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I. Political situation a. Multinational 1. West – French speaking -> Geneva 2. East – German speaking -> Zurich b. Decentralized Government 1. Semi-autonomous cantons (province or state) 2. Technically part of the HRE, but functions as an independent state c. Geography and language -> eastern Switzerland 1st affected by protestant reformation 1. Zurich -> Urich Zwingli a. More radical departure from RCC doctrine + ritual b. Marburg Colloquy (1529) – Martin luther and Urich Zwingli (eucharist) Martin luther = Consubstantiation

Ulrich Zwingli = body and blood of Jesus symbolic, Literal interpretation of the bible d. Geneva -> center of the swiss reformation from 1530 1. French-speaking part of switz 2. Led by John CALVIN II. Genevan reformation a. John Calvin wrote the Institutes of the Christian religion. 1. Calvinist formulation of prot theology b. Predestination – God has already chosen those who will be saved – “the elect” – and those who will be damned 1. Neither good works nor faith lea to salvation 2.

Salvations is a question of God’s will (unknowable) and it is up to god whether or not God chooses to bestow grace on someone c. NO FREE WILL, only conformity to God’s will d. Pressure of society led Calvinists to act as though they had grace and were the “elect” 1. Outward behavior = manifestation of one’s eternal status 2. Legal code based on Calvinist morality/doctrine e. Moral transformation of society (one soul at a time) 1. Calv -> political resistance to centralized government f. hard work, discipline -> accumulation of wealth } signs of grace 1.

Max Weber ( 19th c German sociologist) – “protestant work ethic” – Link between Calvinist behavior and rise of capitalism and middle class-> bourgeoisie g. Structure of the Genevan church. 1. Cooperation between laity (normal members of faith) and clergy (religious) 2. Consistory – the supreme governing body of Geneva – Responsible for enactment and enforcement of Calvinist laws, basically the maintenance of morality in Geneva h. Geneva was a “free city” -> (1) a haven for persecuted Protestants 2) laws against wife beating III. Calvinism in Europe a. Wider appeal than Lutheranism b. French-speaking Switzerland c. France -> Huguenots-> minority but influential and powerful d. Bohemia (modern day Czech republic) – in HRE BUT (1) Calvinism is illegal (2)Catholic Hapsburg overlord e. Palatinate – HRE – election state f. Scotland – Presbyterians – John Knox g. England – Puritans II. Lutheranism in Europe a. Northern HRE b. Denmark c. Norway d. Sweden -> Major power in 17th century