University of Halmstad School of Business and Engineering T he E ffects of T elevision A dvertising on C hildren as Consumer Author: Gulcin UYAN Supervisor: Venilton REINERT To my dearest parents 1 A bstract Several researches show that the advertisements play an important role on customers choosing goods or services and especially are more effective on children as consumer. Advertising is to offer advertisements affects consumers. This study will be a qualitative approach will be done with 20 respondents, and the respondents are in the ages 12-21 and 45-55. 2 A C K N O W L E D G E M E N TS
First of all, I would like to thank my dearest parents for their significant support during my stay in Sweden. Second, I would like to thank my friend Fatma Ulu for sharing her knowledge with me during the whole semester and also during my study. Finally, I would like to thank my supervisor Venilton REINERT. 3 T A B L E O F C O N T E N TS C hapter 1: I N T R O D U C T I O N……………………………………………………………………………………………… 6 1. 1. Problem .8 1. 4. Structure of the Thes C hapter 2: R ESE A R C H M E 3. 1 Research Metho 3. 2 Types of Research Design… 3. Population and 3. 4. Data 12 4 C hapter 3: 18 2. 1 The Role of Adverti 2. 2 Television Advert 2. 3 Parents are under the effect of th C hapter 4: 4. 1 E mpirical Study C hapter 5: A N A L YSIS A N D C O N C L USI O N 5 election goes on every minute of the business day across the counters of hundreds of thousands of stores and shops where the customers state their preferences and determine which manufacturer and which product shall be the leader today, and which shall lead tomorrow. ” Bruce Barton (1955), chairman of BBDO, quoted in James B. Simpson, Contemporary Quotations, 1964, Binghamton, NY: Vail-Ballou Press, p. 2. 1.
I N T R O D U C T I O N Every company has goals before starting to drive a business. The most significant objectives of the companies are to make a profit and to sell their products successfully. Nowadays, there is a competition among marketers to grab consumer attention. Firms Lee and Johnson (2005, p. 3) state that -personal communication about an organization and its products or services that is transmitted to a target audience through mass media such as television, radio, newspapers, magazines, direct mail, outdoor displays, or massAyanbim Davies in Ayanwale, Alimi and -personal media resentation promoting ideas/concepts, goods or services by an identified sponsor. For Lee and Johnson (2005), there are too many functions of advertising that need to be explored in an organization. Firstly, advertising performs an inform mission. It gives information about the product, its features and its location of sale. It informs the consumers 6 about new products. Also, according to the authors, advertising performs a persuasive mission. It tries to persuade consumers to buy particular brands or to change their behaviours toward the product and company.
At the same time advertising performs the reminder mission to reminds consumers about a product to keep buying the advertised product instead of the rival`s brands (Lee and Johnson (2005). Advertising value has increased dramatically in recent years (Keller in Ayanwale, Alimi and Ayanbimipe; 2005). In this way, Unsal (1984) states that advertised products generally are some authors have argued that advertising has little effect on children (Furnham in Gunter, Oates, Blades; 2005).
Proctor and Richards in Gunter, Oates, Blades (2005) says that many ch Valkenburg, (2005) says that children have become interesting from a commercial point of view because of their growing influence on family purchasing behaviour. They mention that the children can be very persisting when asking for something. Young et al. (2005) found that many parents were concerned about the number of advertisements that children see, especially as they believed that children might be encouraged to want products they did not really need.
Parents also felt that advertising led children to pester their parents to buy things for them and that young child might not fully understand the intent of advertising (Gunter, Oates, Blades; 2005). Children mostly influence their families` purchases behaviour. Research has shown that consumers often remain loyal to the brands they liked when they were children (McNeal, 1992). In addition the increased economic power and influence on family purchases of ogical changes in the 1970s and 1980s.
There is a relationship between the age and understanding of advertisement (Proctor and Richards in Gunter, Oates, Blades; 2005). The age of a child has an impact on the (Proctor and Richards in Gunter, Oates, Blades; 2005). things fort them (Proctor and Richards in Gunter, Oates, Blades; 2005). The most predominant way of advertising to children is via television. Because television reaches children in their own homes and there is limited control over the advertisements that are shown on TV (Smith, 2001). Parents can limit the channels that 7 children view or the times that children watch TV.
But, this control can be defective if children have access to television independently (Smith, 2001). Television advertising exploits children. Because it persuades children to buy products they do not need and to spend money they may not have (Young, 1990). Parents generally complain about television advertising. Young, de Bruin and Eagle (2003) made a research in United Kingdom, Sweden and New Zealand about their attitudes toward advertising and they found that most of the parents concern about the number of advertisements that children see.
However they think that children might be encouraged to want products they did not really need. Parents also think that advertising led children to pester their parents to buy things for them and that young children might not fully understand the intent of advertising. 1. 1 PR O B L E M Young children, particularly, do not know the intent of TV commercials. They do not understand the meaning of advertisements so that they insist on to buy when you want. Young children want to purchase products and services without needing. They are very vague in their recall of current television advertising. 1. PU RP OSE A N D R ESE A R C H Q U EST I O NS The purpose of this studying is to examine the impacts of television advertising on purchase the advertised products even though they do not understand the intent of advertisements? 1. 3 D E L I M I N A T I O N O F ST U D Y : The focus of the study is figures to figure out the influence of TV advertising on children purchase. So that, the other communication tools such as sales promotion, merchandising, public relation and so on will not be part of this research. It is important to mention that others media as magazine, newspaper, radio and so forth, will be part of this study also.
According to (Arens in Ayanwale, Alimi and Ayanbimipe; 2005), the mission of advertiser is to reach prospective customers and influence their awareness, attitudes and 8 buying behavior According to Doole & Lowe (2004) there are many channels of media to use for advertising, for example television, printed media, radio, cinema, outdoor and transport poster (Doole & Lowe in Bokor, Werner and Richardsson; 2004). But in this dissertation there will be little research exploring the influence of TV advertising on children purchasing, Because of the time limits the effect of other advertising tools will not be searched.
The underlying cause for this study is that nowadays advertising, in particular television advertisements products will buy. 1. 4 ST R U C T U R E O F T H E T H ESIS: This study involves six chapters, which are divided in subsections, and conclusion, references. The first chapter provides introduction about the advertising and the affect of Television advertising on children as customers; the purpose of the study, and research questions and delimitation of the study, which would clarify the outline of the dissertation. The second chapter involves the theoretical frame of reference in giving previous research in the chosen problem area.
