery & politics: In the 1820s and 1830s one issue that greatly raised the political stakes was – slavery. Two-Party System: The new two party political system that emerged in the 1830s and 1840s – became an important part of the nation’s checks and balances. traps us in the world of South Park too] In the 1820s and 1830s the public’s attitude regarding political parties – accepted the sometimes wild contentiousness of political life. [radical parties of the political parties] By the 1840s new techniques of politicking included all of the following: the use of banners – free drinks – parades – baby kissing 1824 Election – Our first son of a President as President – JQA – JQA wins! : The presidential election of 1824 – was the first one to see the election of a minority president Each individual below is matched with the correct description: Andrew Jackson – received more popular votes than any other candidate in 1824 Henry Clay – was eliminated as a candidate when 1824 election was thrown to House of Representatives John C.

Calhoun – was vice president on the ticket of two presidential candidates in 1824 The House of Representatives decided the 1824 presidential election when – no candidate received a majority of the vote in the Electoral College. John Quincy Adams, elected president in 1825, was charged by his political opponents with having struck a “corrupt bargain” when he appointed – Henry Clay – to become – secretary of state. As president, John Quincy Adams – was one of the least successful presidents in American history. John Quincy Adams could be described as – possessing almost none of the arts of the politician. John Quincy Adams’s weaknesses as president included all of the following: deep nationalistic view – only 1/3rd of voters voted for him – his sarcastic personality – he was tactless During his long political career, John Quincy Adams was at one time or another – a nationalist, secretary of state, a congressman, and president (not necessarily in that order). While he was president, John Quincy Adams was roundly criticized for his – land policy – Indian policy – support for internal improvements – supposed aristocratic life style 1828 Election Gets Ugly: The presidential election of 1828 was characterized by – mudslinging tactics by both parties against the opposing candidate an unusually high voter turnout both sides using trees to symbolize their candidate. Increased voter participation by the 1840s – why? : By the 1840s voter participation in the presidential election reached – nearly 80 percent.

Andrew Jackson is urninated, wants revenge, becomes President, and as before, becomes a bane to Indians: Andrew Jackson’s political philosophy was based on his – suspicion of the federal government. {except his of course} Andrew Jackson’s inauguration as president symbolized the – newly won ascendancy of the masses. (how? ) {That dude was a rich slave owner who was poor at one time but arose to aristocratic status} Spoils System & Jackson: The purpose behinds the spoils system was – to reward political supporters with public office. The spoils system under Andrew Jackson resulted in – the appointment of many corrupt and incompetent officials to federal jobs. Tariff of 1828:

The people who proposed the exceptionally high rates of the Tariff of 1828 were – ardent supporters of Andrew Jackson The section of the United States most hurt by the Tariff of 1828 was – the South Southerners feared the Tariff of 1828 because – this same power could be used to suppress slavery. Jackson’s don-in-law, John C. Calhoun: John C. Calhoun’s “South Carolina Exposition” was an argument for – states’ rights. Jackson, Calhoun, South Carolina, and “nullification”: The “nullification crisis” of 1832-1833 erupted over – tariff policy. The strong regional support for the Tariff of 1833 came from – the South. The Force Bill of 1833 provided that – the President could use the army and navy to collect federal tariff duties. Jackson threatens to hang Calhoun – mobilizes army to invade SC] The person most responsible for defusing the tariff controversy that began in 1828 was – Henry Clay. The nullification crisis of 1833 resulted in a clear-cut victory for – neither Andrew Jackson nor the nullifiers In response to South Carolina’s nullification of the Tariff of 1828, Andrew Jackson – dispatched military forces to South Carolina. The nullification crisis started by South Carolina over the Tariff of 1828 ended when – Congress passed the compromise Tariff of 1833. Southerners disliked the Tariff of 1828 because it – raised the price of manufactured goods represented the growing power of the federal government The South Carolina nullifying convention – eclared the tariff of 1832 null and void within South Carolina ordered the South Carolina state legislature to make military preparations to defend the state nullified the Force Bill passed by Congress threatened to secede from the Union if the national government tried to force the state into compliance with congressional law. Jackson removes Indians: Andrew Jackson’s administration supported the removal of Native Americans from the eastern states because – whites wanted the Indians’ lands. In their treatment of Native Americans, white Americans did all of the following: recognize the tribes as separate nations try to civilize them trick them into ceding land to whites. promise to acquire land only through formal treaties In an effort to assimilate themselves into white society, the Cherokees did all of the following: adopt a system of settled agriculture develop a written constitution become cotton planters develop a notion of private property

The policy of the Jackson administration toward the eastern Indian tribes was – forced removal. Jackson and the Bank War: Andrew Jackson and his supporters disliked the Bank of the United States for all of the following reasons except it – put public service first, not profits Andrew Jackson made all of the following charges against the Bank of the United States except that – it refused to lend money to politicians. One of the positive aspects of the Bank of the United States was – its promotion of economic expansion by making credit abundant. While in existence, the Second Bank of the United States – was the depository of the funds of the national government.

