Reading Assessment Tools: Articulation Disorders i Articulation Disorders and Reading Assessment Tools Articulation Disorder ii Abstract Because writing and reading make up the majority of learning all subject areas, it is important to develop programs and assessments geared toward reading disorders in this case articulation. While most educators agree teaching students with disorders is a challenge, the technological world opened the door to new ideas and insights of articulation techniques.
This paper discusses articulation disorder, articulation disorders studies, and best methods to treat articulation disorders. This research will also point out the importance of speech pathologist to treat this disorders. I asked my twelve year old daughter the other day, “Would you like to learn how to play and instrument? ” She responded sarcastically, “I don’t know how to play and I wouldn’t be any good! ” Learning something for the first time takes patience, time, and will. As with the English language, every child has struggled at one point in their pursuit to communicate.
Of course, medical conditions, such as hearing loss, cleft palate, or brain damage may cause articulation problems but much can be said in the advancement of educational guidance for educators to overcome the disorder. This literature will prove the importance of extra time spend on treatment gives students with an articulation disorder a better chance for overcoming the disorder. This literature review will discuss: 1. articulation disorder 2. articulation disorder studies 3. the use of speech pathologist
By definition, articulation disorder is “The inability to correctly produce speech sounds (phonemes) because of the imprecise placement, timing, pressure, speed, or flow of movement of the lips, tongue, or throat. With an articulation disorder, there is difficulty producing and using age-appropriate speech sounds” (MedicineNet, 2011). Articulation disorder can be characterized as developmental because language is first taught at home NOT at school. When a child with articulation disorder speaks, it is clearly obvious to those around and it can bring down a child’s self-esteem.
Those children characterized by articulation disorder due to incorrect placement of the tongue, lips, teeth, or soft palate during speech are strongly encouraged to seek help with a speech therapist or speech pathologist. Native English-speaking children who are not able to accurately pronounce words after age 7 or 8 may need speech therapy for articulation (Kurtz, 2010). Speaking correctly or “cool” has its complications as well. If a child cannot pronounce words correctly, he will be ridiculed by other students. A good comparison would be bilingual students learning the English language and cannot pronounce words correctly.
The majority of these groups of students are learning English for the first time. These children do not necessarily have a phonological “disorder,” the target sound production errors may be traceable to phonological differences between the child’s native language and the target language being learned (Iglesias, 1993). A child with articulation disorder will say “yeth” instead of yes or replacing the “s” with a “th” sound. Another example would be replacing “w” for “l” or “f” for “th. ” “Traditional thinking has been that some articulation errors are developmental in nature (e. g. , l, r) and that children may not be ready to address them in therapy until a specific age (typically 7 or 8). However, current research has disproved the idea of developmental norms for articulation, and in fact, current best practice involves starting treatment with the more difficult sounds” (Lucker-Lazerson, 2003). Articulation disorder can be characterized as developmental because language is first taught at home NOT at school. Part of my research was conducted in a bilingual class and it was evident most articulation disorders were caused by the student being taught another language other than English.
My son who is 5 years old struggled with the same but with time and instruction he easily was able to pronounce words correctly in both languages. This makes for the case of early intervention. It is important to know when a child has an articulation disorder they must be treated the soonest possible to prevent bad habits from forming. There really isn’t a best method used to determine if an articulation disorder exist but, formative or summative assessment, reading assessment tools, or just plainly listening to students speak are some of the most common.