This includes the role of advertising, television advertising, children and advertising and parents are under the effect of their children. The Chapter three is about the methodology and method of the thesis where will be collected the data about this subject in order to analyze successfully. The fourth chapter shows the empirical data, which was collected through the interview of persons who are different of age and sex. The last chapter displays analysis of empirical data which was compared to the previous theory stating on part of the theoretical frame of reference and also is related to conclusion and included references. C H APT ER 2 3. M ethodology: Methodology is defined as a system of methods and rules to facilitate the collection and analysis of data. It provides the starting point for choosing an approach made up of theories, ideas, concepts and definitions of the topic (Hart, 1998). 3. 1 Research methods: There are two basic research methods, quantitative research and qualitative research. Qualitative and Quantitative research strategies and their underlying presuppositions have been increasingly debated since the early 1980s as though one or the other should eventually emerge as superior (Benz, 1988). 3. 1. Q uantitative research: Quantitative research is defined as an inquiry about an identified problem, based on testing a theory, measured with numbers, and analyzed using statistical techniques (Dobbin, Gatowski; 1999). At the same time Thomas (2003) states, quantitative methods, focus attention on measurement and amounts (more and less, larger and smaller, often and seldom, similar and different) of the characteristics displayed by the people and events that the researcher studies. The goal of quantitative methods is to determine whether the predictive generalizations of a theory hold true (Dobbin, Gatowski; 1999). . 1. 2 Q ualitative research: Qualitative research is defined as a process of inquiry with the goal of understanding a social or human problem from multiple perspectives; conducted in a natural setting with a goal of building a complex and holistic picture of the phenomenon of interest (Dobbin, Gatowski, 1999). It focuses on viewing experiences from the perspective and also tends to give more attention to the subjective aspects of human experience and behavior (Powell, 10 1991). This research provides insights and understanding of the problem setting (Malhotra 1999).
The advantages of using qualitative research are that qualitative methodologies allow the cognitive and affective components to be explored in greater depth than quantitative methodologies (Jone, 1997). It tends to apply a more holistic and natural approach to the resolution of a problem than does quantitative research (Powell, 1991). Qualitative methodologies encourage the informant to introduce concepts of importance from the aspect, rather than adhering to subject areas that have been pre-determined by the researcher (Jone, 1997). It involves the studied se and collection of a variety of empirical materials,- case study, personal experience, introspective, life story, interview, observational, historical, interactional, and visual texts-that describe routine and problematic moments and meanings In this paper the qualitative research method was used because this study is children and their parent base and using an interview to learn about the effect of television advertising on young children on sales. 3. 2 T ypes of Research Design : There are 3 type of research. They are Exploratory Research, Descriptive Research and Explanatory Research. 3. 2. 1 Descriptive Research:
Descriptive studies contain normative, epidemiological, correlation, and nonintervention case studies and qualitative studies (Huth, 1986). It involves the collection of data in order to reply questions regarding to the current status of the subjects of the study (Wasson, 2002). Descriptive Research involves large samples which are used to give description of an event or define attitude, opinions or behaviors that are measured observed on a particular environment (Mcnabb, 2002). 11 3. 2. 2 E xploratory Research: Corsini (2002) describes exploratory research that preparation for research by gathering relevant facts and opinions.
The first step is data based research and the study of the literature on the topic. A second step is consulting experts in the domain. A facultative third step is doing a pilot study; this permits checking out equipment, accessing reactions of Kumar (2005) states that exploratory research is conducted to develop refine and test measurement tools and procedures. It requires a certain approach to the analysis of data, a certain perspective. Exploratory Study is that the more one knows about the data, the more effectively data can be used to develop, test, and refine theory (Hartwig, Dearing;1979). . 2. 3 E xplanatory Research: Explanatory research, which takes descriptive or exploratory data and goes on to explain why, is a further step in social science research. Explanatory research is the pinnacle of showing that coaching causes certain outcomes and can also demonstrate the underlying causes for outcomes (Stober, 2008). In this paper explanatory research will be used because this research is more interested than the other researches to find ou 3. 3 Population and sampling of the research: Population is a key building block for a solid attributes sampling plan (Martin, 2004).
The population is defined as the complete group for which the marketing research is directed (Blankenship, Breen, Dutka; 1998). According to Martin (2004), auditors need to decide what to include in–and exclude from–the population and the time period examined, is an important consideration. 12 In this research, population will be selected as young children aged between 6 12 years old and their parent from Istanbul in Turkey. Twenty children will be chosen for this research. Two of children are going to the kinder garden. The others are going to the primary school. 0 of them are girl and 10 of them are boy. 2 six years old. 3 seven years old. 5 eight years old. 5 nine years old. 2 ten years old. 1 eleven years old. 2 twelve years old. Eight chi them is teacher. The other one is nurse. Two fathers are doctor. 3. 3. 1 Sampling: Sampling is described as the selection of a fraction of the total amount of units of interest to decision makers, for the ultimate purpose of being able to draw general conclusions about the entire body of units (Parasuraman, 1991). Sampling methods are classified as either probability or non-probability.
Probability sampling is the more scientific and useful of the two methods. The goal of sampling is to select a set of elements that accurately shows the total population from which the elements were drawn. It enhances the likelihood of accomplishing this objective and also provides methods for estimating the degree of probable success (Babbie, 1979). Non-probability sampling: With a non-probability sampling, the researcher can not state the probability of a specific element of the population being included in the sample. Non-probability samples suffer from important weaknesses.
It does not permit generalizing from the sample to the population because the researcher has no assurance that the sample is representative of the population. On the other hand, non-probability samples are usually easier and cheaper to obtain than are probability sample (Powell, 1991). The differences between probability sampling and non-probability sampling are that in probability sampling, sampling units are selected by chance but non-probability sampling relies on the personal judgments of the researcher rather than chance to select sample elements (Malhotra, 1999).
Consequently, selection biases are avoided, and statistical theory can be used to derive properties of the survey estimators. Non-probability sampling covers a variety of procedures, including the use of volunteers and the purposive choice of elements for the sample on the grounds that they are representative of the population. The weakness of 13 all non-probability sampling is its subjectivity, which precludes the development of a theoretical framework for it (Kalton, 1983).
Sample in this study will be 20 kids who gave the relevant answers with related children will be found non-randomly by convenience because the director of kinder garden was known before. The other respondents will be found via relatives and friends. In this paper non-probability sampling will be used. The questions will be prepared in order to learn see the differences of ideas about the television advertising between children and adults. The other reason to ask questions to them is to compare which age group is more influenced television advertising on their sales. n order to draw conclusion that children are influenced more by television advertising than the others. 3. 4 Sources of data collection: The collection of required information depends on the nature, object, and availability of financial resources, time, and man power. There are two different types of data: primary data and secondary data (Singh, Mangat, 1996). 3. 4. 1 Secondary data : Secondary data is data that is neither collected directly by the user nor specifically for the user, often under conditions not known to the user. Secondary information has already been collected for some other purposes.
It may be available from internal sources, or may have been collected and published by another organization. Secondary data is cheaper and more quickly available than primary data, but likely to need processing before it is useful. 1 1 http://www. blurtit. com/q959688. html 14 3. 4. 2 Primary data: Primary data is the information you can get directly from people in the community encountered as part of your secondary data collection ( Judy, Lommel, and Hartz; 2005). The method usually adopted for collecting primary data are direct personal interview, questionnaires sent through mail, and telephone interview.