Andrew Jackson’s veto of the re-charter bill for the Bank of the United States was – a major expansion of presidential power. Andrew Jackson based his veto of the re-charter bill for the Bank of the United States on – the fact that he found the bill harmful to the nation. One of the main reasons Andrew Jackson decided to weaken the Bank of the United States after the 1832 election was – his fear that Nicholas Biddle might try to manipulate the bank to force its re-charter. [Biddle & Jackson intensely disliked each other – personal for Jackson] In his veto of the bank re-charter bill, President Jackson claimed that the bank was – unconstitutional anti-western too much influenced by aristocrats and foreigners corrupt and monopolistic

Following his election in 1832, President Jackson decided to – remove federal funds from the Bank of the United States gradually stop depositing federal funds in the Bank of the United States start depositing federal funds in several “pet” state banks Masons & Anti-Masons: The Anti-Masonic party of 1832 appealed to – American suspicions of secret societies. The Anti-Masonic party – was an anti-Jackson party & was the nation’s first third party. Political Parties Innovate: Innovations in the election of 1832 included – adoption of written party platforms. Whigs: Supporters of the Whig party included all of the following: backers of southern states’ rights large northern industrialists any evangelical Protestants backers of the American System did not include opponents of public education The “cement” that held the Whig party together in its formative days was – hatred of Andrew Jackson. The Whigs hoped to win the 1836 election by – forcing the election into the House of Representatives. The Whigs offered all of the following proposals for the remedies of the economic ills facing America in 1837 – expansion of bank credit proposal of higher tariffs proposal of subsidies for internal improvements more active involvement on the part of the government The Whig party drew support from – Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun southerners and states’ rights arge northern industrialists and merchants Panic again! : The Panic of 1837 was caused by all of the following: rampant speculation the Bank War financial problems abroad failure of wheat crops But not by taking the country off the gold standard Van Buren followed Jackson & “panics” plus inherits Jackson’s enemies: President Martin Van Buren’s administration was troubled by – his lack of personal popularity antislavery agitation against the annexation of Texas a serious economic depression the inherited enemies of former president Andrew Jackson The panic of 1837 was the result of – over-speculation in internal improvements the Bank War and Specie Circular economic distress in Europe

Texas experiences illegal immigration in the 1830s – Mexico cannot permit immigrants to come illegally: Americans moved into Texas – after an agreement was concluded between Mexican authorities and Stephen Austin. Stephen F. Austin’s grant from the Mexican government required that immigrants whom he helped settle in Texas – become Mexican citizens & be Roman Catholics Spanish authorities allowed Moses Austin to settle in Texas because – they believed that Austin and his settlers might be able to civilize the territory. The government of Mexico and the Americans who settled in Mexican-controlled Texas clashed over all of the following issues:; slavery – immigration – local rights – Santa Anna raising an army to use against Texas But not over allegiance to Spain

Texas asserts its independence from Mexico over slavery: Texans won their independence as a result of the victory over Mexican armies at the Battle of – San Jacinto. Texas gained its independence with – help from Americans. One reason for the Angle-Texan rebellion against Mexican rule was that – the Anglo-Texans wanted to break away from a government that had grown too authoritarian. [relative] Presidents Jackson and Van Buren hesitated to extend recognition to and to annex the new Texas Republic because – antislavery groups in the United States opposed the expansion of slavery. Most of the early American settlers in Texas came from – the South and Southwest. many came with slaves] “Tippecanoe and Tyler Too! ”: The “Tippecanoe” in the Whigs’ 1840 campaign slogan was – William Harrison. William Henry Harrison, the Whig party’s presidential candidate in 1840, was – made to look like a poor western farmer. Political Parties: Both the Democratic party and the Whig party – were mass-based political parties. The two political parties of the Jacksonian era tended to – be socially and geographically diverse. Ch. 14 Forging The National Economy, 1790-1860 Frontier life: Life on the frontier was – downright grim for most pioneer families Pioneering Americans marooned by geography – became ill informed and individualistic in their attitudes Economy:

All of the following gave rise to a more dynamic, market-oriented, national economy in early nineteenth- century America the push west in search of cheap land a vast number of European immigrants settling in the cities newly invented machinery better roads, faster steamboats, further-reaching canals, and tentacle-stretching railroads But not government regulation of all major economic industry Growth of cities: In early nineteenth-century America – the urban population was growing at an unprecedented rate The dramatic growth of American cities between 1800 and 1860 – resulted in unsanitary conditions in many communities European economic imperialism in the Western Hemisphere: Ecological imperialism” can best be described as – the aggressive exploitation of the West’s bounty Preservationist efforts: George Caitlin advocated – the preservation of nature as a national policy Immigration – Irish & Germans: The influx of immigrants to the United States tripled, then quadrupled, in the – 1840s and 1850s Ireland’s great export in the 1840s was – people (Irish immigrants – Irish potato famine & general hard-times) The Irish immigrants to early nineteenth-century America – were mostly Roman Catholics and hated the British When the Irish flocked to the United States in the 1840s, they stayed in the larger seaboard cities because they – were too poor to move west and buy land

