A RESARCH REPORT ON 360 DEGREE PERFORMANCE APPRISAL Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the two-year full time Post Graduate Diploma in Management Submitted to : Submitted by : Mr. VIVEK KAWTERA Jitendra Kumar DVSIM (P. G. D. M. 4th Sem. ) CONTENTS • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT • INTRODUCTION OF DABUR a. Organization • HISTORY OF THE DABUR a. Board of director b. Management committee c. Business policy • PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL a. Objective of performance appraisal . Definition • RESEARCH METHODOLOGY a. Research objective b. Research design c. collection of data d. tools of analysis • DATA ANALYSIS • FINDINGS • CONCLUSION • SUGGESTIONS • QUESTIONNAIRE • BIBLIOGRAPHY DECLARATION I JITENDRA KUMAR student of P. G. D. M IV Sem from DEWAN V. S INSTITUTE OF MANAGMENT, Meerut. Here by declares that the project report titled “360o PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL” at “DABUR” is completed and submitted under the valuable guidance of “Mr. VIVEK KAWTERA” it is my original work. Date………………. Jitendra kumar P. G. D. M (IV Sem) Roll No. – 02024 ACKNOLWEDGEMENT
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Presenting a Summer Training project of this type is an arduous task, demanding a lot of time. I cannot in full measure appreciate and acknowledgement the kindness shown and help extended by various persons in this endeavor. I will remember all of them with gratitude. I must, however, especially Render & My special sincere thanks towards MR. VIVEK KAWTERA (Faculty, Management. H. R)”, for giving me a chance to take this project and for his valuable guidance, which helped me on all those points, which I needed to include in, with full intensity.
I am really appreciative this organization (Dabur, including all employees) for full co-operation, support and motivation that they extended to me in completing my project here. I am always beholden to my God, for always being with me and showing me the right ways, my family, for always doing favors to me and my friends and colleagues consistently helped with encouragement and criticism throughout the project work, for always lifting my sights to higher vision, raising my personality beyond normal limitation and for realizing me my strengths and potential, as I did not always welcome her exhortation, “try again; you can do better. But this project owes a great deal to it – and so do I. JITENDRA KUMAR PREFACE PREFACE Today an organization’s profitability and growth depends on people. In the past, most industrial managers have directed a great deal of attention to the management of an organization’s physical resources. The emphasis on physical resources in understandable since these factors are tangible and relatively easy to control. Thus, they lend themselves to the general rules and principles of management. On the other hand, people the human resources of an organization, tend to be less easy to control, more unpredictable and less understandable.
The management of people is not subject to irrefutable laws. Human resource system is a much more dynamic concept than the technical personnel function in an organization. It has multiple functions. Not only does it deal with the problems of administering the personnel function but it help the organization in several other ways. Its various functions can be categorized as: • Providing support to other systems. • Development of system and research. • Management of human resource. • Developing competencies of various kins. • Catering the process needs. HR department is a very vital department of the organization.
This department deals with the preparation of personnel statement of the organization and act as a controller of all the activities related to personnel. I hope my work would be helpful for Dabur to reengineer various management challenges & issues. HISTORY OF COMPANY [pic] HISTORY OF COMPANY Milestones to success Dabur India Ltd. made its beginnings with a small pharmacy, but has continued to learn and grow to a commanding status in the industry. The Company has gone a long way in popularizing and making easily available a whole range of products based on the traditional science of Ayurveda.
And it has set very high standards in developing products and processes that meet stringent quality norms. As it grows even further, Dabur will continue to mark up on major milestones along the way, setting the road for others to follow. [pic]1884 – Established by Dr. S K Burman at Kolkata [pic]1896 – First production unit established at Garhia 1919 – First R&D unit established Early 1900s – Production of Ayurvedic medicines Dabur identifies nature-based Ayurvedic medicines as its area of specializations.
It is the first Company to provide health care through scientifically tested and automated production of formulations based on our traditional science. 1930 – Automation and upgradation of Ayurvedic products manufacturing initiated 1936 – Dabur (Dr. S K Burman) Pvt. Ltd. Incorporated 1940 – Personal care through Ayurveda Dabur introduces Indian consumers to personal care through Ayurveda, with the launch of Dabur Amla Hair Oil. So popular is the product that it becomes the largest selling hair oil brand in India. 1949 – Launched Dabur Chyawanprash in tin pack Widening the popularity and usage of traditional Ayurvedic products continues.
The ancient restorative Chyawanprash is launched in packaged form, and becomes the first branded Chyawanprash in India. 1957 – Computerisation of operations initiated 1970 – Entered Oral Care & Digestives segment Addressing rural markets where homemade oral care is more popular than multinational brands, Dabur introduces Lal Dant Manjan. With this a conveniently packaged herbal toothpowder is made available at affordable costs to the masses. 1972 – Shifts base to Delhi from Calcutta 1978 – Launches Hajmola tablet Dabur continues to make innovative products based on traditional formulations that can provide holistic care in our daily life.
An Ayurvedic medicine used as a digestive aid is branded and launched as the popular Hajmola tablet. 1979 – Dabur Research Foundation set up 1979 – Commercial production starts at Sahibabad, the most modern herbal medicines plant at that time 1984 – Dabur completes 100 years 1988 – Launches pharmaceutical medicines 1989 – Care with fun The Ayurvedic digestive formulation is converted into a children’s fun product with the launch of Hajmola Candy. In an innovative move, a curative product is converted to a confectionary item for wider usage. 994 – Comes out with first public issue 1994 – Enters oncology segment 1994 – Leadership in health care Dabur establishes its leadership in health care as one of only two companies worldwide to launch the anti-cancer drug Intaxel (Paclitaxel). Dabur Research Foundation develops an eco-friendly process to extract the drug from its plant source 1996 – Enters foods business with the launch of Real Fruit Juice 1996 – Real blitzkrieg Dabur captures the imagination of young Indian consumers with the launch of Real Fruit Juices – a new concept in the Indian foods market.
The first local brand of 100% pure natural fruit juices made to international standards, Real becomes the fastest growing and largest selling brand in the country. 1998 – Burman family hands over management of the company to professionals 2000 – The 1,000 crore mark Dabur establishes its market leadership status by staging a turnover of Rs. 1, 000 crores. Across a span of over a 100 years, Dabur has grown from a small beginning based on traditional health care. To a commanding position amongst an august league of large corporate businesses. 001 – Super specialty drugs with the setting up of Dabur Oncology’s sterile cytotoxic facility, the Company gains entry into the highly specialized area of cancer therapy. The state-of-the-art plant and laboratory in the UK have approval from the MCA of UK. They follow FDA guidelines for production of drugs specifically for European and American markets. 2002 – Dabur record sales of Rs 1163. 19 crore on a net profit of Rs 64. 4 crore 2003 – Dabur demerges Pharmaceuticals business MAINTAINING GLOBAL STANDARDS
As a reflection of its constant efforts at achieving superior quality standards, Dabur became the first Ayurvedic products company to get ISO 9002 certification. SCIENCE FOR NATURE Reinforcing its commitment to nature and its conservation, Dabur Nepal, a subsidiary of Dabur India, has set up fully automated greenhouses in Nepal. This scientific landmark helps to produce saplings of rare medicinal plants that are under threat of extinction due to ecological degradation. COMPANY PROFILE COMPANY PROFILE “WHAT IS LIFE WORTH WHICH CAN NOT BRING COMFORT TO OTHERS” Dr. S. K.