In direct personal interview, the investigator contacts the respondents personally and interviews them. The interviewer asks the questions pertaining to the objective of survey. In the method of questionnaires sent through mail; the investigator prepares a questionnaire and sends it by mail to the respondents. The respondents are requested to complete the questionnaires and return them to the investigator by a specific date. In telephone interview; the respondents in the population to be covered can be approached by phone, their responses to various questions, included in the schedule, can be obtained over phone (Singh, Mangat; 1996).
In this study, primary data will be used as primary data is useful to learn the answers of research questions. Instrument to collect the data Q uestionnaire: A questionnaire is a method of obtaining specific information about a defined problem so that the data, after analysis and interpretation, result in a better appreciation of the problem. It is an important element of the total research design, and its preparation and administration demand considerable professional expertise (Chisnal, 1997).
Questionnaires can facilitate the collection of large amounts of data in a relatively short period of time; responses typically are expected within one or two weeks (Babbie, 1979). It was chosen to categorize the questions in the interview guide after how the theoretical framework was arranged. This will be made, in accordance with Lantz was done, in accordance wih (Lantz, 1993), to facilitate the presentation and the analysis of the data. Th 15 and from that discussion, conclusion was drawn (Lantz in Bokor, Werner and Richardsson; 2004).
Interview: The research interview is perhaps the most powerful and versatile of techniques for gathering information directly from another person. Routinely, it involves a face-to-face. Exchange between the person seeking information and the person giving it (Vonk, 2006). Although time consuming and costly, the face-to-face survey method collected data that was practically looked upon as scientific fact. It has an enormous advantage over newer and cheaper forms of survey-taking: they can acquire data from subjects who would otherwise be impossible to gather data from (Rios, 1997). It may also take place over the telephone (Vonk, 2006).
Telephone interview is enable a researcher to gather information rapidly. Like personal interviews, they allow for some personal contact between the interviewer and the respondent (Valenzuela, Sh relevant veri by encouraging, facilitating, and guiding the respondents to provide unbiased and clear answers to necessary questions (Vonk, 2006). In contrast to the mail questionnaire, the interview does have certain important advantages (Babbie, 1979). Interviews represent qualitative, process-oriented methodologies and subsequent data analysis is reviewed in an interpretive, value-laden approach (Bhaskar, 1978).
Aspects of Qualitative Research Interviews (Valenzuela, Shrivastava; 2002) Interviews are completed by the interviewer based on what the respondent says. Interviews are a far more personal form of research than questionnaires. Unlike with mail surveys, the interviewer has the opportunity to probe or ask follow up questions. Interviews are generally easier for respondent, especially if what sought are opinions or impressions. In this research, the interviews with related to qualitative research will be carried out both as person interviews-face to face interview and by telephone.
In order to identify the attitudes related the form of the effect of television advertising on children as consumer; it was intended to present the customer with a series of questions regarding the subject. The 16 data will be collected from both parent and children. 28 questions which are related to the influence of TV advertising on children will be asked during the interview. 14 questions will be asked only the child aged between six and twelve years and 14 questions will be asked only their parents aged between 35 and 45 years. All responses will be in Turkish and will be translated to English.
Since it is so difficult to speak on the phone for children, it was preferred face to face interview with the young children. s, except only one child aged 12 years old and it lasted about 30 minutes. The telephone interviews will be conducted because of long distance. All interviews will be tape recorded. The reason to use a tape recorder during the interviews is to given me a possibility to go back if there appeared uncertainties afterwards. It will be prepared questions to ask the children and their parent during the interview. It will be included 28 questions. 4 questions will be prepared for the children and the other 14 questions will be for parents. 17 THEORY 3. 1 T he role of A dvertising: Advertising is the means by which goods or services are promoted to the public s to increase sales of these goods or services by According to (Arens in Ayanwale, Alimi and Ayanbimipe; 2005), the mission of advertiser is to reach prospective customers and influence their awareness, attitudes and buying behaviour. They spend a lot of money to keep individuals (markets) interested in their products. To succeed, they need to understand what makes potential customers behave the way they do.
For advertising to exist, a number of factors have to be in place (Petley, 2003). The goods and services to be advertised Competition between different providers of the same kinds of goods and services, for which there needs to be a significant potential market The means of advertising cheaply to large numbers of people A population with sufficient education to be able to understand advertising messages Advertising is a marketing function, and Kotler (in Bokor, Werner and Richardsson; 2004) claims that advertising can have a number of different, possible objectives. One objective can be to inform customers about new product or a price change.
The main objective here is to build primary demand. Another objective can be to persuade, the use advertising as a way to build preference and to encourage customers to change brand. The fundamental purpose of advertising is to influence people to purchase various goods and products. In this sense advertising is a phenomenon that aims to persuade or influence people (Bjurstrom, 1994). 18 What is the role of advertising in the demand function? One response of this question is that a company can sell more of its product by informing consumers about the product. The information may include its existence, price, promotion, quality, etc.
Therefore advertising is seen as providing information to consumers. The other response is that advertising searches the way of persuading consumers to purchase the advertised products by appeals to snobbery, associations of the product with favoured people or situations, repetition of the same message and so on (Sawyer, 1985). Advertising shows the last style and the new popular products in the market. It displays ideal individuals wearing the new clothes and looking good. Customers are jealous of this perfection. So that, they go out and purchase in hopes of reaching perfection. There is a time dimension at advertising.
Advertising`s influence on sales is immediate (i. e. it is mostly felt within seven days of an advertisement`s exposure). A repetition of such effects, measured at the end of a year, amounts to a medium-term influence (Jones and Slater, 2003). The immediate influence of advertising on sales plays a gatekeeper role to all further effects. Without it there will not be medium term effect (i. e. a repetition of short-term effects); and long-term effect. Advertising`s full effect can be only valued if its long-term influence is taken account as well as its short and medium-term effects on sales.
These terms make it possible to evaluate the productivity of an advertising campaign; to measure if the campaign shows a financial return on the investment and is thus accountable (Jones and Slater, 2003) According to Doole & Lowe (2004), advertising is the most important part of the whole marketing strategy. There are many channels of media to use for advertising, for example television, printed media, radio, cinema, outdoor and transport poster (Doole & Lowe in Bokor, Werner and Richardsson; 2004). Marketers use television as the most powerful medium of communication (Wimalasiri, 2004). 19 3. T V advertisement: The expansion of these media has been rapid, with the introduction of radio stations, satellite television, pay-television and a plethora of new local and foreign print titles (West and Paliwoda in Nowak; 2004). Television is an effective and popular advertising mass medium and because it is a passive medium, it suits advertisements which play with feelings and image (Rossiter & Percy in Nowak; 2004). Television is the largest source of media messages. The average child or adolescent watches an average of three hours of television per day (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2001).
It is possible to use many creative solutions and it uses both mobile images and sound (Rossiter & Percy in Nowak; 2004). T able 1. Consumers perception of media use in advertising bournvita Media Frequency Percentage Television Radio Out door display Newspaper Magazine Total 225 45 17 14 14 315 71. 43 14. 29 5. 4 4. 44 4. 44 100 Source: Analysis of Field Survey (2000) Table 1 reveals five different media used in advertising Bournvita, which is one of the leading food drinks in the Food and Beverage industry in Nigeria and how consumers viewed them in order of preference.
