Bonifacio founded an organization that aimed to liberate the country from the tyranny of the Spaniards, and to secure the independence and freedom of the Philippines, by force of arms. ->1896- start of taking the field against the Spaniards. THE FOUNDING OF KATIPUNAN ->July 7, 1892- Rizal was arrested; that night, Andres Bonifacio, Valentin Diaz, Teodoro Plata, Ladislao Diwa, Deodato Arellano, and other plebeians met and form an association by blood compact and signed their membership with their own blood.
Thus, Kataastaasan, Kagalang-galang na Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan, or simply Katipunan was founded. ->Agreements *recruit by triangle method *payment of one real fuerte entrance fee(25 centavos) *payment of medio real monthly due (about12 centavos) THE KATIPUNAN OBJECTIVES ->Three Fundamental Objectives: *Political – focused in working for the separation of the Philippines from Spain. *Moral – revolved around the teaching of good manners, hygiene, good morals, and attacking obscurantism (policy of withholding knowledge from the general public), religious fanaticism, and weakness of character. Civic – revolved around the principle of self-help and the defense of the poor and the oppressed. THE STRUCTURE OF THE KATIPUNAN ->Three Governing Bodies * Kataastaasang Sanggunian- Supreme Council; highest governing body; composed of a president, a fiscal, a secretary, a treasurer and a comptroller. * Sangguniang Bayan – Provincial Council; had a council similar to Supreme Council. * Sangguniang Balangay- Popular Council; had similar council with the other council. -> the Supreme Court, together with the presidents of two other council, constituted the Katipunan Assembly. > Sangguniang Hukuman- Judicial Council; a court of justice to pass judgment on any member who violated the rules of the society or to mediate between quarreling parties. ->October 1892 – change the triangle method of recruiting. ->An election was held that elected the first S. C. ->February 1893 – deposition of the first S. C. This time, Roman Basa was Supremo. ->Early in 1895 – another election. This time, Bonifacio was the Supremo. ->December 31, 1895- another election of S. C. officers. ->August 1896 – election of the last S. C. before the outbreak of revolution.
KINDS OF MEMBERSHIP (3 Grades) *Katipon- first grade; wore black hood with a triangle of white ribbon with Z. Li. B. sign, meaning Anak ng Bayan (A. ng B. ) which is their password. *Kawal- second grade; wore green hood with a triangle of white lines with Z. Li. B. sign in its angles. They also have a medal with an ancient Tagalog script letter K in the middle. Gom-Bur-Za was their password. *Bayani- wore red mask with white bordered triangle having the K. K. K and Z. Li. B. sign inside of it, and a sash with green borders symbolizing courage and hope. Rizal was their password.
They had been elected as an officer of the society. THE KATIPUNAN CODES ->a system of writing that would make it difficult, if not impossible, for the Spanish authorities to discover the existence of the society. -> the first code – rambled letters of the Spanish alphabet as a counterpart. -> the second code – cipher was in numbers; made by Bonifacio at Balintawak. -> the third code – back to rambled letters; made by Bonifacio and Jacinto. -> the fourth code – rambled letters; agreed by Bonifacio and Jacinto after the Tejeros Convention. FLAGS OF THE KATIPUNAN
With the Katipunan now well organized, Bonifacio turned his attention to the symbol of its authority. The Katipunan (1892-1897) * The first flag of the Katipunan. The three K’s stands for the movements’ full name. This flag was made by Benita Rodriguez with the help of Gregoria de Jesus, Bonifacio’s wife. * A variation on the Katipunero flag. The letters have been arranged to form a triangle, a shape prominent in Philippine revolutionary imagery. * A red rectangular piece of cloth at the center of which was a white sun with an indefinite number of rays. Below the sun were three white K’s arranged horizontally.
Flag used by the Katipunan’s Supremo, Andres Bonifacio. This is the first flag using the sun or liwanag, another image prominent in the revolutionary movement. The Revolutionary Govenment (1897-1899) * General Mariano Llanera’s battle flag. Owing more to freemasonry than to traditional Katipunero imagery, this distincted design was called by Bonifacio as Bungo ni Llanera or Llanera’s Skull. * General Pio del Pilar’s battle flag. Also known as Bandila ng Matagumpay or The Victorious Banner. This flag combines all the prominent elements of Revolutionary imagery: the three K’s, the triangle and the liwanag. General Emilio Aguinaldo’s battle flag. Originally the flag of the Magdalo faction based in Kawit, Cavite, and this flag became the Katipunero standard when Aguinaldo succeeded Bonifacio as Supremo. Featuring the K in alibata script, this flag also set the liwanag’s rays at eight. * The First Filipino national flag. The convention of March 17, 1987 in Naik, Cavite decreed this to be the flag of the Philippine revolutionary government. It essentially replaced the stylized Magdalo Liwanag with a more traditional form of the liwanag. This flag served as the national flag until the Pact of Biyak-na-Bato on December 15, 1897.