When the “famine Irish” came to America, they – mostly remained in the port cities of the Northeast German immigrants in the early nineteenth century tended to – preserve their own language and culture German immigrants to the United States – came to escape economic hardships and autocratic government When German immigrants came to the United States, they – prospered with astonishing ease Immigrants coming to the United States before 1860 – helped to fuel economic expansion Factors encouraging the growth of immigration rates in the first half of the nineteenth century included the: rapid growth rate of the European population perception of America as the land of freedom and opportunity introduction of transoceanic steamships economic and political turmoil in Europe religious oppression by European state churches

Nativism [xenophobic bigots]: Native-born Protestant Americans distrusted and resented the Irish mostly because these immigrants – were Roman Catholic (not Protestant) [xenophobia – fear of foreigners] {Bill the Butcher – Gangs of New York} Those who were frightened by the rapid influx of Irish immigrants organized – the Order of the Star-Spangled Banner The sentiment of fear and opposition to open immigration was called – nativism Native-born Americans feared that Catholic immigrants to the United States would – “establish” the Catholic church at the expense of Protestantism Industrialism – Factories – Textiles in New England:

The “Father of the Factory System” in the United States was – Samuel Slater The American phase of the industrial revolution first blossomed – with textile mills The underlying basis for modern mass production was the – use of interchangeable parts (Eli Whitney) The early factory system distributed its benefits – mostly to the owners [exploitation of workers, particularly Mill Girls] The growth of industry and the factory system in the United States was slowed by – the scarcity of labor – limited investment capital – a small domestic market The Northeast became the center of early-nineteenth-century American industry because it had – abundant water power investment capital available a relatively large labor supply The growth of early-nineteenth-century American manufacturing was stimulated by the – War of 1812 and the Tariff of 1816 By 1850, America’s factory system was producing – extiles – boots and shoes – firearms – sewing machines The concentration of capital for investment in large-scale enterprises in the early nineteenth century was promoted by the wider acceptance of the principle of limited liability & passage of state free incorporation laws Cotton Engine 1793 Increases Need for Slaves: Eli Whitney was instrumental in the invention of the – cotton gin Most of the cotton produced in the American South after the invention of the cotton gin was – sold to England As a result of the development of the cotton gin – slavery revived and expanded Early 19th Century American Industrialists: Each individual below is matched with the correct invention: Samuel Morse – telegraph Cyrus McCormick – mower-reaper Elias Howe – sewing machine Robert Fulton – steamboat

Exploitation of Workers, Increasing Male Suffrage, & the Results: The American work force in the early nineteenth century was characterized by – substantial employment of women and children in factories One reason that the lot of adult wage earners improved was – the enfranchisement of the laboring man In the case of Commonwealth v. Hunt, the supreme court of Massachusetts ruled that – labor unions were not illegal conspiracies Status of women in early 19th century America: The “cult of domesticity” – glorified the traditional role of women as homemakers American families in the early 19th century: Early-nineteenth-century American families – were getting smaller One of the goals of the child-centered family of the 1800s was to – raise independent individuals Cash-Crop Agriculture:

The effect of early-nineteenth-century industrialization on the trans-Allegheny West was to encourage – specialized, cash-crop agriculture With the development of cash-crop agriculture in the trans-Allegheny West, – farmers quickly faced mounting indebtedness Early 19th century infrastructure: In the 1790s a major transportation project linking the East to the trans-Allegheny West was the – Lancaster Turnpike Western road building faced all of the following problems: the expense states’ rights advocates’ opposition eastern states’ opposition wartime interruptions But not competition from canals The major application for steamboats transporting freight and passengers in the United States was on – western and southern rivers

The “canal era” of American history began with the construction of the – Erie Canal in New York Construction of the Erie Canal – forced some New England farmers to move or change occupations Most early railroads in the United States were built in the – North Compared with canals, railroads – could be built almost anywhere As a result of the transportation revolution – each region in the nation specialized in a particular type of economic activity In general – steamboats – tended to bind the West and South together, while – canals and – steamboats – connected West to East The turnpikes, canals, and steamboats as new transportation links generally encourages – lowering of freight rates economic growth rising land values migration of peoples Clipper ships and the Pony Express had in common – speedy service and a brief existence