Burman lays the foundation of what is today known as Dabur India Limited. Starting from a small shop in Calcutta, he began a direct mailing system to send his medicines to even the smallest of village in Bengal. The brand name is derived from the words ‘Da’for Daktar or doctor and ‘bur’from Burman. The principal activies of the group are manufacturing of natural/herbal and ayurvedic product, healthcare and food product and pharmaceuticals. The Group export its products to middle-east and other countries which accounted for 9% of sale . Consumer goods accounted for 70% of 2002 gross revenues;
Pharmaceuticals products,12%;Food products,6% Ayurvedic products,6%; and other ,6%. The founder SK BURMAN was a physician of par excellence who brought ayurvedic medicines to the ailing masses of Bengal. Dabur commenced operation in 1884 and is today a multinational multi-product enterprise. The company has major interest in health and beauty care. Dabur is a leader in ayurveda, the traditional Indian health care system. The company manufacturers and markets a range of oncologicals. Dabur is one of the few companies in the world to produce paclitaxel-an anti cancer drug.
The company has 12 manufacturing plants in India, Nepal and Egypt. Dabur products are also manufactured in Dubai. It has a transactional network of 19 offices serving both rural and urban markets in India. The company has sales and marketing offices in Dubai and London. Dabur Products are available over 50 countries. It has collaborated with leaders in their fields to set up joint ventures in India. The joint ventures are with Agrolimen of Spain, general Deconfeteria India ltd. , manufactures confectioneries. Dabur International ltd. the joint venture with Bongrain of France, will manufacture specialty cheese. Dabur has collaborated with Osem of Israel to manufacture bakery specialties & other food products. DABUR RESEARCH FOUNDATION Incorporated in 1979, Dabur RESEARCH Foundation (DRF) is a premier research organization. It is possibly the only one of its kind in the country carrying out research in divergent field like Ayurvedic Herbal products, plant derived medicines allopathic, bulk drugs, foods, cosmetics, oil & fats, as well as basic research bin the field of Pharmaceuticals DABUR FINANCE LIMITED
Dabur finance ltd. is a well diversified non-banking finance company offering a full array of commercial finance & services. It focuses on transparency, commitment and high quality. Set up in 1992, DFL derives its skills and belief from its parent from its parent organization, Dabur India ltd. It is involved in issue management, portfolio management, leasing and finance. ECO FRIENDLY DABUR Dabur is committed to maintain the ecological balance. The company’s afforestation programs at planting medical herbs, plants and trees in the Himalayan range.
Extending into Nepal this exercise is actively supported by an in-house tissue culture programs. ] CORPORATE OBJECTIVE Corporate goals for the next four years. This journey has been called the STARS PROGRAMME. The specific goals are: – Sales turnover of Rs. 2000 crs. In 2005-06. – Profit after tax Rs. 133 crs. In 2005-06. – MAC (Most admired FMCG Company) within the top 5. QUALITY POLICY The management is fully committed to quality and ensures all resources to accomplish this task. QUALITY OBJECTIVES THE COMPANY’S QUALITY OBJECTIVES ARE AS FOLLOWS: To focus on its customers and successfully meet their needs and requirements. – To manufacture effective health care products at competitive prices and to improve the quality of life of the common masses. – To implement system to ensure prevention of errors rather than detection of errors. – To ensure global competitiveness by striving to achieve Current Good Manufacturing Practices (CGMP). – To ensure safety in all operations by working according to the systems in all areas of operations. – To provide appropriate training to improve their skills and expertise. To increase productivity and reduce wastage within the organisatio [pic] DABUR INDIA LTD. • Market capital- Rs. 2615 crores. • Sales – Rs. 918. 3 crores, up by 12. 9%. • Net profit- Rs. 50. 1 crores, up by 15. 1%. • Equity (2004-05)- Rs. 28. 5 crores. • Earning Per Share- Rs. 25. 3. • All India Rank-40th (Business Today) – 7th in FMCG companies. Spending on Advertising & Marketing: • Total expenditure- Rs. 114. 12 crores (2005-06). • This is a change of 65. 39% over the previous year. • All India rank- 4th in spending on advertisement. • Ad/Sales- 12. 43% (2005-06). PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
OBJECTIVE OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL A good 360 degree Performance appraisal has following objectives: – ? Helps employee overcome his weakness & improve on his strengths & thus enable him to improve his performance & that of the organization. ? Generate adequate feedback & guidelines form the reporting officers to the employees. ? Contribution to the growth & development of the employee by helping him in realistic goal setting. ? Helps in creating a desirable culture & traditions in the organization. ? Helps identifying employees for the purpose of motivating, training & developing them. Generates significant, relevant, free & valid information about employees. ? Thus, a good 360 degree Performance appraisal & review system should primarily focus on employee development. DEFINED Performance appraisal… • Measuring, • Evaluating, and • Influencing an employee’s job-related attributes, behaviors and outcomes. Historically, 360 degree Performance appraisal was linked to material outcomes with the assumption that a cut in pay, or a rise, should provide the required impetus for an employee to either improve or continue to perform well. … structured appraisal system is more likely to be lawful, fair, defensible, valid and reliable 360 degree Performance appraisal a structured and formal interaction between a subordinate and his/her supervisor Let’s begin our discussion of 360 degree Performance appraisal by defining the concept. 360 degree Performance appraisal is a formal system of measuring, evaluating, and influencing an employee’s job-related attributes, behaviors and outcomes. The objective is to to determine how productive an employee is and/or to determine if an employee’s productivity can be improved.
As such, performance appraisals serve an important purpose in managing people and meeting company goals. The tendency to make judgments about oneself or about people one is working with, appears to be both inevitable and universal. However, without a carefully structured system of appraisal and evaluation, people will judge the performance of coworkers — subordinates, superiors, and peers — arbitrarily and informally. This tendency to judge, without a systematic procedure, has the potential to create serious motivational, ethical and legal problems within the firm.
On the other hand, a structured appraisal system is more likely to be lawful, fair, defensible, valid and reliable. What is the role of performance appraisal? Performance appraisals tells subordinates how they are doing, and suggesting needed changes in behaviors, attitudes, skills, or job knowledge. Effective appraisal systems provide both evaluation and feedback. The main aim of the evaluation is to identify performance gaps. Feedback is necessary to inform employee about those performance gaps. One of the functions of performance appraisals is to ensure that people are accountable for their organization. 60 degree feedback, also known as ‘multi-rater feedback’, is the most comprehensive appraisal where the feedback about the employees’ performance comes from all the sources that come in contact with the employee on his job. 360 degree respondents for an employee can be his/her peers, managers (i. e. superior), subordinates, team members, customers, suppliers/ vendors – anyone who comes into contact with the employee and can provide valuable insights and information or feedback regarding the “on-the-job” performance of the employee. 360 degree appraisal has four integral components: . Self appraisal 2. Superior’s appraisal 3. Subordinate’s appraisal 4. Peer appraisal. Self appraisal gives a chance to the employee to look at his/her strengths and weaknesses, his achievements, and judge his own performance. Superior’s appraisal forms the traditional part of the 360 degree appraisal where the employees’ responsibilities and actual performance is rated by the superior. Subordinates appraisal gives a chance to judge the employee on the parameters like communication and motivating abilities, superior’s ability to delegate the work, leadership qualities etc.