KATIPUNAN CELEBRATIONS * February 17 of every year – day of prayer in memory of the GomBurZa. * All popular council on that date were instructed to erect a catafalque, shrouded in black, with torch at each of the four corners and adorned with wreaths made of makabuhay plant, the symbol of immortality. ANDRES BONIFACIO * Founder and organizer of Katipunan; legitimate Father of the Revolution. * Born in Tondo on November 30, 1863. * Son of Santiago Bonifacio and Catalina de Castro; had three brothers and two sisters: Ciriaco, Procopio, Espiridiona, Troadio, and Maxima. He studied the alphabet in a school conducted by a certain Guillermo Osmena of Cebu but was forced to give up schooling when his parents died. * He was employed as a clerk-messenger in the commercial firm of Fleming and Company and later on became the Company’s agent. He sold rattan, tar, and other articles of trade but his earnings were not enough and so he transferred to Fressell and Company. * Fell in love with Monica, whom he later married. The marriage was short-lived for Monica died of leprosy. * In 1892, he met Gregoria de Jesus and they were married at Binondo church.
After being remarried according to the Katipunan rites, Gregoria was initiated into the Women’s Chapter of the Katipunan and chose Lakangbini as her symbolic name. * Is a humble leader and self-effacing leader. * He is overshadowed by Rizal as the national hero, for the reason that, when the Americans came they found in Rizal’s philosophy of education of the masses first before independence a fitting rationalization of their colonial policy: “benevolent assimilation”. EMILIO JACINTO * “Brains of the Katipunan” * Born in Tondo on December 15, 1875. * Son of Mariano Jacinto and Josefa Dizon. He enrolled at San Juan de Letran College and later at the University of Santo Tomas. * He was the youngest member of the Katipunan (18 y. o. ) * His Kartilla or primer for the Katipuneros was adopted by Bonifacio as the official “teachings” of the society. * The editor of the society’s newspaper Kalayaan. THE TEACHINGS OF THE KATIPUNAN * Kartilla- prepared by Emilio Jacinto; from the Spanish cartilla which at the time meant a primer for grade school students. It consisted of thirteen “teachings” which the members of the society were expected to follow. * Bonifacio, in his Katungkulan ng Gagawin ng mga Z.
Ll. B. (The Duties of the Sons of the People), laid down the rules to be followed strictly by all members of the society. The rules constitute a decalogue. THE WOMEN’S CHAPTER OF THE KATIPUNAN * Established in the middle of 1893, soon after his second marriage. * Membership is limited to the wives, daughters, and sisters of the male members. * Prominent women of the community were initiated into the society. Their officers were: Josefa Rizal (President), Gregoria de Jesus (Vice-President), Marina Dizon (Secretary), Angelica Rizal Lopez (Fiscal). THE KATIPUNAN NEWSPAPER KALAYAAN -Name suggested by Dr.
Pio Valenzuela and approved by Jacinto and Bonifacio. -Approximately nine by twelve inches in size. – Two thousand copies were made for the first issue on January 18, 1896. The paper actually came out in mid-March. It was secretly distributed in Manila, Cavite, Morong (Rizal Prov. ), Kalookan, Malabon & other places. -The second issue did not come out. Agreements: * Jacinto be made its editor, but the name of Marcelo H. del Pilar be made a front as the editor. * To fool the Spanish authorities and evade arrest, they agreed to place the name Yokohama on the masthead for the place of printing.