Continental Economy: In the new continental economy, each region specialized in a particular economic activity: the South – grew cotton – for export the West grew grains and livestock to feed eastern factory workers the (North) East – made machines and textiles – for the other two regions All of the following were legal questions raised as a result of the new market economy: how tightly should patents protect inventions? should the government regulate monopolies? can a democratic government still support slavery? who should own these new technologies? But not who should own the new transportation network? As the new continental market economy grew the home came to be viewed as a refuge from the workday world A major economic consequence of the transportation and marketing revolutions was – a steady improvement in average wages and standards of living [not as significant as this sounds] Advances in manufacturing and transportation brought – more prosperity and opportunity to most Americans increased immigration from Europe to the United States Ch. 15 The Ferment of Reform and Culture, 1790-1860 Religious beliefs in America – including those of many Founders: The Deist faith embraced all of the following: the reliance on reason rather then revolution belief in a Supreme Being belief in human beings’ capacity for moral behavior denial of the divinity of Jesus But not the concept of original sin Deists like Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin endorsed the concept of – a Supreme Being who created the universe

By 1850, organized religion in America – had lost some of its austere Calvinist rigor Unitarians endorsed the concept of – salvation through good works An early-nineteenth-century religious rationalist sect devoted to the rule of reason and free will was the – Unitarians Second Great Awakening: All of the following are true of the Second Great Awakening: it resulted in the conversion of countless souls it encouraged a variety of humanitarian reforms it strengthened democratic denominations like the Baptists and Methodists it was a reaction against the growing liberalism in religion But it was not as large as the First Great Awakening Religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening resulted in – a strong religious influence in many areas of American life As a revivalist preacher, Charles Grandison Finney advocated: opposition to slavery perfect Christian kingdom on earth opposition to alcohol public prayer by women The greatest of the revival preachers of the Second Great Awakening was – Charles G. Finney The Second Great Awakening tended to – promote religious diversity The religious sects that gained most from the revivalism of the Second Great Awakening were the – Methodists and Baptists The Second Great Awakening tended to – widen the lines between classes and regions Many of the denominational liberal arts colleges founded as a result of the Second Great Awakening – lacked much intellectual vitality (many of those universities are around still but now academic) Latter Day Saints [Mormons]:

The Mormon religion originated in – the Burned-Over District of New York The original prophet of the Mormon religion was – Joseph Smith Brigham Young, The Book of Mormon, Salt Lake City, and polygamy (do not take out of context or exaggerate) One characteristic of the Mormons that angered many non-Mormons was their – emphasis on cooperative or group effort [Utah, violence against, violence of, persecution – why? ] The Mormons were advocates or practitioners of – theocracy and polygamy (do not take out of context or exaggerate) Public education: Tax-supported public education – was deemed essential for social stability and democracy In the first half of the nineteenth century, tax-supported schools were – chiefly available to educate the children of the poor Webster’s Dictionary:

Noah Webster’s dictionary – helped to standardize the American language Status of Women: One strong prejudice inhibiting women from obtaining higher education in the early nineteenth century was the belief that – too much learning would injure women’s brains and ruin their health Women became especially active in the social reforms stimulated by the Second Great Awakening because – evangelical religion emphasized their spiritual dignity and religious social reform legitimized their activity outside the home Two areas where women in the nineteenth century were widely thought to be superior to men were – moral sensibility and artistic refinement

New England reformer Dorothea Dix is most notable for her efforts on behalf of – prison and asylum reform Temperance movement (prohibition of alcohol): The excessive consumption of alcohol by Americans in the 1800s – stemmed from the hard and monotonous life of many [women were active in this movement – why? ] Neal Dow sponsored the Main Law of 1851, which called for – a ban on the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquor Gender Roles of Men & Women in the Economy: Sexual differences were strongly emphasized in nineteenth-century America because – the market economy increasingly separated men and women into distinct economic roles Abolition (puts women’s rights on hold):

By the 1850s, the crusade for women’s rights was eclipsed by – abolitionism Utopian communities (interesting in a way): According to John Humphrey Noyes, the key to happiness is – the suppression of selfishness The beliefs advocated by John Humphrey Noyes included all of the following: no private property sharing of ALL material goods belief in a vengeful deity improvement of the human race through eugenics But not in strictly monogamous marriages The key to Oneida’s financial success was – the manufacture of steel animal traps and silverware The Oneida colony declined due to – widespread criticism of its sexual practices Most of the utopian communities in re-1860s America held – cooperative social and economic practices – as one of their founding ideals The most successful of the early-nineteenth-century communitarian experiments was at – Oneida, New York American medical profession used to be a joke: The American medical profession by 1860 was noted for – its still primitive standards American science: When it came to scientific achievement, America in the 1800s was – more interested in practical matters [$$$] Each individual below is matched with the correct description: Louis Agassiz – Harvard biologist Gilbert Stuart – portrait artist John J. Audubon – author of Birds of America American art:

America’s artistic achievements in the first half of the nineteenth century – were least notable in architecture The Hudson River school excelled in the art of painting – landscapes American literature: A genuinely American literature received a strong boost from the – wave of nationalism that followed the War of 1812 Each writer below is matched with his work: Washington Irving – The Sketch Book, with “Rip Van Winkle” James Fenimore Cooper – Leatherstocking Tales Ralph Waldo Emerson – “The American Scholar” Transcendentalists believed that all knowledge came through – an inner light All of the following influenced transcendental thought:

German philosophers Oriental religions individualism love of nature But not Catholic belief “Civil Disobedience,” an essay that later influenced both Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. , was written by the transcendentalist – Henry David Thoreau The Poet Laureate of Democracy, whose emotional and explicit writings expressed a deep love of the masses and enthusiasm for an expanding America, was – Walt Whitman The most noteworthy southern novelist before the Civil War was – William Gilmore Simms One American writer who did not believe in human goodness and social progress was – Edgar Allan Poe Each writer below is matched with his work:

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow – “Hiawatha” Edgar Allan Poe – The Scarlet Letter Herman Melville – Moby Dick The Knickerbocker group of American writers included – Washington Irving and William Cullen Bryant American transcendentalist writers included – Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Margaret Fuller Transcendentalists were dedicated to – Individualism and self-reliance American historians tend to be from New England in the 19th century: Virtually all the distinguished historians of the early-nineteenth-century America came from – New England American education: Early-nineteenth-century American educators included: Horace Mann William H. McGuffey Noah Webster

Emma Willard Mary Lyon Social reformers in early 19th century America: Social reformers of the early nineteenth century wanted to – find a practical application for their evangelical religion reaffirm traditional values in the confusion of industrialization fulfill the ideals of American democracy Women in America (again): In early-nineteenth-century America – women could not vote married women could not retain ownership of their property In early-nineteenth-century America, men usually regarded women as – having a sharply distinct economic role in society physically and emotionally weak but morally superior to men having their proper place in the home

The leaders of the women’s rights movement in the early nineteenth century included – Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Susan B. Anthony Ch. 16: The South and the Slavery Controversy, 1793-1860 Slavery gets new life (death): As a result of the introduction of the cotton gin – slavery was reinvigorated Members of the planter aristocracy – dominated society and politics in the South All of the following were true of the American economy under Cotton Kingdom – cotton accounted for half the value of all American exports after 1840 the South produced more than half the entire world’s supply of cotton. 75% of the British supply of cotton came from the South quick profits from cotton drew planters to its economic enterprise

But the South did not reap all the profits from the cotton trade Plantation agriculture was wasteful largely because – its excessive cultivation of cotton despoiled good land Plantation mistresses – commanded a sizeable staff of mostly female slaves Plantation agriculture – was economically unstable and wasteful The plantation system of the Cotton South was – increasingly monopolistic All the following were weaknesses of the slave plantation system: it relied on a one-crop economy it repelled a large-scale European immigration it stimulated racism among poor whites it created an aristocratic political elite But it was not a weakness that its land continued to remain in the hands of the small farmers All told, only about – one-fourth – of white southerners owned slaves or belonged to a slaveholding family 36% maximum is what I usually remember! The following quote, “I think we must get rid of slavery or we must get rid of freedom” was said by – Ralph Waldo Emerson By the mid-nineteenth century – most slaves lived on large plantations Most slaves in the South were owned by – plantation owners (the largest numbers total) The majority of southern whites owned no slaves because – they could not afford the purchase price The great increase of the slave population in the first half of the nineteenth century was largely due to – natural reproduction Regarding work assignments, slaves were – generally spared dangerous work [why? ] Slave economies are not good for the economy:

The profitable southern slave system – hobbled the economic development of the region as a whole Slave deomographics: By 1860, slaves were concentrated in the “black belt” located in the – Deep South states of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana [why? cotton of course! ] As a substitute for the wage-incentive system, slave owners most often used the – whip as a motivator [yes & no] By 1860, life for slaves was most difficult in the – newer states of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana Forced separation of spouses, parents, and children was most common – on small plantations and in the upper South All of the following were true of slavery in the South: lave life on the frontier was harder than that of life in the more settled areas a distinctive African American slave culture developed a typical planter had too much of his own prosperity riding on the backs of his slaves to beat them on a regular basis by 1860 most slaves were concentrated in the “black belt” of the Deep South It was not true that most slaves were raised in single unstable parent households Most slaves were raised – in stable two-parent households Slaves fought the system of slavery in all the following ways: slowing down the work pace sabotaging expensive equipment pilfering goods that their labor had produced running away when possible

