Management approaches Andrew Vasylenko Scientific advisor – Senior teacher Hvan A. V. Poltava University of Economics and Trade Management in all business areas and organizational activities are the acts of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources.
Because organizations can be viewed as systems, management can also be defined as human action, including design, to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system. There are 6 management approaches, such as: The classical approach The human resource approach The quantitative approach The process approach The contingency approach The system approach 1. Frederick Taylor and Henri Fayol were both theorists of the classical management movement. The classical approach was the framework to what management is all about. Therefore it can be said that they laid the foundation for many theorists.
Frederick Taylor was an important theorist of the early 20th century and he made many important contributions to management. He proposed the principles of scientific management which he believed would improve industrial efficiency. He believed management could be formulated as a discipline. Taylor’s principles of scientific management focused on cooperation between management and the workers as well as improving the technical skills of the workers. His approach is often referred to scientific management, Taylorism or Taylor’s principles. Fayol’s uggested that there were five main roles of managers, these being planning, organising, commanding, coordinating and controlling. 2. The Human Resources Management function includes a variety of activities, and key among them is deciding what staffing needs you have and whether to use independent contractors or hire employees to fill these needs, recruiting and training the best employees, ensuring they are high performers, dealing with performance issues, and ensuring your personnel and management practices conform to various regulations.
Activities also include managing your approach to employee benefits and compensation, employee records and personnel policies. 3. Quantitative Management (also known as Operations Research) offers a systematic and scientific approach to problem solving and decision making in complex environments and situations of uncertainty and conflict. The discipline is characterised by a search for an optimal (best) answer for a problem by using quantitative (numerical) models. The use of mathematical models enables a decision maker to bett er understand the problems facing him/her and provides a tool for making informed and reasoned judgements.
It can be applied in many areas: manufacturing, businesses management, banking, environmental planning, mining, housing and engineering projects, management consultancy – in fact, in every situation where numerical data are available and management or decision making takes place. 4. The process approach is a management strategy. When managers use a process approach, it means that they manage the processes that make up their organization, the interaction between these processes, and the inputs and outputs that glue these processes together. There are 12 typrs of processes: 1.
Quality Management Process 2. Resource Management Process 3. Training and Awareness Process 4. Product Purchasing Process 5. Design and Development Process 6. Production Management Process 7. Service Provision Process 8. Product Management Process 9. Customer Relationship Management Process 10. Internal Quality Management Audit Process 11. Monitoring and Measuring Process 12. Management Review Process 5. The contingency approach believes that it is impossible to select one way of managing that works best in all situations like promoted by Taylor.
Their approach is to identify the conditions of a task (scientific management school), managerial job (administrative management school) and person (human relations school) as parts of a complete management situation and attempt to integrate them all into a solution which is most appropriate for a specific circumstance. Contingency refers to the immediate (contingent or touching) circumstances. The manager has to systematically try to identify which technique or approach will be the best solution for a problem which exists in a particular circumstance or context.
An example of this is the never ending problem of increasing productivity. The different experts would offer the following solutions: Behavioral scientist: create a climate which is psychologically motivating; Classical management approach: create a new incentive scheme; Contingency approach: both ideas are viable and it depends on the possible fit of each solution with the goals, structure and resources of the organization. 6. Applying the principle of system approach to management typically leads to: – Structuring a system to achieve the organization’s objectives in the most effective and efficient way. Understanding the interdependencies between the processes of the system. – Structured approaches that harmonize and integrate processes. – Providing a better understanding of the roles and responsibilities necessary for achieving common objectives and thereby reducing cross-functional barriers. – Understanding organizational capabilities and establishing resource constraints prior to action. – Targeting and defining how specific activities within a system should operate. – Continually improving the system through measurement and evaluation.