In order to reach the above result , (Ayanwale et al, 2005) was made a survey and 315 consumers from Lagos, Ibadan and Ile-Ife, cities in Southwestern Nigeria were selected randomly. 20 The results showed that most consumers (71. 43%) expressed their preference for TV advertising of Bournvita while newspaper and magazine advertising shared 4. 44% consumers each. The powerful combination of sound and vision in the tv advertisements might be reason behind the expressed preference for this media (Ayanwale, Alimi and Ayanbimipe, 2005).
Marketers use television as the most powerful medium of communication. Over the last three years the spread of multi-channel television reception around the world has led to an exponential growth in the number of channels targeting children (Wimalasiri, 2004). As a result, it can be said about television advertising is a powerful promotional tool for reaching children (Enis, Spencer and Webb, 1986). The purpose of a television commercial for a particular product is of course for various groups and individuals to buy that product.
To achieve this primary objective they often try to make us feel and think in a certain way. For example, a TV commercial makes people associate the promoted product with concepts that they are assumed to value highly or with feelings that we find you buy this advertised product. It probably does not occur in a single advertisement, but so it is the concerted message of all advertising. In this way advertising can be said to contribute unintentionally to maintaining and confirming a particular consumer ideology ( Bjurstrom, 1994). 2. 3 Parents are under the effect of their children
In the 1950s, researchers in sociology started considering the importance of children as consumers. In the 1960s, they expanded their study on children to include their decisions and the effect of parents and peers on their consumption patterns (Richard in Panwar and Agnihotri; 2006). Children is an important social group, whose commercial importance continues to grow. Advertising creators and marketing sales persons therefore try to find the right formula that will address this group and will also not come into conflict with ethics and the law (Zenkner, 21 equests, encourage them to develop skills in selecting and interpreting product information (Ward in Caruana, and Vassallo, 2003). uy things for them (Proctor and Richards in Gunter, 2005). Parker (2001) stated U. K. parents spend approximately ? 7 more when supermarket shopping with children than without them. If children wage a campaign of requests and demands in advance of birthdays and Christmas, pester power shows its effect in long term. For example, Crouch (1999) pointed out three quarters of children had started asking for Christmases presents before October.
On the other hen parents refuse to buy products because of they cannot afford to buy them or because of they think that they are inappropriate for their children such as snack foods. Thus this situation may cause to anger, frustration, and disappointment (Atkin, 1978). Children try to get from their parents what they want by force and they nag their families to buy food they have seen advertised. In order to obtain their wishes, they can effectively play on parents tender spots. In the UK one in five families are described they have battles over food nearly every mealtime.
On the other hand pester power is not only fostered through the media. The dynamics arise in the family and it is a part of the culture. For instance children appear to pester more in Sweden where the advertising aimed at children is banned compare to Spain where it is relieved (Wilkinson, 2003). often taken as evidence of immediate effects (Jarlbo, 2000). Goldstein in Jarlbo (2000) wants and desires. busy parents choice the easy way and they give in to children`s constant pestering. Children are very demanding consumers from the marketing aspect (Zenkner, 2007).
Because advertisers consider that brand loyalty begins early in life and childhood experiences continue throughout a lifetime. Advertisement may easily address children, but to be able to truly aim the marketing message well is highly difficult (Zenkner, 2007). Because of effectiveness of 22 advertising to children, most countries which including Sweden, have banned advertisements on television and radio programmes targeted children under 12. Belgium has forbidden commercial`s during children`s programs and Australia has forbidden advertisements during television programming targeted at preschoolers (Smith, 2001).
As children become more independent viewers with access to their own televisions and videos, parents have less control over what children watch and less opportunity to discuss advertisements that might have been seen during familly viewing (Gunter, Oates, Blades; 2005). 2. 4 C hildren and T V A dvertising Pecora in Wimalasiri (2004), states that in the 1940s and 1950s children were not power. With the advent of television and other mass media, children have come into their own right as consumers and, consequently, they have become an important target market for capable of making decisions about spending (Wimalasiri 2004).
The 1950s dates the modern era of children’s television programming, when a deal between struggling television network ABC and Disney brought The Mickey Mouse Club and Disneyland into children’s afternoon television programming. Advertising at that time appealed generally to the personal gain of the consumer in the case they decided to purchase the sponsored product. Over the next 15 to 20 years, children’s television became an industry by itself (Tseng, 2004). Throughout this history of children’s television advertising, researchers have criticized in different ways the use of television commercials directed to children (Tseng, 2004).
In the late 1970s, a research team funded by National Science Foundation (NSF) estimated that children viewed an average of about 20,000. – commercials per year (Adler in Singer, 2001). There was so little study on this topic during the 1950s, the majority of the studies on children’s television advertising environment goes from the 1970s onward (Alexander et al. 1998). Four types of products advertised to children during the 1970s were limited: toys, cereals, candies and snacks, and fast foods. Male voiceovers accounted for the great majority 23 f ads coded, and animated characters seldom appeared (Barcus in Tseng, Eliana Shiao; 2004). While marketers and advertisers heightened their interest in the child market during the 1980s, research on children’s television advertising of that period consisted mainly on replications and extensions of previous studies (Tseng, 2004). and Alberty; 1979). Children who watch a lot of television, want more toys seen in advertisements and eat more advertised food than children who do not watch as much television (Strasburger, 2002).
Children also urge their parents and friends to be sure to watch certain commercials (Fox in Jarlbo, 2000). According to (Resnik, Stern and Alberty, 1979), television advertising and its effect on consumption patterns, values, and social interaction have been hotly debated for many years. But only recently has the controversy focused on its differential impact on special interest groups- the elderly, minorities and children. As many authors states, there are many television advertisements based on children and it is faced that children urge their parents to purchase what they want without needing.
For a whole generation of new age children, television is as influential as a parent or a teacher (Panwar, 2006). According to Wiman (1986), children who talk with their parents more frequently about TV advertising and commercials make more purchase requests. Children considered tele networks in USA, found that an average of 43 per cent of total purchases made by parents were influenced by children (Cooper in Caruana, and Vassallo; 2003). Exposure to it was usually extensive before school, after school, during homework, at weekends, with or without friends (Hanley, 2000).
Marketers understand this fact very well. With the growing influence of media on children, an increasingly large number of advertisements are today directed to them ( Panwar, Agnihotri, 2006). Children, for example, who come from disadvantaged backgrounds, or those who have less access to their parents may not only spend more time with the media. But, may continue to rely more heavily on TV advertising for the information that they seek in various areas (Brown, Childers, Bauman and Koch in Evra; 1995).
Parents create direct opportunities by interacting with their children about purchase requests, giving them pocket money and 24 taking them to shopping excursions (Ward, Wackman, and Wartella; 1977). Children spend a large amount of time watching television. They pay more attention to commercials broadcast de subjective camera angles and editing (Stern & Harmon, 1986). According to The Guardian newspaper, McDonalds, and Coca Cola spent respectively 34,6 million Usd and 16,2 million Usd for television advertisement presented for children.
