Intelligence is a way of recognizing, understanding, and choosing how we think, feel, and act. It shapes our interactions with others and our understanding of ourselves. It defines how and what we learn; it allows us to set priorities; it determines the majority of our daily actions. Research suggests it is responsible for as much as 80% of the “success” in our lives E. Q. stands for emotional quotient used as a synonym for emotional intelligence. The concept of Intelligence Quotient (IQ) which relates to the determination of level of intellect or sharpness of mind of a person is very common. We normally use in our daily conversation that the IQ of a specific person is high or low.
However the concept of Emotional Intelligence or Emotional Quotient is relatively new in the field of Psychological Research. Emotional Quotient (EQ) relates to the ability or skill to understand, evaluate and manage the emotions of one’s self and others. This concept got familiarity with the publication of book titled ‘Emotional Intelligence’ by Daniel Goleman’s in 1995. However, the first use of the term “Emotional Intelligence” is usually attributed to Wayne Payne’s doctoral thesis, A study of emotion: Developing emotional intelligence from 1985.
GENERAL SCOPE & ORIGIN If we go into the background history, we find that early Emotional Intelligence theory was originally developed during the 1970’s and 80’s by the work and writings of psychologists Howard Gardner, Peter Salovey and John Mayer. Emotional Intelligence is increasingly relevant to organizational development and developing people, because the EQ principles provide a new way to understand and assess people’s behaviours, management styles, attitudes, interpersonal skills, and potentials.
Emotional Intelligence is an important consideration in human resources planning, job profiling, recruitment interviewing and selection, management development, customer relations, customer service, and much more. Thomas Edison once said that, “Genius is 99% perspiration (E. Q. ) and 1% inspiration (I. Q. ). ” I. Q. is said to be set in stone, no matter when you take an I. Q. test you will receive, basically the same score. E. Q. however, is not set in stone. You can take E. Q. ests at different points in your life and find out that it has increased or decreased significantly. The basic reason is that the strength or weakness of emotions is affected by the age factor and environment. Understanding, the concept of emotional intelligence requires exploring its two component terms, intelligence and emotion. Since the eighteenth century, psychologists have recognized an influential three-part division of the mind into cognition (or thought), affect (including emotion), and motivation (or conation).
The cognitive sphere includes such functions as human memory, reasoning, judgment, and abstract thought. Intelligence is typically used by psychologists to characterize how well the cognitive sphere includes such functions as human memory, reasoning, judgment, and abstract thought. Intelligence is typically used by psychologists (and those who came before) to characterize how well the cognitive sphere functions. That is intelligence pertains to abilities such as the “power to combine and separate” concepts, to judge and to reason, and to engage in abstract thought”
Emotions belong to the second, so-called affective sphere of mental functioning, which includes the emotions themselves, moods, evaluations, and other felling states, including fatigue or energy. The word “emotion” is derived from the Latin verb “emoverse” meaning “to stir up” or “to move. ” Emotions may arise from internal or external stimulants which enkindle some needed actions to survive in the given circumstances. Some psychologists have listed primary emotions and they believe that primary emotions blend together to form the full spectrum of human emotional experience just like primary colors make up the whole range of colors.
According to Robert Plutchik eight primary emotions are anger, fear, sadness, joy, disgust, curiosity / interest, surprise, and acceptance. Plutchik reasons that these eight are primary on evolutionary grounds, by relating each to behavior with survival value. For example, fear motivates flight from danger and anger motivates fighting for survival. They are considered to be part of our biological heritage and built into human nature. Definition of emotional intelligence should in some way connect emotions with intelligence if the meanings of the two terms are to be preserved.
THE FOUR BRANCHES OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE Salovey and Mayer proposed a model that identified four different factors of emotional intelligence: the perception of emotion, the ability reason using emotions, the ability to understand emotion and the ability to manage emotions. Perceiving Emotions: The first step in understanding emotions is to accurately perceive them. In many cases, this might involve understanding nonverbal signals such as body language and facial expressions. Reasoning With Emotions: The next step involves using emotions to promote thinking and cognitive activity.