Pen Names Used: Dimas-Ilaw- Jacinto Agap-ito Bagumbayan– Bonifacio Madlang-Away – Valenzuela Articles: * Catuiran by Valenzuela – described the cruelties of the Spanish priest and civil guards of San Francisco del Monte. * Manifesto by Jacinto – urged the Filipinos to revolt against the Spaniards to secure their liberty * Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Bayan (Love of Country) by Bonifacio THE EXPANSION OF THE KATIPUNAN * The publication and distribution of “Kalayaan” Immediately influenced the thinking and feeling of the masses. It awakened the people and encouraged them to join Katipunan. From the founding of the society to January 1, 1896, it did not have more than 300 members, but since the appearance of the Kalayaan the membership had increased to around 30,000. Chapter 10 ThE REVOLUTION: FIRST PHASE RISE TO POWER (Mid 1986) * number of members of the Katipunan is gradually increasing * August 19 – Teodoro Patino exposed the society to Fr. Mariano Gil. * August 23 * (The Cry of Pugadlawin)- declaration of the Katipunan’s intention to fight the Spaniards * At Tejeros, Cavite – Andres Bonifacio is elected as Director of the Interior. decision is questioned by Daniel Tirona and Bonifacio, hurt by the insult, declares the decision null and void. (1987) * April and mid ‘87s * Execution of Andres Bonifacio * Filipinos are slowly losing the war against the Spaniards. * December- Truce of Biyak-na-bato between the rebels and the Spanish Government. However, it was a failure. RIZAL AND THE REVOLUTION (1986) * June 15 * Dr. Pio Valenzuela, who was with Narcissa (Rizal’s sister) and Angelica Rizal Lopez (Rizal’s niece), was commissioned to meet Rizal. * brought with him Raymundo Mata (who needed medical services) to cover his real purpose * June 21 and mid’86s At Dapitan, Dr. Valenzuela tells Rizal his purpose of travelling – as an emissary of Bonifacio * Rizal pointed out that a revolution without sufficient arms should not be started against an armed nation. * Suggested Antonio Luna be appointed to direct military operations for the revolution. * Rizal wasn’t against the revolution itself, only the lack of preparation. PREPARATIONS FOR THE STRUGGLE * Started because of Bonifacio’s orders; concept of self- help * Bolos versus Remingtons and Mausers. * Asks aid from Admiral Kanimura of the Japanese warship Kongo but was turned down. Asks Tito Miguel and Roman Ramos who were working in the Maestranza (weapon arsenal) to steal rifles and pistols. * challenge of gathering and making weapons and hiding from society. WEALTHY FILIPINOS IMPLICATED * Wealthy Filipinos refused to join the Katipunan. * Bonifacio thought that a trick should be played to make it appear that these wealthy Filipinos were deeply involved in the Katipunan. * The Katipuneros were ordered to study their signatures for the purpose of forging them. * Fake letters with the forged signatures of the wealthy victims were made. Luis R. Yangco, Francisco L. Roxas & others – wealthy Filipinos that were used in the trickery of the Katipuneros. They were said to be heavy contributors to the Katipunan fund and they were in sympathy with the principles and plans of the society. * Instead of forcing the wealthy Filipinos to join the society, they denounced and denied any knowledge of its existence. * Francisco L. Roxas was executed by Spanish authorities. * Yangco and others were saved by bribing some highly-placed Spanish officials. THE “CRY” OF THE PUGADLAWIN
As the news of the discovery of the Katipunan spread throughout Manila ang the suburbs, Bonifacio secretly called for a general assembly on August 24. * Andres Bonifacio, Procopio Bonifacio, Emilio Jacinto, Teodoro Plata & Aguedo del Rosario were the first to arrive in Balintawak on Aug. 19 & on the next day, Pio Valenzuela followed. * August 21st – Bonifacio changed the Katipunan code. * Apolonio Samson – a Katipunero who gave food and shelter for the 500 rebels who left Balintawak for Kangkong. * August 22 – The Katipuneros proceeded to Pugadlawin. * August 23 (at Juan A.
Ramos’ yard) – Bonifacio asked his men whether they were prepared to fight to the bitter end and all men assembled (except Teodoro Plata) agreed to fight to the last. * The Katipuneros tore their cedulas to pieces to symbolize their determination to take arms. FIRST SKIRMISHES * Civil guards were about to investigate the mountains where the rebels were, and so Bonifacio ordered his men to prepare at once for the expected attack of the Spaniards. * Since the rebels had inferior arms, they decided to retreat. * August 24 (at Tandang Sora’s yard) – it was decided that a general attack shall commence on the night of August 29, 1986. August 25, 1986 – The first skirmish fought in the struggle for national emancipation. * An unexpected attack by the Spanish civil guards and infantrymen occurred. * The rebels lost two men and one for the enemy. * The rebels decided to retreat because of their inferior weapons and the Spaniards because they were greatly outnumbered. * The intended attack on Manila did not materialize because of insufficient arms. * August 30 – Bonifacio & Jacinto led their men in an attack on the powder magazine at San Juan del Monte; however, they lost the battle against the Spanish troops and were driven back with heavy casualties.