Also known as internal customers, the correct feedback given by peers can help to find employees’ abilities to work in a team, co-operation and sensitivity towards others. Self assessment is an indispensable part of 360 degree appraisals and therefore 360 degree Performance appraisal have high employee involvement and also have the strongest impact on behavior and performance. It provides a “360-degree review” of the employees’ performance and is considered to be one of the most credible performance appraisal methods. 60 degree appraisal is also a powerful developmental tool because when conducted at regular intervals (say yearly) it helps to keep a track of the changes others’ perceptions about the employees. A 360 degree appraisal is generally found more suitable for the managers as it helps to assess their leadership and managing styles. This technique is being effectively used across the globe for performance appraisals. Some of the organizations following it are Wipro, Infosys, and Reliance Industries etc.
Self appraisal is an important part of the Performance appraisal process where the employee himself gives the feedback or his views and points regarding his performance. Usually this is done with the help of a self appraisal form where the employee rates himself on various parameters, tells about his training needs, if any, talks about his accomplishments, strengths, weaknesses, problems faced etc. TIPS FOR SELF – APPRAISAL • Be honest Always be truthful and honest while telling your accomplishments or failures. Don’t exaggerate your strengths and don’t hide your weaknesses. Don’t make personal judgments for anybody. Do the preparation It’s always better to prepare yourself before the meeting. Get all the lists in place, prepare all the evidences and references. • Be objective Objectivity is important in self – appraisal. Don’t exaggerate or downplay your achievements or failures. Be specific and concise in your statements and if possible support them with examples or references or evidences with dates. For example: “I responded to all queries within 48 hours” is better than just saying “My customer service was good. ” • Positive attitude Have a positive attitude towards the whole appraisal process. Be co-operative.
Don’t hesitate from taking the responsibility of your failures as well as the achievements. Demonstrate enthusiasm to improve in future and take all his suggestions calmly. Don’t complain or demonstrate a negative attitude. • Cover all the aspects Apart from your strengths, weaknesses, accomplishments and failures, express the opportunities you would like have for your development and improvement. Suggest ways to overcome the problems faced. Assess your capabilities, behaviours and skills and competence. • Seek future responsibilities According to the assessment of the KSA’s according to your job escription, plan the short term and long term for the next year. Try to look for tasks beyond your current job responsibilities. This will help in personal development as well as contributing to the organizational productivity. Self appraisal should ideally include the accomplishments, the goals achieved, the failures, and the personal growth (i. e. new skills acquired, preparation for the future etc. ), the obstacles faced during the period, the efforts for removing them, the suggestions, and the areas of training and development felt by the employee. People are one of a company’s most valuable assets.
While most assets depreciate over time, people, viewed as assets, may actually appreciate. One of the manager’s major responsibilities is to improve and update the knowledge and skills of employees — appreciation of assets. 360 degree Performance appraisal plays a significant role as a tool and technique of organizational development and growth. In essence, effective appraisal systems provide both evaluation and feedback. The main aim of the evaluation is to identify performance gaps — when performance does not meet the organizational standards — whereas feedback is necessary to inform employee about those performance gaps.
From the employee’s perspective, 360 degree Performance appraisal informs them about what is required of them in order to do their jobs, it tells them how well they have achieved those objectives and helps them take corrective action to improve their performance, and, finally, it may reward them for meeting the required standards. The firm, on the other hand, needs a 360 degree Performance appraisal system in order to establish principles of managerial accountability. Clearly, where employees are given responsibilities and duties, they need to be held accountable.
One of the functions of performance appraisals is to ensure that people are accountable for their organizational responsibilities. Perhaps the most significant benefit of performance appraisals is the opportunities they provide supervisors and subordinates to have one-on-one discussions of important work issues. During appraisals, subordinates and supervisors can focus on work activities and goals, identify and correct existing problems, and encourage better future performance. 360 degree Performance appraisal and Motivation
Motivational research has recognized the power of recognition as an incentive (see Maslow and the Expectancy Theory of Motivation). Performance appraisals provide employees with recognition for their work efforts. The appraisal system provides the supervisor with an opportunity to indicate to employees that the organization is interested in their performance and development. This recognition can have a positive motivational influence on the individual’s sense of worth, commitment and belonging. 360 degree Performance appraisal and Training and Development Performance appraisals identify performance gaps.
As such, they provide an excellent opportunity for a supervisor and subordinate to recognize and agree upon individual training and development needs. 360 degree Performance appraisal discussion may identify the presence or absence of work skills. Further, the need for training can be made more relevant if attaining the requisite job skills is clearly linked to performance outcomes. Consolidated appraisal data can also help form a picture of the overall organizational training requirements. 360 degree Performance appraisal and Recruitment Recruitment and selection procedures need to be evaluated.
Appraisal data can be used to monitor the success of a firm’s recruitment and selection practices. From this data, the firm can determine how well employees who were hired in the past are performing. 360 degree Performance appraisal and Employee Evaluation Employee evaluation is a major objective of performance appraisal. Given the major functions of management — planning, organizing, leading and controlling it is clear that evaluations (controlling) need to be done. At its most basic level, 360 degree Performance appraisal is the process of examining and evaluating the performance of employees.
However, the need to evaluate is also a source of tension, as evaluative and developmental priorities appear to clash. Some management experts have argued that appraisal cannot serve the needs of evaluation and development at the same time. Reasons for 360 degree Performance appraisal Failures Where 360 degree Performance appraisal fails to work as well as it should, lack of support from the top levels of management is often cited as a major contributing reason. Opposition may be based on political motives, or more simply, on ignorance or disbelief in the effectiveness of the appraisal process.
It is crucial that top management believe in the value of appraisal and expresses their visible commitment to it. Top managers are powerful role models for other managers and employees. Those attempting to introduce performance appraisal, or even to reform an existing system, must be acutely aware of the importance of political issues and symbolism in the success of such projects. Fear of Failure There is a stubborn suspicion among many appraisers that a poor appraisal result tends to reflect badly upon them also, since they are usually the employee’s supervisor.
Many appraisers have a vested interest in making their subordinates “look good” on paper. When this problem exists (and it can be found in many organizations), it may point to a problem in the organization culture. The cause may be a culture that is intolerant of failure. In other words, appraisers may fear the possibility of repercussions – both for themselves and the appraisee. That accuracy in 360 degree Performance appraisal is impossible to achieve, since people play social and political games, and they protect their own interests. No savvy manager… ” says Longenecker, “… is going to use the appraisal process to shoot himself or herself in the foot. ” No matter what safeguards are in place, “… when you turn managers loose in the real world, they consciously fudge the numbers. ” What Longenecker is saying is that appraisers will, for all sorts of reasons, deliberately distort the evaluations that they give to employees. Indeed, surveys have shown that not only do many managers admit to a little fudging, they actually defend it as a tactic necessary for effective management.
