FORM B (specific course information) |Course Name/Title |Process Management in Manufacturing/ OPIM 656 | |Program |MBA | |(e. g. MBA or Ph. D. | | |Required or elective |Elective | |Instructor(s) Name and email address |Anita Tucker [email protected] upenn. du | | | | |Number of Class sessions in course |26 | |Duration of each class (minutes) |80 | |Typical number of students enrolled in recent |37 | |course offerings. | |Textbook Used |No | |Misc. Instructor comments about course | | OPIM 656 /SYS 522 Process Management in Manufacturing Fall 2004 Monday-Wednesday, 3:00-4:30 p. m. (JMHH 255) Revision date: 9/7/04 Professor Anita L. Tucker [email protected] upenn. edu JMHH 551 (215) 573-8742 Office Hours: M 9:30-12:00; W 10:30-12:00 (or by appointment) Brief Course Description
This 26-session course builds on the concepts introduced in OPIM 631 and OPIM 632 to examine how organizations can develop and leverage excellence in process management. This course uses a diverse set of case studies from manufacturing and service organizations in the United States, Australia, Japan, and Europe. Two modules comprise this course. The first 13 sessions focus on operations strategy. In these classes, we examine what constitutes an operations strategy and how organizations can create value by managing complexity, uncertainty, and product development.
We also examine issues related to scaling up a company’s operations and challenges to capturing the value created through operations. In the second half of the course, we discuss recent developments in both manufacturing and service industries, with an emphasis on the importance of process excellence in achieving and maintaining competitive advantage. Specifically, we examine initiatives in quality (i. e. 6-sigma) and Time-Based Competition/JIT. As applications, the course considers important recent advances in enterprise-wide planning (ERP) systems, supply chain contracting and B2B interfaces.
These may be viewed as attempts to align enterprise processes with customer needs and market structures and to assure continuous improvement of these processes once designed. In manufacturing, these developments have led to restructuring of the manufacturing and logistics system to provide adaptive and time-responsive supply chains, new product development processes and support functions. The results of this on-going restructuring have important implications for globalization of operations.
The course is recommended for those interested in consulting or operations careers, as well as students with an engineering background who wish to develop a better understanding of managing the manufacturing process. Prerequisites and Follow-on Courses The course builds on OPIM 631 and 632, which are prerequisites. Other students must have permission of the instructor to enroll. The course is a useful precursor for OP1M 657, OPIM 658 and OPIM 762. Permission of the instructor is required to enroll under SYS 522.
For either of these, basic courses in probability and statistics must have been completed prior to enrollment. Grading Your grade for this course will be based on written exercises (10%), two case write-ups (20%), class participation (30%), and a final exam (40%). Written exercises: You may work in groups to prepare the exercises, but each person must turn in his or her own hard copy (not electronically, please) set of answers. Late exercises will NOT be accepted. Date 1: Nov 24thTopic: Attribute Control charts Date 2: Dec 1st Topic: 6-sigma Case Write-ups:
In groups of 3 or 4 people (or individually if you prefer), please prepare a case write up (maximum of 4 pages, including exhibits) for two cases that interest you and turn in a hard copy to me at the start of the class in which we cover that case. Please indicate the contribution made by each individual. Late write-ups will NOT be accepted. Final Exam: The final exam will be a take home case. Details TBA. Text and Materials for the Course There is no required text for the course. Most of the readings will be found in the Course Bulkpack, which will be distributed through Wharton Reprographics.
The course assignments, lecture notes and various supporting materials can be obtained from the WebCafe. Detailed Course Outline Part I: The Concept of Operations Strategy Class 1. Wednesday: September 8 (Introduction to Operations Strategy) This course introduces a common framework for the bases for operations strategy—four competitive priorities of cost, quality, flexibility, and delivery. In the first class, we consider the fundamental questions: What is operations strategy? Can an organization create a competitive advantage through its production processes?
For class, please read the following articles and be prepared to discuss in class • Skinner, W. 1974. “The focused factory. ” Harvard Business Review May – June: 52(3):113. • Hayes, R. H. and D. M. Upton. 1998. “Operations-based strategy. ” California Management Review 40(4):8-25. Class 2. Monday: September 13 (A more detailed look at two companies’ different operations strategies within the same industry) • Read American Connector (A), HBS case 9-693-035. Case Synopsis: American Connector Company and DJC Corporation are two companies in the electrical connector market which have chosen different competitive and operating strategies.