In this situation, firms do not hesitate to spend their money for the related advertisements. Therefore nowadays the expenditure of these advertisements has been increased dramatically such as McDonalds and Coca Cola as well as Disney. They are the best known brand in the world. It can be drawn conclusion from here that the role of children as consumer on the worlds economy has rapidly increased. The common features of the above mentioned brands are easily to find and focus on children and family in their advertisements.
According to McNeal (1992) american children spent over Usd 132 billion on 62 product categories of products were influenced by children. The number of commercials per hour on American television increased significantly towards the end of the decade. They provide a strong indication that American children are today exposed to more than 25 000 commercials per year via television (Kunkel & Roberts 1991). In 1997, $1,3 billion was spent on television advertisements directed at children. Counting all media, advertising and marketing budgets aimed at children approached $12 billion (McNeal, 1999).
It is estimated that children may view as many as 40,000 commercials each year ( Strasburger, 2001). In one of the research project about the influence of television advertising on children and teenagers, Hanley (2000) found that the younger children (aged 9 11) were very vague in their recall of current television advertising. The examples they came up with were often (Sugar Puffs), cartoon elephant (Charmin toilet roll). Older children (aged 12 16) recalled advertising they enjoyed or disliked. The a featured or the product.
For instance, they mentioned Rolo (elephant never forgets), as well television advertising seemed to influence children: pester power; Many parents felt that advertising had the power to make a significant impression on their children. Those featuring 25 effects, as cereals and toys) were most likely to be referred to: www. itc. org. uk Generally advertisers use interesting characters in their advertisem these characters are not real. For example Corn Flakes, Nesquick advertisements and etc (Hanley, 2000).
It was very common for the advertiser to show ads in which the child would acquire superhuman strength by eating a specific breakfast cereal, or would leave a group of friends in choking clouds of dust by running with the sponsored sneakers. Toys ads of that time were sponsored by unknown brands, which would generally end up becoming famous after making deals with the television station (Alexander et al; 1998). comprehension of television advertising and its persuasive intent increases with age, because of greater cognitive maturity and increased experience with the medium.
Even a majority of 5-8 years old have only a low awareness of what a commercial really is; and although three quarters of 9-12 year old children may demonstrate a medium level of awareness (eg. commercials tell you what to buy) (Ward & Wackman in Evra; 1995). However it is possible to say that even though they are very young to understand, the most important thing is the De Bens and Vandenbruaene (1992 pg 27) conveys that child affected depending on whether they are watching TV alone, with their parents or with other occupied with something else while watching TV.
Generally it is assumed that these factors 1992). In less developed countries the trend appears to follow the same pattern as in the developed world, although the market size may be comparatively small. Increasingly, children have become not passive observers, but active participants in the family purchase and services of their choice, they also have extensive influence on how their parents buy products and services (Wimalasiri, 2004). 26 If children saw something new in a television advertisement or in a magazine that they liked they were likely to buy it.
This is in line with Buijzen and findings that advertising is positively and directly related billion of their own money and influence family spending decisions worth another $165 billion on food, household items like furniture, electrical appliances and computers, influenced $9 billion worth of car sales in 1994. One car dealer explains: “Sometimes, the child literally is our customer. I have watched the child pick out the car. “(Stanley in Beder, 1998, pg 102) Advertising offers consumer ideas and information, which we process and evaluate in order to make rational choices.
Brown (2004) defends advertising to children on just such information about 27 C H APT ER 4 4. 1 E M PR I C A L ST U D Y The studies based on the result of questionnaires and interviews display consistently that the effect of advertising is fairly large in deciding what goods or products children want. The data was collected from both parent and children. In order to identify the attitudes related the form of the effect of television advertising on children as consumer it was intented to present the customer with a series of questions regarding the subject.
The interview was made with 30 respondents, and respondents are in the ages 6 12 and 35 45. Before starting to make interview it was explained to the children and their parents themselves that this is nice of them to help by spending some time talking about television advertising. Children and parents were asked about their opinion about the effect of advertising on children as consumers. T he amounts of hours that children watching television on weekdays 6-8 9-12 2 hours 3 hours on weekend and holidays 4 hours 2 hours Ages
In this study it was found that advertising among the children has a different effect. Fourteen children have their own television in their bedrooms, away from parents conrol. The minimum time spent by children aged 6-8 years old on watching TV is about one hour on the weekdays. On weekends and holidays, this time is extended to four or even more. They spend a significant amount of their leisure time watching television. This study found out those children under than 9 years old watch TV advertisements more than the other children. They spend half an hour a day on watching commercials.
According to this research, Cartoon these programs include commercials varying from 5 to 30 seconds duration. Children under the age of 9 like watching commercials during cartoons and children programs and do not 28 change their channel. Commercials are the second watched category of television behind cartoons third one is children programs. Children older than 9 years old spend their time on watching television 3 hours on weekdays and 2 hours on weekend. Their interests decreases on weekend and holiday and find different activity to spend their leisure time on these days.
The respondents (9 and 12 years old) do not like to see the television advertisement as much as young children and make zapping in front of the television. Some television advertisements are more enjoyable than television programs Yes 6-9 years old children No Children older than 9 years This study was displayed that for young children (6-9 years old), television advertisements are more enjoyable than television programs. Although children older the age of 9 like commercials, they prefer children programs instead of TV advertisements.
In this research, also it was asked to children what their favourite advertisement is. Young children (6-9 years old) say that he/she likes entertaining advertisement on television and generally his/her favourite characters are not seen on cartoons programs, they are imaginary characters seen on television advertisements. One of the respondents (7 years old) said that she likes advertisements so that she does not hesitate to buy this ice cream in spite of she is afraid of to be sick. The second one (8 years old) talked about the music and song of the advertisements. dvertisement, children sing a song which consistently cites name of Eti (brand name). She name while I am in the supermarket in order to purchase biscui television advertisements are effective on young children (6-9 years old) in deciding which products will be purchased. Also it was indicated that not only for young children, also for children between 9-12 years, advertisements are not boring. 29 6-8 9-12 understand the intent of advertisements No Yes reason for buying Entertainment, believe to commercial ads. Products features
Meanwhile this research investigates whether children understand the intent of advertising or not. After the results it was found out that there is a relationship between the age and understanding of advertisement. This research shows that young children aged between 6 and 8 years old do not understand the messages in the television and they find television advertisements entertaining and therefore they persuade their parents to buy the advertised advertisement, they Thus, results show that 6-8 year old children have a low awareness of what advertisements want to say.
