Proteins •made of amino acids •main functions – cell synthesis and repair, energy as needed •examples – soy, beans, legumes, nuts, seeds, animal products (milk, meats, cottage cheese, etc. ) b. Carbohydrates •made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen •main functions – primary energy source, fat and protein metabolism, energy reserves in stored glycogen, blood glucose fuels brain and CNS •examples – starch, sugars (breads, pasta, starchy vegetables, fruit sugars, simple sugars, etc. ) c. Fats •made of fatty acids glycerol •main functions saturated sources (dairy products, meat, margarine, chocolate, coconut oil, etc. ), unsaturated/MUFAs/PUFAs sources (safflower/olive/soybean oils, tuna, salmon, etc. ) 2. The CNS always needs a constant feed of gluclose form the blood because it needs energy much more than any other cells in the body and is unable to used stored gluclose. 3. When the body needs energy and there’s not enough carbs, then the body turns to stored fat for energy. Ketone Bodies are needed for utilizing fat stores for energy. This can be damaging to organs such as the kidneys.

Excess proteins are also damaging to the kidneys. 4. Calorie – is a measure of energy released by food as it is digested by the human body Energy – all activities of the body require energy, and all needs are met by the consumption of food containing energy in chemical form This is misleading because calories ARE the energy. So if the drink is supposed to give you energy, then it has calories in it no matter what the label says. 5. Carbs fats and proteins all contain calories so they all have energy. Part 2 1. Obesity really means having a BMI of 30+.

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Taking more calories in than the body is able to burn will lead to weight gain. Other contributing factors are medical conditions, medications, and emotional issues. 2. The set point theory says that the body has a natural weight that it likes to be and no matter how much physical activity you have or what your diet is, it will always want to revert back to that comfy-spot. The body achieves homeostasis through maintaining a consistent weight. This homeostasis is controlled by individual fat cells and when they get smaller it sends a signal to the brain to eat. 3.

Metabolism is the sum of all chemical reactions that take place in the body and how fast the body utilizes the calories that we put into it. Body weight increases and decreases based on the amount of calories put in and the amount of energy we burn. 4. Increasing muscle mass does increase metabolism because all muscles have a resting energy requirement and more muscle utilizes more energy. 5. A diuretic is any substance that increases the amount of fluid excreted as urine. This can have a negative effect on homeostasis because it can make the fluid that the body actually needs leave too. . Exocrine glands, the liver and the kidneys remove toxins. A toxin is a biological poison. Some toxins are known to be stored in fat cells so it could be true that the more fat we have in our body the more toxic our body may become. 7. Yes, Mitchell has a body image problem.

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More health risks that can result from this are irregular heartbeat, heart failure, gastric rupture in a case of binging, dehydration, tooth decay, irregular bowel movements or constipation, peptic ulcers and pancreatitis. Part 3 1. Carbohydrates are made up of sugars. . Blood carries sugar in its stream for energy. Diabetes is a metabolic disease in which carbohydrate use is reduced and that of lipid and protein enhanced. Caused by a deficiency of insulin or an inability to respond to insulin. More sever cases are known as hyperglycemia, glycosuria, water and electrolyte loss, ketoacidosis, and coma. 3. A low carb diet can cause fatigue and headaches because carbs are an amazing source of energy. Without carbs, you tire more easily and the sugar in your blood is lower causing the headaches.