The case focuses on how American Connector should respond to the potential threat by DJC’s entry into the U. S. market. Assignment: Please come to class prepared to discuss the following questions: 1. How serious is the threat of DJC to American Connector Company? 2. How big are the cost differences between DJC’s plant and ACC’s Sunnyvale plant? Consider both DJC’s performance in Kawasaki and its potential in the United States. 3. What accounts for these differences? a. How much is due to the slumping demand in the U. S. (Hint: Look at depreciation) b.
How much of the difference is inherent in the way the two companies compete? (Hint: Can you roughly graph their two competitive positions (x-axis flexibility, y-axis price charged) c. How much is strictly due to differences in the efficiency of the operations? (Hint: consider materials, labor, and fixed costs) 4. What should American Connector’s management at the Sunnyvale plant do? Class 3. Wednesday: September 15 (Three views of operations strategy: Tradeoffs, Cumulative capability, Integrative) Read the following articles: • Porter, M. E. 1996. “What is Strategy? ” Harvard Business Review (Nov-Dec 1996):61-78. Hayes, R. and G. Pisano. 1996. “Manufacturing Strategy: At the Intersection of Two Paradigm Shifts. ” Production and Operations Management 5(1):25-41. Assignment: Please come to class prepared to discuss the following questions: 1. What is the main point made by Porter, 1996? Do you agree with him? Is there anything in his article you disagree with? 2. Can you reconcile the conflicting views expressed in Porter’s 1996 article with those expressed in Hayes and Pisano, 1996? Class 4. Monday: September 20 (Tradeoffs: The value of focus) • Read: Rapid Rewards at Southwest Airlines. HBS Case # 9-602-065
Case Synopsis: Southwest Airlines had been consistently profitable every year for 28 years, but with firms cutting back on travel and airlines increasingly trying to cut costs and lure customers away from competitors, it might rethink its egalitarian strategy. For example, frequent fliers wanted rules changed so they could receive preferential treatment, such as being guaranteed first boarding regardless of the time they arrived at the airport, and being able to change tickets without paying upgrade fees. The case considers the implications that changing these rules might have on Southwest Airlines operating strategy.
Assignment: Please prepare the following questions for case discussion. 1. What is Southwest Airline’s value proposition? What are Southwest’s sources of competitive advantage? 2. Consider the economics of the airline industry. From Exhibit 2 and Exhibits 9-15, what do you see as driving the difference in financial performance across airlines? How important are frequent fliers to airline performance? 3. From your experience, how does Southwest’s service philosophy compare to the rest of the major players in the airline industry? What are the obstacles to its successful execution?
POLL QUESTIONS: Please answer the following questions on the WebCafe poll. 1. Should Southwest save a few low-numbered boarding cards for its most frequent fliers? Thought questions for class discussion: What is the key motivation for your opinion? What are the tradeoffs that Southwest must consider in making this decision? 2. Should Southwest allow its most frequent fliers who have missed their flights to take the next available flight with an empty seat or should these customers have to wait for the next available flight with an empty seat within the same fare class? Thought question for class discussion:
What drives your decision? Class 5. Wednesday: September 22 (Cumulative view of developing operating capabilities) • Read: Micom Caribe (A) HBS Case 9-692-002 Case Synopsis: Micom Caribe examines both quality improvement and the development of flexibility in a satellite manufacturing unit based in Puerto Rico. This change has been brought about through commitment of the workforce and the adoption of simple, yet effective production technologies. The aim of the case is to explore the sources of Caribe’s improvement. Assignment: Prepare the following questions for class discussion of the Micom Caribe Case: 1.
What accounted for the quality crash in 1987? To what extent was the geographical location of manufacturing relevant, and what would you have done differently, as MCC, to avoid the crisis? Why were people at MCC unable to see your solution? 2. What were the most important steps taken to reconfigure MCC’s Puerto Rican manufacturing operation and what capabilities did each build? 3. What specific capabilities does Caribe now have, and, as Moshetti, how would you develop MCC’s manufacturing strategy? Class 6. Monday: September 27 (Using capabilities to enable entry into new markets) Case: Australian Paper Manufacturers (A) HBS 9-691-041
Case Synopsis: Australian Paper Manufacturers (APM) dominated the domestic paper packaging market in a long-standing industry relationship that divided the Australian paper market neatly and cordially among the country’s three main paper companies. In 1987, APM invaded the fine papers market, once the sole domain of the Paper Company of Australia (PCA). Haunted by its environmental record, PCA initially found itself paralyzed, unable to modernize and expand capacity to repel its new rival. By December 1991, Ken McRae, APM’s group general manager, was considering his options, now that APM had established a reputation for quality and nvironmental sensitivity in the fine papers market. Assignment: Please come to class prepared to discuss the following questions: 1. What opportunities and risks did Ken McRae face as he contemplated taking APM into the fine papers market? Be specific with respect to technological, operations, and capital investment (as well as other considerations). 2. As Ken McRae, what technology and operations strategy options `are available? Which do you think he ought to pursue? Why? Class 7. Wednesday: September 29 (Summary discussion) Read the following articles in preparation for class discussion • Wheelwright, S. C. and K. B.