One study of forty-five children with repaired cleft palates who exhibited Compensatory Articulation disorder (CAD) was studied during a 3 week speech summer camp. The camp would provide therapy for 4 hours per day, 5 days a week and was measured against fort-five children receiving a standard 1 hour speech therapy session twice per week. The results for this particular study provided validity to both approaches but would prove the more time is spent, the better for the child. The test results are as follows:
At the onset of either the summer camp or the speech therapy period, the severity of CAD was evenly distributed with non-significant differences across both groups of patients (p > 0. 05). After the summer camp (3 weeks) or 12 months of speech therapy sessions at a frequency of twice per-week, both groups of patients showed a significant decrease in the severity of their CAD (p < 0. 05). However, when the distribution of the severity of CAD was compared at the end of the summer camp or the speech therapy period, non-significant differences were found between both groups of patients (p > 0. 5) (Pamplona, 2004). Summer camp retreats geared for speech can bring many with the same problems together. This would also eliminate any ridicule from students who do not have articulation problems. I believe this is the best method to give students a chance to learn and have fun doing it. As the summer camp retreats show the progression of treating articulation disorder, another study from the American Speech Language Hearing Association also shows the strong correlation of progression due to more time spent treating the disorder.
Progress in Articulation FCM by Number of Treatment Sessions “The data reveal that nearly three-fourths (74%) of the preschoolers with articulation disorders who received between 12-20 treatment sessions showed functional gains of at least 1 or more Functional Communication Measure (FCM) levels. With these data, you will be able to effectively advocate for additional coverage of speech-language pathology services to children” (American Speech Language Hearing Association, 2011) A speech pathologist or therapist work with people who cannot produce speech sounds or cannot produce them clearly.
This basically means helping a person change the way they sound when they speak or improve their voices. Because of the vast span of different causes of articulation disorder, this literature only addresses a few of the most common. Articulation disorders are congenital, developmental, or acquired. A speech pathologist will use special instruments and qualitative and quantitative assessment methods, including standardized test, to analyze and diagnose the nature and extend of impairments (American Speech Language Hearing Association, 2011).
Speech Language Pathologist, Glenn Weybright’s website brings his work and progression to the world. Mr. Weybright has several we cased studies that range in severity. One case study in particular was with a 5 year-old girl named “Sophie. ” He did an evaluation or oral structures including her palate, tongue, teeth, and lips and made sure these were not the cause. Then he did an assessment of the sounds she was not able to produce correctly. He would work on the sound until it was said correctly at least 100 times before he would go to the next one (Weybright, 2010). Mr.
Weybright stresses that repetition is the key to the success of the students. He uses toys or games to introduce new sounds and words. By reading the other case studies, it seems the more sessions he had with his students the better it went for them. Ironically, Mr. Weybright was a victim of articulation disorder as he had a stuttering problem when he was growing up. In conclusion, this literature gave the insight of the definition of articulation disorder and how it can be caused by a variety of physical or psychological reasons as well as developmental, or acquired.
The case studies also were able to show the importance of practice and timed-sessions to help “grow out” the articulation disorder. The literature also pointed out the importance of speech pathologist and how they find and work the problem out. In all, articulation disorder can be cured or controlled. Those students who are embarrassed or frustrated to speak, have every opportunity to be able to live normal lives and communicate with the world. Bibliography American Speech Language Hearing Association. (2011). Making effective ommunication, a human right, accessable and achievable for all. Retrieved 10 23, 2011, from Examples of NOMS Applications – Health Care: http://www. asha. org/Members/research/NOMS/UsingDataHealth/ Iglesias, A. ;. (1993). Dialectal variation. Articulation and phonological disorders , 147-161. Kurtz, R. (2010). Articulation skills and disorders. Retrieved from speech-language-development. com: www. speach-language-development. com/articulation-skills. html Lucker-Lazerson, N. (2003, 10). The Childhood Apraxia of Speech Association of North America (CASANA.
Retrieved from Apraxia Kids: http://www. apraxia-kids. org/site/apps/nl/content3. asp? c=chKMI0PIIsE;b=788447;ct=464133 MedicineNet. (2011). Definition of articulation disorder. Retrieved from MedicineNet. com: www. medterms. com/script/main/art. asp? articlekey=10750 Pamplona, C. Y. (2004). Speech summer camp for treating articulation disorders in cleft palate patients. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology , 69 (3), 351-359. Weybright, G. (2010, January). Glenn Weybright Speech Pathologist. Retrieved 10 23, 2012, from Glenn Weybright: glennweybright. com