THE REVOLUTION SPREADS * The rebels grew in strength in the south of Manila. * 400 rebels attacked and captured the church of Pandakan. * Pateros, Taguig, Kalookan, Kawit, San Francisco de Malabon, Noveleta, San Pedro Makati and other towns rose as one man and pursued the Spanish enemy. * Bonifacio & his men shifted the rebel attack to San Mateo, Mariquina and Montalban which they captured but were later recaptured by the Spaniards. * The Filipino rebels retreated to Balara as ordered by Bonifacio because of their defeat in the battle of Langka River but the Spanish pursued them and a battle followed. The rebels of San Isidro in the north of Manila attacked furiously but were repulsed by the Spanish defense force on Sep. 2, 3 and 4. * The attacks on the North was led by Mariano Llanera and accompanied by musikong bumbong. REIGN OF TERROR * Worried Spaniards issued a reign of terror. * The Spanish volunteers and corps of vigilantes invaded homes of Filipinos in order to secure evidence against those directly or indirectly involved in the uprising. * In Trozo, Captain Carlos March found incriminating evidence against the Katipuneros. * On March 30, Governor-General Ramon Blanco issued martial law. * Hundreds were arrested and put to jail. Spaniards tortured them: * Hung by the hands and sudden drop to the ground. * Connected electric wires to the feet. * Hung by the hands for long periods of time. * More often, suspects were shot without trial. * September 4 – Four Katipuneros were executed in Luneta. * September 12 – (Los Trece Martires de Cavite) 13 men were executed in Cavite. * January 4, 1897 – “Tweleve Bicol Martyrs” * December 30, 1896-execution of Jose Rizal at Bagumbayan field. THE KATIPUNAN IN CAVITE 2 Factions of the Katipunan: 1. Magdalo – led by Baldomero Aguinaldo at Cavite el Viejo (Kawit) 2. Magdiwang – led by Mariano Alvarez at Noveleta The Magdiwang attacked the Spaniards at Noveleta, shouting “Panahon na! Mabuhay ang Kalayaan! ” * September 5, Emilio Aguinaldo defeated general Aguirre at Imus, the Cavitenos called Aguinaldo; general Miong * Successive defeats led the friars to agitate against governor general Blanco. * December 13, 1896, Blanco was replaced by General Camilio de Polavieja. * December 1896, Bonifacio joined the Magdiwang. Magdalo vs Magdiwang * The Magdalo believed that with the outbreak of the revolution, the Katipunan had ceased to be a secret society and should therefore be superseded by one more in keeping with the demands of the period. The Magdiwang contented that the Katipunan should remain the government of revolutionist. * The argument was not resolved. THE TEJEROS CONVENTION Tejeros – a barrio of San Francisco de Malabon March 22, 1897 – the two factions (namely Magdalo and Magdiwang) were to meet at Tejeros to resolve an internal matter. * Severino de las Alas suggested that a new government should be established to take the place of Katipunan. * Lumbreras sensed that the meeting has become out of order then called the session off to cool everyone and resume in an hour. After the 1 hour break, the session resumed with Bonifacio as chairman. To resolve the matter, Bonifacio pleaded that whoever gets elected in the new government should be respected. After the election got underway, the elected were: Emilio Aguinaldo ………………. President Mariano Trias ……………… Vice President ArtemioRicarte………….. Captain-General Emiliano Riego de Dios….. Director of War Andres Bonifacio…… Director of the Interior * Daniel Tirona – a member of the Magdalo faction; criticized Andres Bonifacio as an elected officer because he didn’t have a lawyer’s diploma, which offended Bonifacio. Tirona broke the agreement that whoever gets elected should be respected, and even offended Bonifacio. So, in Bonifacio’s anger, he then declared, as the President of the Supreme Council of the Katipunan, that whatever had happened in the meeting was void. THE SECOND MEETING AT TEJEROS * March 23 1987 – the day after the meeting Tejeros, the members took their oath of office. * Emilio Aguinaldo, while preparing to fight an enemy at Pasong Santol, was notified that he got elected as President. He then proceeded to Santa Cruz de Malabon with the other members except Bonifacio to take their oath of office. Andres Bonifacio and his men proceeded to Tejeros, drew up a document called the Acta de Tejeros, then proceeded to Naik. * Acta de Tejeros– a document Bonifacio made stating their reasons why the election was invalid, for he was convinced that anomalies were committed