Clark. 2003. “Creating Project Plans to focus product development. ” Harvard Business Review September: 2-15. • Thomke, S. and D. Reinertsen. 1998. “Agile product development: Managing development flexibility in uncertain environments. ” California Management Review 41(1): 8-30. Part II: Creating and Capturing Value Class 8. Monday: October 4 (Managing New Product Development) Case: We’ve got rhythm! Medtronics Corporation’s cardiac pacemaker business. HBS Case 9-698-004 Case Synopsis: Medtronics manufactures implantable cardiac pacemakers. The company’s market share has eroded from about 70% in the early 1970s to below 30% in 1986.
The decline stems from the way the company’s executives managed the process of defining and developing new products. The case outlines the steps the company took to try to rebuild its product development capabilities and market share. Assignment: Please come to class prepared to discuss the following questions: 1. What are the reasons behind why Medtronic nearly lost its position as market leader in the 1970s and 1980s? 2. Which of the improvements in the new product development process that the Medtronic management team implemented strike you as having been particularly crucial to turning the company around? . What do the concepts product line architecture and train schedule mean in the pacemaker business? What are the costs and benefits of having implemented these concepts as the Medtronic management team has done? What elements of Medtronic’s approach could be applied in very different business settings? 4. Evaluate the nature of senior management involvement in Medtronic’s implementation of its product development system. Which elements of the system does senior management need to be intimately involved in, and which can it delegate or pay less attention to? Class 9. Wednesday: October 6 (Managing Uncertainty)
Case: Delamere Vineyard HBS 9-698-051 Case Synopsis: Delamere Vineyard is a small, integrated winemaking business in Tasmania. Richard Richardson, Delamere’s winemaker and owner, confronts a choice among three potential quality improvement projects, the merits about which customers and industry experts offer conflicting advice. Assignment: Please come to class prepared to discuss the following questions: 1. What are Delamere’s strengths and weaknesses? What does it deliver to customers that other vineyards do not? What does it take to be outstanding in the wine business? 2. What types of uncertainty does Richardson face? . What does quality mean in winemaking? 4. What principle and concepts should one apply to improving a production system such as winemaking? 5. What should Richardson do? How will his experience and personality shape his decision? Class 10. Monday: October 11 (Managing Complexity) Case: Ellis Manufacturing. HBS Case # 9-682-103 Case Synopsis: Ellis, a leading producer of small kitchen appliances has seen its market share steadily eroding over the last few years, and internally has experienced increasing conflict among sales and production groups over control of production for local markets.
James Cassals, the top operations executive at Ellis has been asked to rationalize the multiplant network. Assignment: Please come to class prepared to discuss the following questions: 1. What problems does EMC face? What are the causes of these problems? 2. What is the cost of producing an average mixer at the Barnstable plant? At Georgetown? At Flower Springs? What insights do these calculations provide as to how product lines should be assigned to plants? 3. How should EMC’s multiplant network be organized? Class 11. Wednesday: October 13 (Capturing Value: Scalability) • Read Fresh Connections HBS Case 5-600-108
Case Synopsis: Fresh Connections is a start-up food manufacturer that hopes to exploit the growing enthusiasm of Americans for “home meal replacements”, prepared food purchased in supermarkets and eaten in the home. A startup Fresh Connections could manage operations on an order-by-order basis, as it grows the company finds it needs more formalized systems. But which system should they adopt? Assignment: Please come to class prepared to discuss the following questions: 1. What are the most important operating and strategic issues facing Fresh Connections? (Hint: Try to estimate how many new products are developed each month. 2. Which segment(s) of the prepared foods business do you think is most attractive for Fresh Connections? 3. What choices must Fresh Connections make in developing an operations strategy? What is the effect of complexity on Fresh Connections’ operations? (Hint: Try to estimate the cost of having to change over between every batch as opposed to being able to make long runs of the same product, which wouldn’t require complete clean-outs between batches. ) 4. How will growth impact Fresh Connections’ operations? 5. What capabilities should Fresh Connections emphasize in its strategy? Class 12.