Young children, who have less ability to understand advertisements intent, attend to commercials more than older children. Hence they should be more vulnerable to advertising messages. Children between 9-12 years old know the advertising intents and purchase the products because of its features. There is age factor seeing in this study. As a child becomes older, their ability to understand the purpose of advertisements increases. They understand that advertisements seek to sell a product and firstly they buy products which one is needed more. A ffected by advertising 6-9 years old Yes
O lder than 9 years old No There are different opinions among the respondents regarding whether the television advertising affects them or not in deciding which products will be purchased. Results show that television advertisements affect under 9 years old children in shopping. Under 9 years old children think that TV advertisements make customers more interested and encourage 30 trying the advertised products. One of them said that she purchased new brand because of an advertisement and in that case she remembered an advertisement she had seen, and because of this reason she felt like eating that product.
Older than 9 years old of the respondents believe that television advertisements do not influence in shopping and the advertised products are not effective on their sales. The question is the most wanted product in shopping? And wh children. Eleven children, whose ages are between six and 10 years old, prefer the advertised products. The respondents who chose the advertised product, believe that it is not possible to know these products well or not without television advertisements. By means of television advertisements, they feel excited and delighted.
One girl (7 years old) said that while she is watching tv advertisements in which children are eating or drinking something, she urges their parents to eating or drinking the same product. One young child (7 years old) said that he likes Danino yogurt advertisements and admitted that because of only these advertisements, he urges his parents to buy this yogurt. Then he explained that the main reason to choose this advertisement is that in television advertisement, one boy grows up and to be strong as soon as he eats Danino yogurt and he believe that he will be strong and grow up in a short time ually purchase for
Older than 10 years old children said different things like price, quality are effective for choosing products in shopping. This study shows that the younger child (aged 6-10) is very vague in their recall of current TV advertising. They said that if they like the television advertsements, they tend to purchase the goods older than 10 years children like the advertisements but not purchase the products if they do not need. Four communication tools were offered the respondents in order to choose which one is most effective to show the advertisements.
The results show that children under than 6-11 years expressed their preference for television advertising. For them television is the most significant factor for advertisements to be effective since it can be watched and heard. The respondents (11-12 years) think since magazines / newspapers are more informative than the others, they are the most suitable to display the advertisements. According to these children, most of the people prefer to read magazines /newspapers. 31 Just only one child (aged 12 years) said that billboards are the most effective to show driving, you are able to see billboards that you do not want.
When you are watching television, if you do not want to watch , you can change your channel, when you are reading newspapers /magazines, you can jump from the related pages to the another page. But while you are walking, you cannot change your way because you do not want to see the ere are no children saying that radio has impact on advertising as consumers. According to these results, television advertising is effective vehicle for reaching children (between 6-11 years). This study was found out that in a day, young children (6-9 years) spend about 5. -tl on 3 product categories of products were affected by children.
Children older the age of 9, spend about 1. -tl on 1 product and they save their pocket money for products which they need more. Also in this research it was found that girls are more interested in television advertisements than boys. Boys like to spend more time outdoors and like to play computer games with their friends. In this dissertation also it was found out that parents are influenced by their children. Results show that childrens influence on family purchasing has been steadily increasing. A dverting and C hildren from the Aspect of the A dults parents. This study shows that parents are influenced on children. of 10 parents emphasized most of the advertised products to children are sugared cereals, candies, sweets, sodas and snack foods. when they are shopping, children are looking for these kinds of products and they force them to buy from these unhealthy things during the shopping. They think that children are unable to understand the advertising messages accurate and unbiased and this situation lead to unhealthy eating habits. They are easy targets for commercial persuasion. One of the parents stated, if a shopping centre has not got advertised products, their son do not want to go there, so they have an impact on choosing 32 hopping centres. Two of the families said that they cannot use the brands that their children do not enjoy. Three mothers particularly emphasized they cannot leave from the shopping centre without buying products that chosen by their children. As can be understood from the answers of parents, children have a considerable impact on family shopping choices and mostly advertisings give shape to children purchasing. After the results it was found that children influence families shopping choices. Especially young children (6-9 years old) try to persuade them to buy when on shopping tours.
Also this study indicates that parental control is weaker. Children also have extensive influence on how their parents buy products. Children use various tactics to influence their parents. Parents think that their children have got right to say their opinions to choose products while shopping in particular food, games, choices. Results display that for young children (6 and 9 years) time is not important and they can request from their parents something in the hour of night or morning and price is not crucial for them. Young children (6-9 years) urge their parent to buy more than old children.
They insist on to purchasing products or services without needing. On the other hand, children older than 9 years know when they can request from their parents to buy something or not. Two of the parents accepted that the younger people are more willing to change and to try new products than older person. If he /she see interesting products on television advertisements, he/ she is willing to buy these products. If the advertisement influence successfully, even though he or she does not like the product after try in contrast to their parents, they continue to buy the same brand.
Five mothers said that their children purchase the goods or services that they do not need because of the television advertisements by using advertisements in particular Lcwaiki advertisements in which girl is trying new clothes, she starts to lean on us to buy the same clothes immediately. She indicated that her daughter argues with them over denials of her requests and became angry with her requests were denied. Because this study displays that children buys the advertised goods as a consequence of watching television advertising. to this study, parents think that quality and good products do not need a commercial activity.
But only three of the respondents believe that advertising is an important criterion to discover 33 and use the good product. They emphasized without advertising it is not easy to decide which product is quality which one is not. Also there was a question if advertised products sell more or not for parents. Respondents agree that advertised products have a positive impact on public eye and they believe that advertised products also have a psychological effect on consumers. Additionally this research underline that advertising also have an impact on parents purchasing behaviour as children. 34 C H APT ER 5 5. 1 A nalysis:
While comparing the data collected from the emprical study with the theoretical framework, some things were noted. The emprical study displayed that there was not much diferences between children and their parents with who was talked about the effect of television advertising on their sons/ daughters as consumers. Meanwhile in order to show that younger people are influenced by television advertising more than adults, some same questions were asked to parents. Rossiter & Percy in Nowak (2004) state that television is a popular advertising mass medium and television advertisements play with feelings and image,
According to Enis, Spencer and Webb (1986); television advertising is a powerful promotional tool for reaching children. On the contrary, Goldstein in Jarlbo (2000) claimed that playmates are the principal influence on chi In this study it was found out that televison is an effective way for reaching children especially young children. Stern & Harmon (1986) state that children spend a large amount of time watching television. programming. favorite programs, followed by children programs. Children under the age of 9 like watching commercials during cartoons and children programs and do not change their channel.
As per (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2001); the average child watches an average of three hours of television per day. In this research, advertising among the children has a different effect. Children aged 6-8 years spend one hour per day in weekend. On holidays or weekend this time is extendend to four or even more. Also it was seen that children under than 9 years old watch TV advertisements more than the other children. They spend half an hour a day on watching commercials. Stern& Harmon (1986) mentioned that commercials broadcast during cartoon characters, music, subjective camera angles and editing.
The answers of children 35 They pay more attent confirmed that young children like entertaining advertisements. They pay more attention television advertisements because of characters (Panda, Mickey Mouse and etc), music. In this study, it was pointed that there is a relationship between the age and understanding of advertisement. As children become older, their comprehension of television advertising increases. This research shows that children under than 8 years do not understand the messages in the television. They have less ability to understand advertisements intent and attend to commercials more than older children.