The fudging motives of appraisers have, at times, a certain plausibility. For instance, a supervisor who has given an overly generous appraisal to a marginal performer might claim that their “legitimate” motive was the hope of encouraging a better performance. On the other hand, fudging motives can a lot less admirable and sometimes devious: the appraiser who fudges to avoid the possibility of an unpleasant confrontation, the appraiser who fudges to hide employee difficulties from senior managers, the appraiser who fudges in order to punish or reward employees. Judgment Aversion
Many people have a natural reluctance to “play judge” and create a permanent record, which may affect an employee’s future career. This is the case especially where there may be a need to make negative appraisal remarks. Training in the techniques of constructive evaluation (such as self-auditing) may help. Appraisers need to recognize that problems left unchecked could ultimately cause more harm to an employee’s career than early detection and correction. Organizations might consider the confidential archiving of appraisal records more than, say, three years old.
Employee Participation Employees should participate with their supervisors in the creation of their own performance goals and development plans. Mutual agreement is a key to success. A plan wherein the employee feels some degree of ownership is more likely to be accepted than one that is imposed. This does not mean that employees do not desire guidance from their supervisor; indeed they very much do. Performance Management One of the most common mistakes in the practice of 360 degree Performance appraisal is to perceive appraisal as an isolated event rather than an ongoing process.
Employees generally require more feedback, and more frequently, than can be provided in an annual appraisal. While it may not be necessary to conduct full appraisal sessions more than once or twice a year, performance management should be viewed as an ongoing process. Frequent mini-appraisals and feedback sessions will help ensure that employees receive the ongoing guidance, support and encouragement they need. Of course many supervisors complain they don’t have the time to provide this sort of ongoing feedback. This is hardly likely.
What supervisors really mean when they say this is that the supervision and development of subordinates is not as high a priority as certain other tasks. In this case, the organization may need to review the priorities and values that it has instilled in its supervisory ranks. After all, supervisors who haven’t got time to monitor and facilitate the performance of their subordinates are like chefs who haven’t got time to cook, or dentists who are too busy to look at teeth. It just doesn’t make sense. If appraisal is viewed as an isolated event, it is only natural that supervisors will come to view their responsibilities in the same way.
Just as worrying, employees may come to see their own effort and commitment levels as something that needs a bit of a polish up in the month or two preceding appraisals. 360 degree Performance appraisal Bias Effects Gabris & Mitchell have reported a disruptive bias in 360 degree Performance appraisal known as the Matthew Effect. It is named after the Matthew of biblical fame who wrote, “To him who has shall be given, and he shall have abundance: but from him who does not have, even that which he has shall be taken away. In performance appraisal, the Matthew Effect is said to occur where employees tend to keep receiving the same appraisal results, year in and year out. That is, their appraisal results tend to become self-fulfilling: if they have done well, they will continue to do well; if they have done poorly, they will continue to do poorly. He Matthew Effect suggests that no matter how hard an employee strives, there past appraisal records will prejudice their future attempts to improve. There is other research to support the theory that poor performers might not be given a fair chance to improve.
A study of supervisors in nearly 40 different organizations found that subordinates tend to be divided into two groups: in-groupers and out-groupers. This study, by Heneman, Green Berger & Anon you (1989) reported that in groupers are subordinates who seem to be favored by their supervisors. In their relationship with the boss, they enjoy “a high degree of trust, interaction, support and rewards. ” On the other hand, out groupers don’t do as well. They appear to be permanently out of favor and are likely to bear the brunt of supervisory distrust and criticism.
The effect is therefore similar to the horns and halo effect; supervisors tend to judge employees as either good or bad, and then seek evidence that supports that opinion. It was found that when an in grouper did poorly on a task, supervisors tended to overlook the failure or attribute to causes such as bad luck or bad timing; when they did well, their success was attributed to effort and ability. But when an out grouper performed well, it was rarely attributed to their effort or ability. And when an out grouper performed poorly, there was little hesitation it citing the cause as laziness or incompetence.
It is not clear how supervisors come to make the distinction between in groupers and out groupers. Whatever the criteria, however, it is clearly not objective, equitable or reliable. This bias must inevitably lead to a distortion of the appraisal process. It must also be a source of frustration for those employees who are discriminated against. Success. A plan wherein the employee feels some degree of ownership is more likely to be accepted than one that is imposed. This does not mean that employees do not desire guidance from their supervisor; indeed they very much do.
Frustration The extent of this frustration was explored by Gabris & Mitchell. They studied an organization with a quarterly 360 degree Performance appraisal system. The workforce was divided into two groups: those who had been given high appraisal results consistently, and those who had low results consistently. When the groups were asked if the appraisal system was fair and equitable, 63 per cent of the high performers agreed, compared to only 5 per cent of the lower performers. The groups were asked if their supervisors listened to them.
Of the high performers, 69 per cent said yes, while among the low performers, 95 per cent said no. Finally, when asked if their supervisors were supportive, nearly half of the high performers agreed that they were, while none (nil, zilch, zero! ) of the low performers agreed. Of course, not everyone who gets a poor appraisal result is a victim of supervisory bias. Nor are all supervisors prone to making the same degree of in-group and out-group distinction. The effects discussed here are tendencies, not immutable effects.
But to some extent, it appears that certain employees may be unfairly advantaged, while others are disadvantaged, by bias effects in the judgments of supervisors. It is a cardinal principle of 360 degree Performance appraisal that employees should have the chance to improve their appraisal results – especially if their past results have not been so good. It is a very serious flaw in the process of appraisal if this principle is denied in practice. There are reasonable steps, which can be taken to limit the effects of supervisory bias. Awareness Training
The first line of defence lies in raising awareness of the problem. Supervisors need to be informed of the types of subtle bias that can interfere with their performance as appraisers. They need to understand that the in-group / out-group bias, for instance, reduces the morale and motivation of their subordinates. Developing Poor Performers Incentives, financial or non-financial, may offered to encourage supervisors to make special efforts to help poor performers improve. Supervisory appraisals, for example, might stress the importance of working with poor performers to upgrade their performance.
The possibilities are extensive. Retention of Records 360 degree Performance appraisal results should not become a permanent part of an employee’s personnel record. Employees should not feel that their employment history has been forever marred because of a poor appraisal result. If appraisal records are to be retained for long periods of time, they should be securely archived and access to them restricted. New supervisors should not be permitted to review records that are older than a few years. Employees should have the chance to make a new impression. Counseling, Transfer, Termination
There is always the possibility that an employee who receives poor appraisal results is in fact a chronic poor performer of course, no employer is bound to tolerate poor performance forever. Consistently poor appraisal results will indicate a need for counseling, transfer or termination. The exact remedy will depend on the circumstances. Common Appraisal System Faults Some of the most frequent faults employees find with 360 degree Performance appraisal systems are: 1. The reported evaluations tend to be non-specific (generalities cannot help an employee make improvement) 2.