Refusing to get an education was not a way they fought slavery As a result of white southerners’ brutal treatment of their slaves and their fear of potential slave rebellions, the South – developed a theory of biological racial superiority In the pre-Civil War South, the most uncommon and least successful form of slave resistance was – armed insurrection Nat Turner, David Walker, Denmark Vesey, and Gabriel The idea of re-colonizing blacks back to Africa was – supported by the black leader Martin Delaney Slaves were – regarded primarily as financial investments by their owners the primary form of wealth in the South profitable for their owners The slave culture was characterized by – a hybrid religion of Christian and African elements widespread illiteracy among slaves subtle forms of resistance to slavery

The South’s “positive good” argument for slavery claimed that – slavery was supported by the authority of both the Bible and the Constitution slavery was good for the barbarous Africans because enslavement introduced them to Christianity’slaves were usually treated as members of the family slaves were better off then most northern wage earners Immigrants in the South: German and Irish immigration to the South was discouraged by – competition with slave labor Most Southern farmers grow corn b/c it’s cheap & easy: As their main crop, southern subsistence farmers raised – corn Most white southerners were – subsistence farmers Southerners loyal to the Union – why? :

The most pro-Union of the white southerners were – mountain whites Some southern slaves gained their freedom as a result of – purchasing their way out of slavery Were Northerners bigots too? : Northern attitudes toward free blacks can best be described as – disliking the individuals but liking the race For free blacks living in the North – discrimination was common “So you’re the little lady whose book started this great war. ”: Perhaps the slave’s greatest psychological horror, and the theme of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin, was – the enforced separation of slave families Abolitionists: Each abolitionist below is matched with his publication: William Lloyd Garrison – The Liberator Theodore Dwight Weld – American Slavery as It Is Frederick Douglass – Narration of the Life of

David Walker – Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World The following are arranged in chronological order: the founding of the – American Colonization Society American Anti-Slavery Society Liberty Party William Lloyd Garrison pledged his dedication to – the immediate abolition of slavery in the South Each abolitionist below is matched with his role in the movement: Wendell Phillips – abolitionist golden trumpet Frederick Douglass – black abolitionist Elijah P. Lovejoy – abolitionist martyr William Lloyd Garrison – abolitionist newspaper publisher Many abolitionists turned to political action in 1840 when they backed the presidential candidate of the – Liberty Party

The voice of white southern abolitionism fell silent at the beginning of the – 1830s [except for Grimke sisters] In arguing for the continuation of slavery after 1830, southerners – placed themselves in opposition to much of the rest of the Western world Those in the North who opposed the abolitionists believed that these opponents of slavery – were creating disorder in America After 1830, the abolitionist movement took a new, more energetic tone, encouraged by the – success of the British abolitionists in having slavery abolished in the British West Indies religious spirit of the Second Great Awakening How did the North feel about slavery? : After 1830, most people in the North – held that the Constitution sanctioned slavery ere alarmed by the radicalism of abolitionists like William Lloyd Garrison “Cotton is king! ”: The South became the Cotton Kingdom in the early nineteenth century because of – Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin the new profitability of short-staple cotton the opening of rich river bottomlands in the Gulf Coast states Cotton became important to the prosperity of the North as well as the South because – northern merchants handled the shipping of southern cotton cotton accounted for about half the value of all United States exports after 1840 The Antebellum South: The pre-Civil War South was characterized by – a well-developed martial spirit he lack of free, tax-supported public education a widening gap between rich and poor a ruling planter aristocracy a growing hostility to free speech and a free press Even those who did not own slaves in the pre-Civil War South supported that institution because they – dreamed of one day owning slaves themselves presumed themselves racially superior to black slaves [those in the N, S, E, & W too] Free Blacks: Before the Civil War, free blacks – were often the mulatto offspring of white fathers and black mothers were often forbidden basic civil rights were disliked in the North as well as the South Ch 17 Manifest Destiny and Its Legacy, 1841-1848

Tippecanoe croaks so John Tyler asserts the Presidency as the former VP: John Tyler joined Whigs b/c he did not agree with the dictator, Andy Jackson – Whigs chose him as VP in 1840 to attract votes of states’ rightists – He vetoed bill to establish a new Bank of the USA – resulting in his expulsion from the Whigs, all but 1 cabinet member resigned, Daniel Webster, the House tried to impeach him unsuccessfully, and he vetoed a Whig high tariff bill, & vetoed bill to distribute public land sales’ revenue to the states USA justs wants to invade Canada – like South Park: 1837 Canadian insurrection vs. Great Britain – GB attacked USA supporters of insurrection on US soil who were bringing weapons and aide to the Canadians Oregon:

Most Americans who migrated to OR were attracted by the rich soil of the Willamette River Valley The primary group that helped strengthen and save US claims to Oregon – US missionaries to Indians – later immigrants/migrants/settlers who occupied the land – Area in dispute in 1845 lay b/t Columbia River, the 49( parallel, & Pacific Ocean – Group most supportive of gaining control of all of the Oregon territory to the 54( 40( – N. Democrats – 1846 Treaty w/ Great Britain – N. boundary of USA established at the 49( parallel – British compromise partly b/c they believed the territory was not worth fighting over [settlement of the Oregon territory’s boundary] Panic (depression) of 1837 again:

Panic of 1837 – result – several states default on debts owed to British Canadians & Americans fight over part of Maine: British-US dispute over Maine’s border was solved by compromise to split the territory – British got a road – Aroostook War was fought by Lumberjacks in disputed Maine border area [Aroostook War & Webster-Ashburton Treaty (Maine border)] Annexation of Texas: Some British wanted alliance w/ Texas b/c it would allow abolitionists the opportunity to free Texas’ slaves One argument against the annexation of Texas was it would give more power to the “slavocracy” Texas was annexed in 1845 b/c Tyler wanted to help his administration look better Order of acquisition: Texas, Oregon, & California

President James K. Polk & Manifest Destiny: James K. Polk – Democratic Presidential nominee in 1844 – supported and secured by Southern expansionists “Manifest Destiny” – view that God ordained growth/expansion of USA from “sea to shining sea” Polk wants California and other northern Mexican territory – How does he propose to get it initially (at first)? Polk’s administration’s programs included lowering tariffs, creation of a new independent treasury system for the Federal government, the acquisition of CA and NM from Mexico, and settling the OR boundary dispute with Great Britain, what about the annexation of Texas? Henry Clay:

Henry Clay – 1844 Whig Presidential candidate favored both annexation of Texas and postponing it until later Mexican-American War 1846-1848: John Slidell’s mission, US troops ordered to Rio Grande River valley, declaration of war w/ Mexico, Fremont and the Bear Flag Revolt USA went to war with Mexico in 1846 over the ideology of “Manifest Destiny,” US soldiers’ deaths in disputed territory, desire for collection of money claimed to be owed to US citizens by the Mexican government, & Polk’s desire to acquire California, What about to satisfy those asking about the “spot” resolutions? Polk’s claim of “American blood on American soil” referred to a clash with whom and where? Abraham Lincoln’s “spot” resolutions – what were they?

One Mexican goal in 1846-48 war with the USA was to free black slaves Polk hoped the war with Mexico would be limited and resolved once the USA took California – but it did not Kearny – Santa Fe, NM & San Pascual (Yes it’s spelled correctly), Taylor – N. Mexico, Scott – Vera Cruz & Mexico City, Fremont – N. California Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo Of 1848 ended the war – US got Mexican Cession (largest single land acquisition for USA – larger than LA Purchase) and paid Mexico how much? What had they offered before the war for just California? Anti-slavery and abolitionist forces opposed Polk’s expansionist policies regarding Mexico – why?

Wilmot Proviso – symbolized issue of slavery in territories – a hot issue – introduced in Congress during the Mexican war – never adopted – would have banned slavery from all territories gained from Mexico Points of controversy b/t the USA and Mexico in 1845-46 included damage claims by US citizens against the Mexican government, refusal of Mexico to receive John Slidell (Polk’s envoy), & US annexation of Tejas (Yes, this is how it is actually spelled) Results of the Mexican War – 1/3 increase in the size of the USA (Mexico lost almost ? of its territory), future American officers distinguished themselves and prepared for the future Civil War, increased respect for the US military and naval capabilities, deeper sectional tensions over slavery, How did Latin American countries feel about US actions in Mexico? Spanish immigration – Mexicans & Californios:

First “Old World” Europeans in California were Spaniards – Spanish Franciscan missionaries – Father Serra –treated Native American Indians in CA very harshly – Mexican government secularized authority in CA – Californios rose to political power and control of land from CA Catholic authorities which ended eventually with the influx of Anglo gold seekers (‘49ers) coming to CA after the 1848 gold discovery at Sutter’s mill Why would Britain want an independent Texas? : Britain was interested in the Texas Republic b/c an independent Texas was a political counterweight to future growth/expansion of USA & Texas would be an important alternative source of cotton for England as opposed to the American South Ch 18 Renewing the Sectional Struggle, 1848-1854 Slavery too hot of an issue in Congress: Both Whigs and Democrats avoided public discussion of slavery in order to maintain national unity Mexican War resulted in internal issues in Congress ver the balance of power based on slavery: US victory over Mexico resulted in a renewed controversy over expansion and slavery in the territories, the possible split within both the Whig and Democratic parties over slavery, the Mexican Cession of land, & a rush of settlers following the discovery of gold in California Debate over slavery and the Mexican Cession threatened a split of national politics along N-S sectional lines Free Soil Party: Free Soilers argued slavery b/c it would cause more costly white wage labor to wither away Condemn slavery b/c it destroyed the chances of free white workers to rise to self employment It competed with white wage labor 1848 Free Soil Party platform included opposition of slavery in the territories, support for the Wilmot Proviso, free government homesteads for settlers, & Federal aid for internal improvements (infrastructure), What about female suffrage?