during the balloting. * Aguinaldo sent a delegation to Bonifacio to convince him to join the revolutionary fold, but Bonifacio refused otherwise. THE NAIK MILITARY AGREEMENT * Andres Bonifacio and his men then established a government separate from that of at Tejeros. * Among the forty men who signed it were Bonifacio, Artemio Ricarte, Pio del Pilar, and Severino de las Alas. The revolutionists where then split into 2 different entities, which put both units in potential danger on facing a united, well-armed enemy. THE TRIAL AND EXECUTION OF ANDRES BONIFACIO * Bonifacio, his brother, family, and loyal followers then transferred to Limbon, Indang. * Aguinaldo was then informed about the Naik Military Agreement. Realizing their intentions, he then ordered the arrest of the Bonifacio brothers. * Originally, Aguinaldo’s orders were changed from death sentence to banishment. Instead, because of the pressure the other officers put on him to take back his orders, he gave in and declared the penalty as death sentence. May 10 – Major LazardoMakapagal was ordered to bring out and execute the Bonifacio brothers on Mount Tala. THE REVOLUTION CONTINUES * General Camilo de Polavieja, – tired of endless battles, asked for his relief as governor-general. * April 15, 1897 – request was granted and Polaveja sailed home for Spain. * Fernando Primo de Rivera * Former governor-general of the Philippines and replaced Polaveja. * Arrived in Manila on April 23. Interventions made by Primo de Rivera: * Issued a decree granting pardon to those who, up to May 17, would give up their arms and surrender to the government. With almost all of Cavite in the hands of Spaniards, Rivera issued another decree extending the benefit of his pardon beyond May 17. * Aguinaldo continued to resist and had established his headquarters in Talisay, Batangas * In the hope of capturing Aguinaldo, Spaniards had surrounded the area however in June 10, Aguinaldo and his men slipped through the defenses and proceeded to Morong (Rizal) * With 500 picked men, Aguinaldo crossed Pasig to Malapad na Bato, near Guadalupe, and from here he secretly passed through San Juan del Monte and Montalban and on to Mount Puray.
After resting, they proceeded to Biyak-na-Bato, San Migual Mayumo in Bulacan, where he established his headquarters. GOVERNMENT OF CENTRAL LUZON * News of Aguinaldo’s arrival at Biyak-na-Bato renewed the armed resistance against the enemy in the towns of Central Luzon. * Meanwhile at Puray, the rebels met at General Licerio Geronimo’s camp and established the Departmental Government of Central Luzon. (Manila, Morong, Bulacan, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Tarlac, and Pangasinan)
THE BIYAK-NA- BATO REPUBLIC * was the first republic ever declared in the Philippines by Emilio Aguinaldo * constitution of this republic was prepared by Felix Ferrer and IsabeloArtacho who copied, almost word for word, the Cuban Constitution * Aguinaldo issued a proclamation in July entitled “To the Brave Sons of the Philippines” it demands: 1. Expulsion of friars and the return to the Filipinos of the lands they appropriated for themselves. . Representation in the Spanish Cotes 3. Freedom of the press and tolerance of all religious sects 4. Equal treatment and pay for peninsular and insular civil servants 5. Abolition of power of the government to banish citizens 6. Legal equality for all persons THE TRUCE OF BIAK-NA-BATO – Pedro Paterno, a mestizo, acted as mediator between the Filipinos and the Spaniards – On November 18, the Truce of Biak-Na-Bato was signed.
The Truce provided: * Aguinaldo and his companions would go into voluntary exile abroad * Primo Rivera would pay P800,000 to the rebels in three installments: (a) P400,000 to Aguinaldo upon his departure (b) P200,000 when the arms surrendered by revolutionists exceeded 700, and the remaining when the Te Deum was sung and general amnesty proclaimed by the governor * That Primo Rivera would pay an additional P900,000 to the families of the non-combatant Filipinos who suffered during the armed conflict FAILURE OF THE TRUCE Filipinos and Spaniards never truly did trust one another. * Periodic clashes still continued despite the existence of the Truce. * General Francisco Makabulos of Tarlac, established the Central Executive Committee which was intended to be a provisional one “until a general government of the Republic in these islands shall again be established. ” * Constitution of Makabulos. * Mutual suspicion eventually led to the resurgence of revolution.