The comments in the appraisal document are inconsistent with actual performance (at least as perceived by the employees) — the observations lack empirical evidence 3. The meetings are handled poorly and dominated by superiors who tend to use one-way communication 4. Little or no constructive suggestions for improvement are made during the interview 5. Consistent with the observation that superiors frequently engage in one-way communication, the individual employee has little or no input 6. The process is mechanical and contributes little to either the betterment of the organization or the employee WHY” OF THE APPRAISAL
The uses of appraisals as emphasized by Douglas McGregor are • Administrative: Appraisals permit an orderly and rational way of determining promotions, salary increase, transfers, terminations and development potential. • Informative: Appraisals supply data to management on performance of subordinates and to the individuals on their strengths and weaknesses. • Motivation: Appraisals create a learning experience for subordinates that motivate them to improve. “‘HOW” OF THE APPRAISAL PROCESS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Stolz has observed, “The process of 360 degree Performance appraisal follows a set pattern.
Usually, the plan is reviewed at a higher echelon of management, where it may be challenged, changed or added to. But out of the discussion and debate emerges an appraisal plan tailored to the individual’s unique needs. ” The 360 degree Performance appraisal plan can be broadly divided into six steps 1. Establish Performance Standards: At the time of designing a job and formulating a job description, performance standards are usually developed for the position. These standards should be clear and not vague, and objective enough to be understood and measured.
These standards should be discussed with the supervisors to find out which different factors are to be incorporated, weights and points to be given to each factor and then these should be indicated on the Appraisal Form, and later on used for appraising the performance of the employee. 2. Communicate Performance Expectations to the Employees: For the employees left to themselves, would find it difficult to guess what is expected of them. To make communication effective, ‘feedback’ is necessary from the subordinate to the manager.
Satisfactory feedback ensures that the information communicated by the manager has been received and understood in the way it was intended. 3. Measure Actual Performance: One should be concerned with how he measures and what is to be measured. Four sources of information are frequently used to measure actual performance • Personal observation; • Statistical reports; • Oral reports; • Written reports. 4. Compare Actual Performance with Standards: The employee is appraised and judged of his potential for growth and advancement. Attempts are made to note deviations between ‘standard performance’ and ‘actual performance’. . Discuss the Appraisal With The Employee: The results of appraisals are discussed periodically with the employees, where good points, weak points, and difficulties are indicated and discussed so that the performance is improved. The information that the subordinate receives about his assessment has a great impact on his self-esteem and on his subsequent performance. Conveying good news is considerably less difficult for both the manager and the subordinate than when performance has been below expectations. 6. If Necessary, Initiate Corrective Action: Corrective actions can be of two types Immediate corrective action • Basic corrective action Immediate corrective action is often described as ” putting out fires”, whereas basic corrective action gets to the source of deviation and seeks to adjust the difference permanently. Coaching and counseling may be done or special assignments and projects may be set; persons may be deputed for formal training courses, and decision making responsibilities and authorities may be delegated to the subordinates. Attempts may also be made to recommend for salary increases or pro motions, if these decisions become plausible in the light of appraisals.
METHODS OR TECHNIQUES OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Several methods and techniques are available for measuring the performance of an employee. There are four major issues where these techniques differ from each other a. They differ in the sources of traits or qualities to be appraised. The qualities may differ because of difference in job requirements, statistical requirements and the opinions of the management. • They differ because of different kinds of workers whop are being rated. For example factory workers, executives or salesmen. • The variation may be caused by the degree of precision attempted in an evaluation. They may differ because of the methods used to obtain weightings for various traits. There is a little agreement on the best method to evaluate managerial professional or salaried performance. But the main approaches for classification of these methods as given by various management experts are: ROCK AND LEWIS APPROACH Rock and Lewis have classified the methods into two broad categories: Narrow Interpretation: His superior considers it as a “post mortem” of a subordinate’s performance during a pre-determined period of time, often, the preceding year.
It involves assessment of performance vis-a-vis specified criteria or in terms of a particular method of rating. Methods such as the traits or characteristics’ rating scale, the ranking method, the employee comparison method, and performance standard methods are used under this category. Broad Interpretation: It is also known as accountability management, management by objectives or management by endresults, involves a broader purview, and aims at improving the entire managing process and the individual managers on a year round basis. ROBBINS APPROACH Robbins has categorized these methods into three categories:
Single- trait, single subject: Under this subjects are compared with any other person and each trait is measured alone. The check list, the numerical and graphical scale methods are more popular of such category. Single-trait, multiple subjects: In this the subjects are compared with other subjects. Group order ranking, individual ranking and paired comparison method belong to this category. Multiple-trait, single subject: In which force choice rating is done by either the subject himself or the evaluation, into traits offered for evaluation. STRAUSS AND SAVLES APPROACH
This is the most widely used categorization. Strauss and Sayles have classified 360 degree Performance appraisal 9in to two broad categories: Traditional Methods: These methods lay emphasis on the rating of the individual’s personality traits such as initiative, dependability, drive, responsibility, creativity, integrity, leadership potential, intelligence, judgment, organizing ability, etc. The methods under this category are Straight ranking method: It is the oldest and the simplest method of performance appraisal, by which the man and his performance are considered as an entity by the rater.
No attempt is made to fractionalize the ratee or his performance; the “whole man” is compared with the “whole man”; that is, the ranking of a man in a work group is done against another. The relative position of each man is tested in terms of his numerical rank. It may also be done by ranking a person on his job performance against that of another member of a competitive group by placing him as number one or two or three in to total group; i. e. persons are tested in order of merit and placed in a simple grouping.
Paired Comparison Technique: By this technique, each employee is compared in respect of every trait with all the other persons one at a time. The number of times each individual is compared with another is tallied on a piece of paper. These numbers yield the rank order of the entire group. For example, if there are five persons to be compared, then A’s performance is compared to B’s, and a decision is arrived at as to whose is the better performance. Then A is compared to C, D, and Ein that order. Next B is compared with all the others individually.
Since he has already been compared with A, he is compared only with C, D, and E. A similar comparison is made in respect of other personnel. Thus by this method, we arrive at ten decisions, and only two are involved in each decision. The number of decisions is determined by the formula N(N-2), where N represents the number of persons to be compared. The results of these comparisons are tabulated, and a rank is assigned to each individual. • Man-to-Man Comparison Method: The USA army used this method during the First World War.
By this method, certain factors are selected for the purpose of analysis (such as leadership, dependability and initiative), and a scale is designed by the rater for each factor. A scale of man is also created for each selected factor. Then each man to be rated is compared with the man in the scale, and certain scores for each factor are awarded to him. This method is used in job evaluation, and is known as the factor comparison method. • Grading Method: Under this system the.. rater considers certain features and marks them accordingly to a scale. Certain categories of worth are first established and carefully defined.
The selected features may be analytical ability, co-cooperativeness, dependability, selfexpression, job knowledge, judgment, leadership and organizing ability, etc. They may be A – outstanding; B – very good; C – good or average; D – fair; E – poor; and F – very poor or hopeless. • Graphic or Linear Rating Scale: Under it, a printed form, one for each person to be rated is given to the rater. This form contains different factors like analytical ability, co-cooperativeness, dependability, self-expression, job knowledge, judgment, leadership and organizing ability, etc.