Major support from those who favored high tariffs, wanted all of OR territory up to the 54( 40( line, condemned slavery was immoral and destructive to white wage labor Popular sovereignty – let the people vote/choose: “Popular Sovereignty” – free soil or slavery determined by a vote of the people within a territory – Public liked it b/c it fit the democratic tradition of self-determination 1848 Election: 1848 election – Both Whigs and Democrats were silent on slavery as an issue – Both parties did focus on the personalities of the candidates – (Zachary Taylor –Whig, Lewis Cass – Democrat, Martin Van Buren – Free Soil) General Zachary Taylor (Whig) wins in 1848 – same year that they find gold in them there hills! of CA]: Problem for Taylor’s administration – created turmoil – Gold discovery in CA 1848 – b/c of slavery issue and application for statehood California attracts the best & brightest: Many people going to California were criminals (lawless men) Southern Politics & Economics: By 1850, the South was relatively well off politically and economically for the upper and middle classes “The Black Moses”: Harriet Tubman – the “Black Moses” – famous “conductor” of the Underground RR – helped escapee/runaway slaves get through to Canada – Many slaves escaped to the North and Canada using the Underground RR Underground RR: 1850 – South deeply worried about the Underground RR helping hundreds of slaves escaping every year &

California’s potential admission to the Union as a free state [see Compromise of 1850 below] Could slaves purchase themselves/their own freedom? : During the 1850s – slaves tended to gain their freedom most frequently (often) by self-purchase (manumission) Calhoun’s impractical solution to the slavery issue: John C. Calhoun’s plan to protect the South and preserve its ways was to have 2 presidents – 1 South & 1 North Famous Northern Republican Upsets Abolitionists: Daniel Webster’s Seventh of March Speech (1850) results – shift toward compromise w/ the South in the North – It urged reasonable concessions to the South (by the North) – It also brought vicious condemnation of Webster by abolitionists who thought he “sold out” Republican idealists:

The Young Guard from the North – more interested in purging and purifying the Union than in compromise William H. Seward – Young Guard – argued in Congress in 1850 that slavery should be excluded from the territories b/c Christian legislators must obey God’s moral law or a “higher law” rather than the sacred US Constitution Southerners react to compromises: Nashville Convention of 1850 – Southern leaders condemn compromises being worked out in Congress Compromise of 1850: Compromise of 1850 Taylor dies after blocking it, gets help from Taylor’s VP turned President, Millard Fillmore, supported it Congress determined to allow “popular sovereignty” for MN & UT territories regarding slavery

North most upset over new Fugitive Slave Law/Act of 1850 Compromise Fugitive Slave Law/Act – denied jury trials to runaways, fleeing slaves could not testify on their own behalf, penalty for helping slaves escape was fine and/or imprisonment, higher payments for officials who determine runaway slave ($10) versus freeman ($5), & What about requiring slaves be returned from Canada? In response, many N states passed “personal liberty laws” in response to Fugitive Slave Law/Act The law/act was a tactical blunder for the South b/c N people reacted against it so strongly Whigs die: 1852 – death of the Whig party – cause – slavery Interesting & kind of weird history: 850s – William Walker – American who took over Nicaragua to become a slave state – executed eventually USA forces Japan to take “the carrot or the stick”: Com. Matthew Perry – man who led fleet to Japan to force Japan to trade w/ USA in 1853 Southern slavers want Cuba: Cuba and the USA in the 1850s Southern expansionists like the idea of taking Cuba, protested heavily by Free Soilers Southern expansionists want to annex Cuba, then controlled by Spain – why did they want it? Sugar-rich productive economy, had a large population of enslaved blacks, could be carved into several slave states for balance in Congress, particularly the Senate, & geographically close to Florida, USA

Ostend Manifesto – offer to Spain for Cuba for $120 million & if Spain refuses, then USA justified to take it by force if necessary How to join the East & West? : Most American leaders believed only way to keep new Pacific coast territories from breaking away from the USA was with the building of a transcontinental RR South argued for a southern route for a transcontinental RR would be easier to build and would run through territories already organized compared to the Great Plains (North pushed through northern route in 1862 when South was at war and not in Congress to object) “The Little Giant” from Illinois & the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854: Stephan A.

Douglas – Congressman – wants Chicago to prosper – advocates the Kansas-Nebraska Act Proposes “popular sovereignty” for the two territories KS-NB Act – required the repeal of the Missouri Compromise of 1820 (36(30( line for slavery) He underestimated the depth of N opposition to the spread of slavery Impact of KS-NB Act included enraged anti-slavery forces and abolitionists & lessening of the prospect of compromises b/t the N & S in the future Consequences of KS-NB Act included the splitting of the Democratic Party over slavery with the N & W vs. the S & the demise of the Whig Party (1852) over the slavery controversy (That helped lead to a new party – Republicans)