Monday: October 18 (Value Capture versus Value creation) Case: McDonald’s Corporation (Abridged) HBS Case 9-603-401 Case Synopsis: McDonald’s is rightly seen as one of the great growth stories in American business history. The company offered outstanding consistency, service speed, and price to its customers. For almost half a century, the formula seemed unbeatable. But in the 1990s growth had stalled. New competitors entered the fast-food industry, and were apparently better able than McDonald’s to react to shifting customer preference. Can McDonald’s meet this challenge while keeping its operating system intact?
Assignment: Please come to class prepared to discuss the following questions: 1. What characteristics of McDonald’s production system have been most important in building its record of success and growth in the industry? 2. What are the downsides of their operating strategy? (i. e. what things does McDonald’s NOT do well) 3. What are the primary new challenges McDonald’s faces at the start of the 21st century? 4. How would you adapt the system to accommodate these changes in the U. S.? 5. How can McDonald’s lay the basis for future growth? Class 13. Wednesday: October 20 (Summary discussion)
Read the following papers: • Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), HBS Technical Note 9-699-020. • T. H. Davenport, “Putting the Enterprise into the Enterprise System,” Harvard Business Review, July-August 1998 Assignment: For a company of your choice, think through the costs, benefits and risks of implementing an ERP-based solution to providing the transactions-based infrastructure for materials management, manufacturing and distribution in the company. Monday: October 25: Break Part III: Managing the operations supply chain Class 14. Wednesday: October 27: (Implementing Enterprise Resource Planning, ERP) Read Cisco Systems: Implementing ERP. HBS Case 9-699-022 Case Synopsis: Upon arriving at Cisco in 1993, the Chief Information Officer, Pete Solvik, recognized that the manufacturing systems that were unstable and needed replacement Although initially hoped to replace the suite of legacy systems at a slower, more deliberate rate, the instability of the company’s systems were an obstacle to sustaining the rapid growth of the company. Thus, Pete and his fellow managers aggressively attacked the problem with an ERP approach. Assignment: Please come to class prepared to discuss the following questions: 1.
At the start of the case, Cisco’s information systems are failing, yet no one steps forward to lead the effort to replace them. Why is this? Why were no managers eager to take on this project? 2. Cisco was highly successful with its enterprise resource planning (ERP) effort. What accounts for this success? What were the most important things that Cisco did correctly? 3. Did Cisco do anything wrong on this project? If so, what? 4. We often hear that senior management commitment is important for projects like Cisco’s ERP implementation, but senior management commitment to do what?
What can top managers do to maximize chances for success here? 5. Cisco went live with ERP in a big bang fashion, which is inherently risky. How did Cisco mitigate this risk? 6. Was Cisco smart or lucky with its ERP implementation? Class 15. Monday: November 1: (Supply Chain Management and Design) The next two sessions provide a general introduction to and review of the following strategies employed in designing supply chains for flexibility, time and cost performance: Read: • H. Lee, V. Padmanabhan, S. Whang, “The Bullwhip Effect in Supply Chains”. Sloan Management Review, Spring 1997, pp. 93 – 102. David Simchi-Levi, Philip Kaminsky and Edith Simchi-Levi, “Supply Chain Integration”, Chapter 5 in Designing & Managing the Supply Chain, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill Irwin, New York, 2003, pp. pp. 119-142. Assignment: Please come to class prepared to discuss the following questions: 1. What is the “Bullwhip or Whiplash Effect” in industries, can you give some additional examples other than those cited in the Lee et al. paper? According to Lee et al. , what are the causes of the Bullwhip Effect? Do you agree or disagree? Can you think of additional causes other than those discussed in the paper? . Why information distortion brings inefficiencies in Supply Chains? What do you think of the value of information sharing? What are the benefits of supply chain coordination? Can you give us some fresh examples from reality? How can we mitigate the Bullwhip Effect? What are additional mechanisms you think can be used for Supply Chain Coordination? 3. Based on the previous question (2), how can ERP and Business Intelligence Technology be used to develop an electronic supply chain? 4. What are the emerging business opportunities for B2B marketplaces (see Lee 2001, Simchi-Levi et al. 2003)? Class 16. Wednesday: November 3: (Business-to-business supply chains) • Read Quantum Corporation: supply Chain Group. HBS Case 9-601-099 Assignment: Please come to class prepared to discuss the following questions: 1. What are the biggest challenges facing HDDO? How can Information Technology help with these? 2. Why is time so critical in this business? What efforts should the eSupplyChain group advocate to allow Quantum to reduce the lead-time for its products? 3. How should the eSupplyChain group best accomplish its mission within Quantum’s organizational structure? 4.
