### Ghost Writing Essays

Your Answer: a) The report of a pilot study. Correct Answer: d) The listing of all units in the population from which the sample will be selected. Feedback: It is important to identify a sampling frame so that a representative sample can then be taken from within a specified unit. Question 2 How will a researcher usually prevent a significant sampling error? Your Answer: b) Issue questionnaires to the entire sampling frame. Correct Answer: d) Use probability sampling. Feedback: Probability sampling allows the researcher to apply tests of statistical significance which then allow inferences to be made about the overall sampling frame.

Question 3 If an organisation has 12,000 employees and the researcher is able to interview 250 the probability of inclusion in the sample is? Your Answer: a) 1 in 96. Correct Answer: c) 1 in 48. Feedback: Simple random sampling assumes that each member of the population has an equal probability of inclusion in the sample. The probability is calculated via a sampling fraction with the total population being divided by the sample size. Question 4 If a researcher wishes to obtain a nationally representative sample of trade union members but does not have the resources to travel long distances what method of sampling could they use?

Your Answer: a) Stratified random sampling. Correct Answer: b) Multi-stage cluster sampling. Feedback: Multi-stage cluster sampling allows interviewers to concentrate their research more than simple random or stratified sampling. Question 5 Which of the following is not something a researcher will have to consider when thinking about their sample size? Your Answer: a) Time and cost. Correct Answer: c) Length of questionnaire. Feedback: In general bigger is better when considering sample size however all researchers need to be aware of the limitations of their resources. Question 6

Which of the following is an example of convenience sampling? Your Answer: b) A random sample of employees who are absent from work through stress. Correct Answer: c) Managers attending a seminar on corporate social responsibility organised by the researcher. Feedback: It is possible that the researcher could take the opportunity of issuing a questionnaire to these managers whilst they are at the seminar. It is unlikely that the researcher will come across the other options in as convenient a manner. Question 7 Which of the following is not a benefit of snowball sampling? Your Answer: b) It is always representative of the population.

Feedback: Snowball sampling is unlikely to be representative of the population because of the difficulty in establishing a sampling frame. The sampling frames that apply when snowball sampling is relevant are usually fluid and constantly shifting. Question 8 Quota sampling is used intensively in which type of research? Your Answer: d) Ethnographic research. Correct Answer: a) Market research. Feedback: Commercial research and political opinion polling are other types of research that use quota sampling. Question 9 The findings from a study of decision making processes within a UK financial services company can be generalized to:

Your Answer: d) none of the above. Correct Answer: c) decision making processes in the researched companies. Feedback: Business and management researchers should be cautious of overgeneralizing findings beyond the researched organisation to alternative cultures. Question 10 As part of survey research design the sample was selected by the HR manager. What sort of error could this lead to? Your Answer: d) Data processing error. Correct Answer: a) Sampling error. Feedback: The choices made by the HR manager may have been non-random and could also have reflected a bias on the part of the individual making the choices

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