These traits are then evaluated on a continuous scale, wherein the rater places a mark somewhere along a continuum. Sometime a discontinuous or multiple type of scale is used, wherein one factor is used along a discontinuous scale, consisting of appropriate boxes or squares, which are to be ticked off. The scale may be represented by, and broken down into, 3, 7, 10 or more parts and points. Often, The number of factors used varies from 9 to 12; in some methods, they are as many as 30. Forced Choice Description Method: This method was evolved after a great deal of research conducted by the military research services during Second World War.
It attempts to correct a rater’s rende3ncy to give consistently high or consistently low Ratings to all the employees. The use of this method calls for objective reporting and minimum subjective judgment. Under this method, the rating elements are several sets of pair phrases or adjectives relating to job proficiency or personal qualifications. The rater is asked to indicate each of the four phrases is most and least descriptive of the employee. • Forced Distribution Method: Joseph Tiffin evolved this method after statistical work. It requires the rater to appraise an employee according to a pre determined distribution scale.
Under this system it is assumed that it is possible and desirable to rate only two factors, viz. , job performance and promotability. For this purpose, a five-point performance scale is used without any descriptive statement. Employees are placed between the two extremes of `good’ and ‘bad’ job performances. In addition to job performance, employees are rated for promotability. A three point scale is often used for this purpose: • Very likely promotional material; • May or may not be promotional material; • Very unlikely to be promotional material. Checklist: Under this method the rater does not evaluate employee performance; he supplies report about it and the personnel department does the final rating. A series of questions are presented concerning an employee to his behavior. The rater then checks to indicate if the answer to a question about an employee is positive or negative. The value of each question may be weighted equally or certain questions may be weighed more heavily than others. • Free Essay Method: Under this method the supervisor makes a free form, open ended appraisal of an employee in his own words and puts down his impressions about the employee.
He takes note of these factors: • Relations with fellow supervisors and personnel assigned to him; • General organization and planning ability; • Job knowledge and potential; • Employee characteristics and attitudes; • Understanding and application of company’s policies and procedures; • Production, quality and cost control; • • Physical conditions; • Development needs for future. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methodology is a systematic way, which consists of series of actions or steps necessary to effectively carry out research and the desired sequencing of these steps.
The research is a process of involves a number of interrelated activities, which overlap and do rigidly follow a particular sequence. It consists of the following steps ? Formulating the objective of the study ? Designing the methods of data collection ? Selecting the sample plan ? Collecting the data ? Processing and analyzing the data ? Reporting the findings RESEARCH OBJECTIVES To evaluate the 360o 360 degree Performance appraisal System of Dabur India Ltd. RESEARCH DESIGN Research design specifies the methods and procedures for conducting a particular study.
A Research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of the data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. Research Design is broadly classified into three types as ? Exploratory Research Design ? Descriptive Research Design ? Hypothesis testing Research Design On the basis of the objective of study, the study which is concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular individual or of group of individual under study comes under Descriptive Research design. Descriptive Research Design:-
In this research design the objective of study is clearly defined and has accurate method of measurement with a clear-cut definition of population that is to be studied. Two steps are involved in formulating the research problem: • Understanding the problem. • Rephrasing the problem into meaningful terms form an analytical point of view. The training sessions are conducted in the beginning of training in order To make us clear about the tasks provided and how handle the different situation The research design used in this study is descriptive which includes interviewers.
Questionnaire and unit fact-findings enquiries with the employees Sampling: In sampling researcher collects needed information from various persons who are associated with this subject. When such associated persons are in large number the researcher cannot get information from all of them. In such a situation some people among associated persons are selected and information is collected from them. These selected persons represent the sample. Sampling Unit Sampling frame for this survey was least 30 people of managerial and executive level.
COLLECTION OF DATA COLLECTION OF DATA The procedure for collection of data depends upon various considerations Availability of resources like money time manpower etc also affects the choice of procedure. Primary data ? Direct personal observation ? Indirect oral interviews ? Information through manuals& websites ? Information through questionnaire filled by respondents Questionnaire The questionnaire is a list of question to be asked from the respondents. It also contains a suitable space where the answer can be written. Secondary data
Secondary data means that is already available, that is they refer the data which have already been collected and analyzed by some one else. When the researcher utilizes secondary data then he has to look into various sources where he can obtain the data from. In this case he is certainly not confronted with the problems that are usually associated with the collection of original data. TOOLS OF ANALYSIS Analysis may be categorized as descriptive analysis and (inferential analysis is often known as statistical analysis) Descriptive Analysis: –
Descriptive analysis is largely the study of distribution of one variable this study provide us profile of companies, workgroups and person & other subject on any of a multitude of characteristics such as size composition. Correlation Analysis: – Correlation analysis studs the joint variation two or more variables for determining the amount of correlation between two or more variable. Inferential Analysis: – Inferential analysis is concerned with the various tests of significance for testing hypothesis in order to determine with what validity data can be said to indicate some conclusion.
For the purpose of this research a two-fold strategy has been used – • Observation method: Under this method the format and the policy of 360 degree Performance appraisal have been analyzed. Survey method: Under this method a survey has been conducted with the help of an questionnaire. There was a total population size of 250 employees in Dabur India Ltd. Among these a sample of 25 employees has been taken. DATA ANALYSIS DATA ANALYSIS DATA WORK SHEET OF OFFICERS |Question No. Options | | | |(a) % |(b) % | (c) % |(d) % |NIL |Total persons | |1 |90 |10 |0 |0 |0 |100 | |2 |75 |15 |5 |5 |0 |100 | |3 |34 |60 |4 |2 |0 |100 | |4 |15 |85 |0 |0 |0 |100 | |5 50 |30 |10 |8 |2 |100 | |6 |95 |5 |0 |0 |0 |100 | |7 |65 |28 |2 |3 |2 |100 | |8 |78 |10 |10 |0 |2 |100 | |9 |42 |30 |16 |10 |2 |100 | |10 |80 |18 |0 |0 |2 |100 | |11 |70 |20 |10 |0 |0 |100 | |12 |65 |24 |10 |0 |1 |100 | |13 |80 |20 |0 |0 |0 |100 | |14 |40 |10 |40 |10 |0 |100 | |15 |52 |25 |12 |10 |1 |100 | |16 |55 |25 |10 |10 |0 |100 | |17 |90 |10 |0 |0 |0 |100 | |18 |20 |40 |10 |30 |0 |100 |