How should Quantum and HDDO use the new eHITEX consortium? If we think of the adoption of eHitex by high-tech companies as a kind of implementation process, what kinds of pitfalls with this implementation face? 5. The new IT-enabled product allocation process, which is described on p. 12 of the case, has the potential to be an improvement over the current one. What difficulties, if any, do you think there will be in moving to the new process? What organizational groups might not be enthusiastic about moving to the new process? 6. How much financial benefit will a 1-day TOO reduction realize for HDDG?
Class 17. Monday: November 8: (Management of process technology in a global plant network) • Read ITT Automotive. HBS Case 9-601-099 Assignment: Please come to class prepared to discuss the following questions: 1. What are the implications for both cost and flexibility of automation? Do you agree with the assertion made by one of the managers in the case: “If you automate, you stagnate”? 2. What are your recommendations regarding the issue of standardizing process technology across all plants? Are there motives behind this proposal, other than those stated in the case? 3.
As Juergen Geissinger, how would you go about implementing your recommendation? How would you overcome resistence from the plants? As Steve Dickerson, the plant manager at Asheville, North Carolina, what line of reasoning would you use to convince senior management that full automation is the less desirable alternative? 4. As Klaus Lederer, what option would you like to see pursued? How do various options fit into the broader corporate strategy of ITT Automotive? Class 18. Wednesday: November 10: (Vertical integration) • Read Nucleon, Inc. HBS Case 9-692-041 Case Synopsis: Nucleon is a five-year old biotechnology company whose first harmaceutical product, CRP-1, is almost ready to be tested in human beings. The company has focused entirely on R&D since its founding and thus has no manufacturing capabilities of its own. It must decide whether or not to build a small-scale pilot plant to manufacture CRP-1 for early phases of clinical trials. Assignment: Please come to class prepared to discuss the following questions: 1. What are your recommendations regarding the manufacturing of CRP-1 for Phase I and Phase II clinical trials? What are your recommendations regarding manufacturing for Phase III clinical trials and commercialization? . How would you justify your recommendation to would-be investors in the company? 3. What is your recommendation regarding Nucleon’s long-term manufacturing strategy? What should this company look like in 10 years (e. g. an R&D boutique, an R&D boutique with pilot scale manufacturing capabilities, or an integrated manufacturing enterprise)? Class 19. Monday: November 15: (Outsourcing strategies) Read • David Simchi-Levi, Philip Kaminsky and Edith Simchi-Levi, “Procurement and Outsourcing Strategies”, Chapter 7 in Designing & Managing the Supply Chain, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill Irwin, New York, 2003, pp. p. 119-142. • Solectron. Stanford Case GS-24 Assignment: Please come to class prepared to discuss the following questions: 1. Why did IBM decide to use a contract manufacturer? Do you think there were any risks associated with their decision? 2. What strengths did Solectron have that made it an appropriate contract manufacturer for IBM? 3. What made Solectron a successful contract manufacturer in general? Note: Contract manufacturing and outsourcing have become vital ingredients of both high-tech sectors (e. g. aircraft manufacturing and electronics) as well as medium- and low-tech manufacturing, including that in emerging economies. Use the reading and the Case discussion to think through the basic ingredients (internal and external) for a company to survive and prosper using outsourcing and off-shoring. Class 20. Wednesday: November 17 (Managing a global network of suppliers) Case: Li & Fung (Trading) Ltd. HBS 5-396-386 Case Synopsis: Li & Fung is one of the largest trading companies specializing in low-cost, labor-intensive consumer goods from suppliers throughout east Asia.
Its main work is to connect Asian factories with U. S. and European retailers and manufacturers who have their own designs for merchandise and need them turned into physical product. The case poses two decisions for students: a Li & Fung division manager must decide which supplier can best handle a particular customer order; and the Managing Director must determine whether or not to restructure all of the soft goods (textile products) divisions in a way that might dramatically change its service to its customers. Assignment: Please come to class prepared to discuss the following questions: 1.