Children between 9-12 years old know the advertising intents and purchase the products because of its features. Ward & Wackman in Evra (1995) supported that persuasive intent increases with age. While some of the respondents are influenced by television advertising; some of them are not. This research shows that television advertisements especially affect young children (between 6 and 9 years) since it can be seen and heard and facilitate their choices in deciding which goods or services will be bought. Hanley (2000) found that the younger children (aged 9-11) were very vague in their recall of current television advertising.
Older children (aged 12-16) recalled advertising they enjoyed or disliked. In this study, the similar result was reached that even though under the age of 9 years old children do not understand the intent of advetising, they are influenced what are seen on television advertisements. In this paper, children (6-9 years old) like the television advertisements and they tend to purchase the goods. Children (older than 9 years) like the advertisements but not purchase the products if they do not need. Television advertisements do not influence children older than 9 years old in shopping and the advertised products are not effective on their sales.
This study also was displayed that for young children (6-9 years old), television advertisements are more enjoyable than television programs. Although children older the age of 9 like commercials, they prefer children programs instead of TV advertisements. After the results, it was noticed that most of the respondents were similar about that television is effective media to show advertisements. Kotler (2004), claims that one objective of advertising is to inform customers about new product or a price change. But in this paper, the interview was made with children especially young children.
In this research, eleven children between 6 and 10 years are not interested in price change. For older than 10 years comprehension of television advertising and its 36 old children, one of the important things is price while shopping. Also their parents confirmed about that their children are not interested in price. By means of TV advertisements, they can imagine before they have. According to Wiman (1986), children who talk with their parents more frequently about TV advertising and commercials make more purchase requests. The result of the study validated this situation.
If children see something new in a television advertisement or in a magazine that they like they were likely to buy it (Roper and Shah, 2007). Children nag their families to buy food they have seen advertised. In order to obtain their wishes, they can effectively play on parents` tender spots (Wilkinson, 2003). As mentioned on the part of theory; this study reveals that young children (6 -9 years) are pertinacious to reach their wishes which they saw on television advertisements. They pester their parents to purchase products without needing. are under the influence of children.
Results show that children have a major impact on their hey can say their opinion and sometimes insist on to buy what they request for needs of their house. As Gunter (2005) mentioned, children are independent viewers and they have their own televisions and videos, parents have less control over what children watch and less opportunity to discuss advertisements that might have been seen during family viewing. Among the children in this research, fourteen children have got their own television in their bedrooms, away from control. Children have become not passive observers, but active participants in the family purchase decisions.
They also have extensive influence on how their parents buy products and services (Wimalasiri, 2004). In this dissertation also it was found out that parents are influenced by their children. Children have a considerable impact on family shopping choices and mostly advertisings give shape to children purchasing. Especially young children (6-9 years old) try to persuade them to buy when on shopping tours. McGee in Beder (1998, pg billion of their own money. This study was found out that in a day, young children (6-9 37 years) spend about 5. -tl on 3 product categories of products were affected by children.
Children older the age of 9, spend about 1. -tl on 1 product and they save their pocket money for products which they need more. Finally while comparing; the result and the frame of reference have got some similarities. There is a positive correlation between television advertisements and purchase intensions. The most important things found in this research are age factor. When the age increases, the impact of advertising on people decreases. Young children are more influenced than adults. It is very diffucult to persuade the old people to buy the advertised products.
It was drawn conclusion from this research that the most interesting audiences are young children. They spend a lot of time watching television. While they are watching television programs related to the children, during these programs they do not make zapping. In the circumstances of seeing something to eat or to drink, they want to try them immediately and do not care of time. 38 5. 2 Conclusion This dissertation tried to show whether the television advertisements are effective on children as a consumer or not. On the theory part advertisements influence the you es about the effect of television choices.
Even though there are lots of tools to advertisements on young children as consumers. According to this study, television show the goods or services, television was chosen as the best way that can enhance the company’s profits greatly by most of researchers. Also this research validated that among many communication tools, television advertisements have been more impact and effect on people than the other tools. In particular television advertisements has more influence on young children than adults. It was found out that, those children who are younger than 9 years old watch TV advertisements more than the older ones.
There is an age factor seeing in this study. the television advertisements. Children’s comprehension of television commercials increases with age. As children become older, their comprehension of television advertising increases. Young children have a low awareness of what commercials want to say. Children between 912 years old know the advertising intents and purchase the products because of its features. So that the results showed that young children are more persuadable than are older children. Hence they should be more vulnerable to advertising messages.
Today children in particular young children play an important role as consumers. The results displayed that there is no time for young children to want to eat or drink something. They do not care price of which one they want to buy. It was concluded that young children (6Also they do not care if these products are healthy for them or not. While they are shopping, the first thing switch new brands instead of their used products. In this situation, the advertising has a stronger affect on younger consumer. Hence advertisers usually tend to make advertisements which can be easily made implications on children.
Nowadays advertisers and marketers see young children as potential customers. The reason to focus on young children particularly in this study is the age factors. As children grows up, to persuade them by television 39 advertisement while they are purchasing the goods or services will be difficult. Meanwhile mpact on family decision in shopping has been steadily increased. After the results, it was displayed that young children are not passive observers. They influence their families` purchases behaviour. They have got right to tell their decision in choosing somewhere to go or to buy something for house.
Also this study indicates that parental control is weaker. Children also have extensive influence on how their parents buy products. Since these reasons which were stated the above, advertisers are more interested in children than adults. 40 R E F E R E N C ES: Alexander, Alison, Louise M. Benjamin, Keisha Hoerrner, and Darrell Roe (1998),””We’ll Be Back In a Moment”: A Content Analysis of Advertisements in Children’s Television in the 1950s,” Journal of Advertising, 27 (3), 1-8 Atkin C. K (1978), Observation of parent-child interaction in supermarket decision making Journal of Marketing Ayanwale, Adeolu B. Alimi, Taiwo and Ayanbimipe, Matthew A. (2005) The Influence of Advertising on Consumer Brand Preference Babbie, Earl R (1979) The Practice of Social Research Benz, Carolyn R… (1998) Publisher: Southern Illinois University Press. Place of Publication: Carbondale, IL. Publication Year:. pg . i. Bokor, Andreas; Werner, Sofie and Richardsson, Ulf (2004) Alcohol advertisement influence on consumers Bjurstrom, Erling (1994) Chilren and television advertising, A critical study of international research concerning the effects of TV- commercials on children Report Bhaskar, R. 1978), Realist Theory of Science, Harvester-Wheatsheaf, Brighton,. Society in the North West, 18 February, available at: www. adassoc. org. uk. speeches/ ab _msnw_speech_180204. html Beder, Sharon (1998) ‘A Community View’, Caring for Children in the Media Age, Marketing to Children Blankership, Albert Breneman; Bren, George Edward; Dutka, Alan F (1998), State of the Art Marketing Research Caruana; Albert an over purchases: the role of parental communication patterns. Journal of Consumer Marketing pg 55, 56 Crouch, C, (1999) Case Study=GMTV competing for children International Journal f advertising and m arketing to children De Bens, Els & Vandenbruaene, Peter (1992) Advertising and Children. Part IV, Effects of TV advertising on children 41 Dobbin, Shirl Enis, Benn M; Spencer, Dale R; Webb, Don r ( 1986) Television advertising and children: Regulatory vs. competitive perspectives Gunter, Barrie; Oates, Caroline; Blades, Mark (2005) , Advertising to Children on TV: Content, Impact, and Regulation Hanley, Pam (2000), ITC in conjunction with Wendy Hayward, Leah Sims, Joss Jones of The Qualitative Consultancy, The Influence of Television Advertising on Children and Teenagers, www. tc. org. uk Hartwig, Frederick, Dearing, Brian E (1979); Exploratory Data Analysis Huth (1986) Descriptive Study Jarlbo, Gunilla (1994-2000) Children and Advertising on Television A Survey of the Research, Jones, Ian (1997) Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Sports Fan Research , The Qualitative Report, Volume 3, Number 4, (http://www. nova. edu/ssss/QR/QR3-4/jones. html) Judy, Richard W; Lommel, Jane M; Hartz Brian G; (2005), The Strategic Skills Initiative Research and Identification Guidebook, Workforce Associates, Inc.