DATA WORK SHEET OF WORKMEN |Questio0n No. |Options | | | |(a) % |(b) % | (c) % |(d) % |NIL |Total persons | |1 |80 |20 |0 |0 |0 |100 | |2 |70 |20 |10 |0 |0 |100 | |3 |10 |10 |10 |70 |0 |100 | |4 50 |50 |0 |0 |0 |100 | |5 |0 |100 |0 |0 |0 |100 | |6 |78 |10 |10 |0 |2 |100 | |7 |60 |20 |15 |5 |0 |100 | |8 |50 |30 |10 |8 |2 |100 | |9 |80 |20 |0 |0 |0 |100 | |10 |65 |35 |0 |0 |0 |100 | QUESTIONNAIRE PRESENTATION WITH PIE CHART ( FOR OFFICERS) 1:-This pie chart is shows about 90% of officers are aware of current performance appraisal System & 10% are not aware of current PAR System. 2:- According to 75% the current P. A. System is two tire System ,according 15% ,Three tire system ,5% four tire system and 5% are not aware current performance appraisal System. :-According to 34% two tire systems consist of appraisee & Appraiser, 60% IA & RA, 4% HOD & GM & 2% immediate superior & HOD. 4:-About 85% of officers are performance appraisals assessed by point system, 10% through Mark System 0% are not aware any group. 5:-About 50% of Officers agree that task Setting provides objectively in appraising their performance less than 30% of the officers are not fully agree with the statement 10% are neutral & disagree 2% are not fill the questionnaire. 6:- About 95% officers are says yes for completing Quarterly Task setting in time ,rest due to some reason its not completed in time, such cases; lack of seriousness & ambiguity. :-Above 60% of the officers agree that self appraisal system Proves to be effective & rest of officers do not completely agree with it. 8:-About 78% of officers are says that appraiser and appraisee should be responsible for ensuring objectivity and reducing biasness the “Performance Appraisal system ,10% are says appraiser & appraisee and peer & 10% says appraiser & appraisee and peer & subordinate ,2% are not fill the questionnaire. 9:-More than 40% officers are agree that skill possessed by an officers vary ,30% are partially agree and 16% are Neutral ,less than 15% are not agree with its. 10:- About 80% officers are getting regular feedback on their performance but less than 20% are not getting regular feedback. 1:-About 70% of officers are agree that feedback is beneficial for improving their performance ,20% are partially agree and 10% are neutral. 12:-65% of the officers accepts that current PAR is an effective tool for evaluating the employee performance,20% partially agree with this and 10% are neutral. 13:-About 80% of officers are accept that current PAR System reflect the training need, 20% are not accepts this. 14:-40% of the officers consider that the relevance of PAR system in deciding promotion, 10% are says deciding incentives and 40% agree with training and development, 10% are accepting the programme succession planning. 15:- According to 52% of officers are accepts the existing PAR system nsure due recognition talented employee in term of promotion ,rewards and others, 28% are partially agree and 12% are neural ,10% are disagree. 16:- More than 55% of officers are completely agree that the existing PAR system is helpful in wholesome development of employee and 25% are partially agree,10% disagree, 10% are neutral. 17:-About 90% of the officers are completely satisfied with the current PAR system, rest 10% are not satisfied with the current performance appraisal system. 18:-About 20% of the officers are say management is responsible to your innovativeness and 40 % are says only personal problem, 10% are tell the official problem 30% are says career aspiration.
SUGGESTION OF ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIR ? Suggestion from employees for the effective implementation of PAR system ? Job Description & key Result Areas should be identified & appraisee should be answered accordingly. ? While doing job Rotation a person’s core competence should be major criteria for decision. ? Assessment even by peer, subordinates & customers 360 degree PA system should be implemented in order to make PAR system more focused, rather than relation driven. ? Project based performance & measurements (six sigma in work place & on personal level) should be encouraged in Appraisal system. ? Ideation & vision statement will interweavn them; strategy, ransformation & leadership should be encouraged & assessed in PAR system. ? Effective need based training programme must be conducted on regular intervals like time bound task setting is formulated in PAR system, there must also be time made appraiser equally awakened. This will also help in making the existing PAR system more effective & purposeful. ? Deptts where work & task are not known, Like-Plant Maintenance & Hospital, PAR system should be changed because jobs or tasks except regular work can’t be assigned to individual. ? Suggestion point should be considered & implementation total. As seen that the suggestion are some times ignored by higher authorities.
As IA is dealing with persons whose PAR is filled & knows form very near. ? The present PAR system may be quite effective provide the weakness strengths training requirements improvement suggestions are properly monitored for taking necessary remedial action measures & fro suitable placement in the organization i. e. right person at right place. ? The task should be reviewed & discussed systematically by IA & RA & necessary action should also be taken at proper time. ? Ra should take necessary step in fulfilling Appraisee request regarding training, job rotation. ? Based upon the feedback. The training & Development needs of an individual should be met & should not be limited only to award promotion. There must be a provision that appraisee may come to know the final rating after PRB i. e. more transparency is required. ? Timely submission of quarterly task may be included to each offer’s task & marks to be given on that. ? Employees must be given proper knowledge & made aware of PAR system in BEL. FINDINGS FINDINGS ? The PAR system has been reviewing time to time to improvise the ways to assess the effectiveness, potential, development need & career sketch of the individual for the management to formulate HRD programme into meet organization needs. ? There is problem in collecting the PAR forms back more often the forms were not received on time.
The main problem is therefore of coordination. ? Manager has to perform a very daunting list of time consuming tasks standing with recalling which worker need to be reviewed each month, arranging appraisal meeting with them, collection the relevant performance data, filling out the appraisal forms & documenting the employees performance. ? PA is not actually for workmen it’s basically for the officers. Previously workmen were judged on the ground of ability, attendance & conduct through gradation system but this time the new marking system is introduced. ? The culture of confidentiality persists due to which PA will never be a readily undertaken exercise.
Adverse remarks are communicated to employees in writing confidentially by the reporting officers. ? IA, RA & PRB consist of senior officers than the appraisee. Subordinate, peer, customer or suppliers are not included in the PA committee. Thus the Appraisal system is by higher level. CONCLUSION CONCLUSION Based on the vast study & analysis I can say that the Top management role needs a tremendous change towards the role of facilitator. Every manager in the organization hierarchy at his own position has the same role of facilitator. In fact in the present scene. The managers are facilitators. The role of facilitator has a high demand on individual to be a continuous learner, i. e. here is a transition from……………………. owner. ………………………Manager ……………………Leader I conclude that for the LPG (Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization) of business, Empowerment strengthens the ongoing capacity for successful action under changing circumstances. Thus to develop self esteem, organization has to satisfy the employees need for higher levels of job satisfaction & an overall improved quality of work life consistent will the dignity of the employees as a human being. I hope that this project is of utmost value to all who are in this field & I also feel that the knowledge gained during this training would be helpful to me in future. SUGGESTIONS SUGGESTIONS Workmen PAR should also be developed as of officers & they should be made aware about it. ? For the technical one column should also be included in the P. A. format which should concern about the time availability of facilities provisions required for technical workmen, officers in order to carry out & completion of job if any. ? This would turn make IA / RA equally responsible & transparency in PAR system. ? Emphasis should be given to measuring the employee’s performance i. e. what the man does rather than what he is (merit rating). The important thing is to be aware of his strengths. What can he do? And what has he done? ? Self Appraisal system should thoroughly reviewed by the I. A. RA & Senior RA as the appraisee would not be able to assess themselves but the concerned authorities assessment of the appraisee should be impartial & up to the mark. ? Extra care must be taken by the authorities while describing the performance of appraisee, as the attributes used in this section are not the part of specified traits for technical & non-technical personnel. Not only the deficiency should be pointed out in this section but if the appraisee have fair better than usual it should also be mentioned. ? Multirater Feedback Mechanism. Regular feedback must be given to employees. Identify areas for both organizational & individual improvement through 360-degree process.