How does Li & Fung create value for its customers and suppliers? How do international differences in labor costs play into this value? 2. Should Charles Ho (Li & Fung’s division manager) send Classique’s order to Qingdao, China, or the Philippines? If he sends the order to China, should he ask the HV division to supervise it? If he sends it to China and has his own staff supervise it, how many visits should they make to the factory—two, three, or four? Consider the division manager’s personal interests, as well as those of the customer and of Li & Fung. 3.
Assess Li & Fung’s internal structure, including its organizational structure and the ways in which it motivates its employees. How does it align employees’ interests with both customer satisfaction and Li & Fung’s financial performance? 4. Should William Fung follow Danny Lau’s recommendation to extend the restructuring experiment to all soft goods divisions? 5. How do business-to-business services differ from business-to-individual consumer services? Part IV: Managing Internal Processes Class 21. Monday: November 22 (Introduction to Time Based Manufacturing) Read Hopp, W. J. and M. L. Spearman. 2004. “To pull or not to pull: What is the question? ” Manufacturing and Service Operations Management 6(2):133-48. • Spear, S. and H. K. Bowen. 1999. “Decoding the DNA of the Toyota Production System. ” Harvard Business Review 77(5):96-106. Class 22. Wednesday: November 24 (Attribute Control Charts) Read the following pages out of Gitlow et al, Quality Management, 2005. • Skim Chapter 6, pages 169, 170 • Chapter 7, pages 184-223. • Skim Chapter 8, pages 254-260; page 293. Assignment: Prepare and turn in answers to the problems 7. and 7. 25. Prepare the following questions for class discussion: 1. What is the difference between attribute and variable control charts? When would one use one versus the other? 2. What is the difference between n, np, c, and u charts? When would one use one versus the others? 3. What, if anything, are the downsides of using control charts? What are their limitations? Can you think of alternative methods for controlling systems and improving processes? Class 23. Monday: November 29 (Application of p-charts ) • Read Deutsche Allgemeinversicherung.
HBS Case 9-696-084 Case Synopsis: Deutsche (DAV) is one of Europe’s largest insurance companies. To defend itself and to regain its traditional leadership position, DAV has begun a new quality initiative, focused primarily on some key processes it believed could be dramatically improved. Assignment: Please come to class prepared to discuss the following questions: 1. Why is DAV using SPC? What are the primary challenges in applying Statistical Process Control to a service industry compared with manufacturing? 2.
If you were to explain the concept of a p-chart to a group of bank tellers without a background in SPC, in about 30 minutes, how would you do it? 3. How large should each sample be for the experiment Schoss and Kluck describe on page 7? 4. The first 12 weeks of the data in Exhibit 4 represent the diagnostic period for the Policy Extension Group. What are the 3-sigma control limits for the process? In which of the subsequent weeks is the process out of control (if any)? 5. Develop specific implementation plans for solving the problems facing Annette Kluck that are described on page 9 of the case. . How would you now begin improving the performance of the operation? Class 24. Wednesday: December 1 (6-sigma improvement programs ) Please read • Chapter 10 in Evans, James R. and William M. Lindsay. 2005. The management and control of quality. 6th edition. Thomson South-western, Mason, Ohio. Pages 479-513. • Dow, D. , D. Samson, and S. Ford. “Exploding the myth: do all quality management practices contribute to superior quality performance? ” Production and Operations Management, 8(1), p 1-27. Please prepare the following questions to hand in at the start of class 1.
What is a defect? Explain how to compute defects per million opportunities (dpmo). 2. Explain the theoretical basis for Six Sigma quality. 3. Problem # 1 on page 505. 4. Problem # 3 on page 505. Please be prepared to discuss discussion question #1 on page 504. • Six-sigma has been criticized because a) The results often don’t have any noticeable impact on company financial statements. (90% of the companies that implement six-sigma don’t end up with higher stock values. ) b) Only early adopters can benefit c) Six Sigma focuses on defects, which are hard to objectively determine or service businesses d) Six Sigma can’t guarantee that your product will have a market. Class 25. Monday: December 6 (Transfer of learning) Read • Pisano, G. P. , R. Bohmer, and A. C. Edmondson. 2001. “Organizational Differences in Rates of Learning: Evidence from the Adoption of Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery. ” Management Science 47(6):752. • M. A. Lapre and Luk N. Van Wassenhove, “Learning Across Lines: The Secret to More Efficient Factories”, Harvard Business Review, October, 2002, pp. 107-113. Class 26. Wednesday: December 8 (Course Summary) Final Examination: Take Home Case Date TBA