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Ithaca, NY: Paramount Market. Mcnabb E. D. ,(2002) , Research Methods in Public Administration and nonprofit Management ISBN 0765609576 Nowak, Caroline (2004) Cross-cultural analysis of television commercials in Sweden and Poland pg49 Powell, Ronald R (1991) Basic Research Methods for Librarians Panwar, J. S; and Agnihotri, Milan,(2006) Advertising message processing amongst urban children, An Indian experience pp 303, 305 Resnik, Alan J; Stern, Bruce L and Alberty, Barbara (1979) Integrating results from Journal of Advertising pg. Rios, Christian (1997) Face to face surveys Roper, Stuart and Shah, Binita (2007) Vulnerable consumers: the social impact of branding on children pg 719 Sawyer, Malcom C (1985) The Economics of Industries and Firms Smith ,Lois J (1994): ‘A Content Analysis of Gender Differences in Children’s Advertising’ Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media Stern, Bruce L; and Harmon, Robert R (1986) The incidence and characteristics of Singer,Dorothy G. and Singer, Jerome L. 2001) Handbook of children and the media Stober, Dianne R, (2008) , Approaches to Research on Executive and Organizational Coaching Outcomes Feature Sing, Ravindra; Mangat, Naurang Singh (1996) Elements of Survey Sampling Strasburger, Victor C. (2001, June). Children and TV advertising: Nowhere to run, nowhere to hide. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 22, 185. with special reference to TV advertising, 43 American Academy of Pediatrics. Children, adolescents, and television. Pediatrics 2001; 107:423-426. Strasburger, 2001) VC.
Children and TV advertising: nowhere to run, nowhere to hide. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2001;22:185-187. Today , The University of Texas at Austin Thomas, Robert Murray (2003) Blending qualitative and quantitative research methods in theses and dissertations p1-2 Ward, S. , Wackman, D. B. and Wartella, E. (1977), How Children Learn to Buy, Sage, Beverly Hills, CA Wilkinson, Simon R. (2003) Coping and complaining Wiman, Alan R (1986) Pare advertising, Journal of Advertising pg 14 Wimalasiri, Jayantha S. (2004) A crossbehavior and parental response, Jornal of Consumer Marketing pg 275,281 V.
Evra, Purpose Pscchology & Marketing pg 424, 427 Valenzuela, Dabzury; Shrivastava, Pallavi; (2002) Interview as a Method for Qualitative Research sponses to the screen Valkenburg, Patti; Buijzen, Moniek (2003); The Unintended Effects of Television Advertising Zenkner , Petr (2007) Advertising and Children: A Delicate Problem -Marketing Magazine. Internet Sources http://ezinearticles. com/? Cosmetic-Dentistry-TV-Commercials&id=353685, Cosmetic Dentistry TV Commercials By Jason Gluckman ) http://www. ppu. org. uk/children/advertising_toys_eu. tml, — Children and Advertising the European Dimension 44 http://www. wowessays. com/dbase/ad3/ler124. shtml-, The Effects Of Advertising On Teens http://www. ppu. org. uk/indexa. html; children and advertising ,the European dimension www. irm-media. se http://www. statpac. com/surveys/sampling. htm http://telecollege. dcccd. edu/MRKT2370/Chapters/ch3/3prim. html http://www. blurtit. com/q959688. html http://web. gsm. uci. edu/~currim/Outlines/Full-time %20 Outlines / Winter 05/ Marketing%20Research/ Marketing%20Research%20Session%203. pdf 5 A ppendix 1 Questionnaire: ask only the child aged between six and 15 years Gender: Male Female 1. Do you want to buy the products as soon as you watch the advertisements on television? 2. Do you watch the advertisements during children programs and cartoon or zapping? 4. Are the advertisements boring? 5. Do you think that television advertisements affect your decision about which product you will choose? 6. Do you understand the intent of advertisements? 7. Could you please describe the first advertisement that comes to mind that you like?
What is your favourite TV advertisement? Why do you like that advert? 8. What is the most wanted product in shopping? Why? 9. How do you feel when you watch your favorite advertisement(s)? 10. How do you feel when a TV program is interrupted by your favorite advertisement? 11. Do you think all the advertisements shown on TV or printed in the newspapers or Magazines are truthful? 1. Always 2. Never 3. Half truth and half lie 46 12. Some television advertisements are more enjoyable than television programs 13.
Is it true that if you have liked the advertisement, you generally will like and want to buy the advertised product also Yes No Yes No 14. How often do you do the following? Activity Every day Once a week Less than once a week Never Watching TV Reading newspaper Listening music Using Internet Any other (like tuition) 47 A ppendix 2 Questionnaire: ask only the parent aged between 35 and 45 years Gender: Male Female Age: 1. How much effective advertisements on your children do you think while shopping with them? 2. Does television advertising influence your children?
What about you? Do television advertisements affect you on sales? 3. Do 4. How often do they watch television? 5. Which programs do they prefer to watch on television? During what times of day? 6. What proportion of products that a child urges his /her mother to buy while shopping were previously seen advertised on television? 8. Do you believe that advertisements push your children to buy things that they do not need? 9. 48 Television advertisements are persuasive in purchasing goods or services Yes No 10. good products do not need advertising; 11. dvertised products sell more Yes No Yes No 12. Does advertsing affect your decision while choosing which product will be bought in store? 13. Your children like the advertisements and after taste the advertised product, they discovered that this product is not good. However did you see that he / she continue to buy the same product because of advertisement? In this situation, what were you doing? None Very low Low Middle High Very high The advertised product Package Brand Quality Education system 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 9 City: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . …………… Address: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ………… Telephone no. : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ……………. Name. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50