Promote team building by using this Multirater feedback mechanism ? 360-degree appraisal is an excellent means of providing feedback to employees because it entails obtaining information from more than one group of people. All those who form the role set member (those who has working relationship will the appraisee) assess the appraisee on a standard format. The appraisees are taken form the superiors, subordinates & colleagues. This encourages quality consciousness, teamwork orientation & more participative. ? “Give a man fish. He will eat it. Train a man to fish. He will his family,” the technique of training has been a key factor & a major tool used to achieve the objectives of HRD.
Training should be base on an assessment of the needs of different groups & individuals. The training needs should flow from PAR system. PAR helps in identifying directions in which individual should be trained & developed. ? Whenever an individual is sponsored for training he should be told categorically the reasons for sponsoring him & the expectations of the organization from him after he return form the programme. ? Performance analysis should be made before making any comment. “Performance Analysis “ is a sound alternative of finding ways & means of improving the employee organizational performance & identifying development & growth needs. A positive emotional & professional climate should be created in workplace for the employee to progress & review himself through “Performance Review” (feedback & counseling). ? Virtual HR: HR Deptt. Can automate the PAR system with Internets. They can link corporate business with the goals of the individual employee & generate meaningful information from the vast data collected through out the organization. ? The system can save managers the trouble of having to remember a whole lot of things. Once the manager completes the form, he / she can instantly route it to the central HR information system where it is stored for all authorized parties to see. ? Such automated systems are very handy in case of 360-degree performance evaluation. It frees HR Deptt.
From needless paper work & allows human resource to devote its resources to far more important things. QUESTIONNAAIRE questionnaaire PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL IN DABUR Designation. ________________Department. ________________ Grade, scale ________________ 1. Are you aware with the current “Performance Appraisal system” of DABUR. (a) yes(b) No 2. The current Performance Appraisal system is? (a)Two tire system(b)Three tire system (c)Four tire system(d)None aware 3. Two tire system Consist Of (a)Appraisee &Appraiser (b)Ir & Ra (c)Hod & Gm (d)Immediate superior & Hod 4. Performance Appraisal Of Employee Is Assessed By (a)Point system(b)Mark system (c)Grade system(d)Not aware Opinion About Features Of Performance Appraisal System 5.
Task setting by appraisee and appraiser provides objective while appraising the performance appraisal of the appraisee (a)Agree(b)partially agree (c)Neutral (d)disagree 6. Whether the quarterly task setting assignment completed by the 15th of first month of each quarter if no give the reason (a)Yes(b)No 7. Self Appraisal System proves to be effective while appraising the appraisee (a)Agree(b)Partially agree (c)Neutral (d)Disagree 8. Who in your opinion should be the responsible for ensuring objectivity and reducing baiasness the “Performance Appraisal” system? a) Appraiser and Appraisee. b) Appraiser, Appraisee & peer. c) Appraiser, Appraisee, peer, & subordinates. 9. Skill possessed by an Appraiser vary as the moves from one grade to another. (a)Agree(b)Partially agree c)Neutral (d)Disagree 10. Are you getting regular feed back on your performance from your Appraisal? (a)Yes (b)No 11. Feed back is beneficial for improving your performance (a)Agree(b)Partially agree (c)Neutral (d)Disagree Effectiveness of “Performance Appraisal” system 12. Current “Performance Appraisal” system is an effective tool for evaluating the employee‘s performance (a)Agree(b)Partially agree d) Neutral (d)Disagree 13. Does current “Performance Appraisal” system reflect the training need of an employee? (a)Yes (b)No Relevance of “Performance Appraisal” system 14. What is your opinion is the relevance “Performance Appraisal” system?
Deciding promotion(b)Deciding incentives c) Training & development (d)programme Succession planning 15. The existing “Performance Appraisal” system ensures due recognition talented employee in terms of promotion, rewards and others (a)Agree(b)Partially agree c) Neutral (d)Disagree 16. Do you think that existing “Performance Appraisal” system is help full in wholesome development of employee? (a) Agree(b)Partially agree d) Neutral (d)Disagree 17. Are you satisfied with the current “Performance Appraisal” system (a)Yes(b)No 18. Would you say management is responsible to your (a)Innovativeness(b)Personal problem (c)Official problem (d)Career aspiration
Give your suggestion for effective implementation of Performance Appraisal system in DABUR. —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————— FAQ Q. What is the purpose of performance appraisals? A. Performance appraisals help to strategically review the performance of the employees, their strengths, weaknesses and accomplishments during the year. Performance appraisal allows deciding the goals, objectives and the desired performance standards for the employee for the upcoming year. Q.
How should the self appraisal be used? A. Self appraisal or self evaluation is the review of the performance by the employee himself. The self evaluation should be discussed with the employee and if appropriate, should be incorporated in the final rating. Q. Is there any comprehensive formula to calculate the overall rating? A. No, there is no comprehensive formula for doing so. The overall rating should be based on a number of factors like the extent of goals achieved, the overall performance of the employee, his competencies etc. Q. How should the ratings be given if there has been a change of supervisor or manager during the period of the appraisal? A.
To complete the Performance appraisal subjectively and fairly, it is advised to consult the previous supervisor or manager. If this is not possible, consult the supervisor’s superior to get his views and inputs. Q. How can input/feedback be collected for the appraisal process? A. different input forms can be used for taking the feedback from the various sources like the superior, peers, customers, vendors and the employee himself. All the perspectives thus received should be combined in the appropriate manner and to get an overall, complete view of the employees’ performance. Observation can also be exercised by the superior to obtain information. Q.
What if the employee refuses to agree or/and accept the review? A. First of all, ensure that the employee has got a chance to review his completed appraisal form. If the employee refuses to accept his appraisal, try to sort out the problem by discussing his reasons of dissatisfaction with him calmly. If the employee refuses to co-operate, then pass the documents to the HR department with a note on it that the employee has refused to accept and let them take the necessary action. Q. How do you deal with an average or a non-performer? • Provide constructive feedback and try to motivate the employee. • Keep the focus on the performance, not the personality of the employee. Provide training and development opportunities to the employee • Discuss and take the employee’s inputs on how to solve the problem. • Plan the course of action and standards in agreement with the employee. • If no improvement takes place, inform the human resources or your superior about the problem. Q. Should the review be confidential? A. The Individual performance reviews should be kept confidential and should not be accessible to other employees. They should also be stored at a safe place with limited access. Outdated reviews should be destroyed. The appraisal can also be kept as a part of the HR records of the employee. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY Books ? Manuals And Files Of DABUR Research methodology ———– Devandra Thakur Deep & Deep Publication Pvt. Ltd. Year -2006. ? Principles and Techniques of Personnel Management –Udai Pareek Himalya Publishing House Delhi Year -2006 WEB. Sites ? www. dabur-india. com / ? www. googal. com / performance appraisal system. ———————– Objective of Study Reporting of Findings Data Analysis Data Collection Sample Design Research Design [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] Dewan v. s. Institute of Management Meerut By-pass Road, Partapur Meerut-250103, U. P. (India)