Emotions help prioritize what we pay attention and react to; we respond emotionally to things that garner our attention. Understanding Emotions: The emotions that we perceive can carry a wide variety of meanings. If someone is expressing angry emotions, the observer must interpret the cause of their anger and what it might mean. For example, if your boss is acting angry, it might mean that he is dissatisfied with your work; or it could be because he got a speeding ticket on his way to work that morning or that he’s been fighting with his wife. Managing
Emotions: The ability to manage emotions effectively is a key part of emotional intelligence. Regulating emotions, responding appropriately and responding to the emotions of others are all important aspect of emotional management. According to Salovey and Mayer, the four branches of their model are, “arranged from more basic psychological processes to higher, more psychologically integrated processes. For example, the lowest level branch concerns the (relatively) simple abilities of perceiving and expressing emotion. In contrast, the highest level branch concerns the conscious, reflective regulation of emotion” (1997).
COMPONENTS OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE Listed below are the 15 conceptual components of emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence and emotional skills develop over time, change throughout life, and can be improved through training and remedial programs as well as therapeutic techniques. “General intelligence” is composed of cognitive intelligence, which is measured by IQ, and emotional intelligence, which is measured by EQ. The well-functioning, successful, and emotionally healthy individual is one who possesses a sufficient degree of emotional intelligence and an average or above average EQ score.
The higher the EQ score, the more positive the prediction for general success in meeting environmental demands and pressures. On the other hand, lack of success and the existence of emotional problems are a function of the extent and degree of deficiency evident in these factors (skills) over time. Moreover, lower scores on the following subscales should be considered more problematic for coping with one’s environment: Reality Testing, Problem Solving, Stress Tolerance, and Impulse Control.
EQ scores, when combined with IQ scores, will give a better indication of one’s general intelligence and, hence, offer a better indication of one’s potential to succeed in life. Intrapersonal Emotional Self-awareness Emotional self-awareness is the ability to recognize one’s feelings. It is not only the ability to be aware of one’s feelings and emotions, but also to differentiate between them, to know what one is feeling and why, and to know what caused the feelings. Serious deficiencies in this area are found in alexithymic (inability to express feelings erbally) conditions. The accuracy of emotional assessment surveys depends, to some degree, on at least a moderate ability here. This EQ skill is also manifested by people who purposefully seek feedback about their performance – in life or on the job. These individuals thrive on open, honest, compassionate feedback about their strengths and weaknesses. They seek a more accurate view of themselves than they alone could provide. Assertiveness: Assertiveness is the ability to express feelings, beliefs, and thoughts and defend one’s rights in a non-destructive manner.
Assertiveness is composed of three basic components: (1) the ability to express feelings (e. g. , to accept and express anger, warmth, and sexual feelings), (2) the ability to express beliefs and thoughts openly (i. e. , being able to voice opinions, disagree, and to take a definite stand, even if it is emotionally difficult to do and even if one has something to lose by doing so), and (3) the ability to stand up for personal rights (i. e. , not allowing others to bother you or take advantage of you).
Assertive people are not overcontrolled or shy – they are able to outwardly express their feelings (often directly), without being aggressive or abusive. Self-Regard: Self-regard is the ability to respect and accept oneself as basically good. Respecting oneself essentially likes the way one is. Self-acceptance is the ability to accept one’s perceived positive and negative aspects as well as one’s limitations and possibilities. This conceptual component of emotional intelligence is associated with general feelings of security, inner strength, self-assuredness, self-confidence, and feelings of self-adequacy.
Feeling sure of oneself is dependent upon self-respect and self-esteem, which are based on a fairly well developed sense of identity. A person with good self-regard feels fulfilled and satisfied with himself/herself. At the opposite end of the continuum are feelings of personal inadequacy and inferiority. Self-Actualization: Self-actualization pertains to the ability to realize one’s potential capacities. This component of emotional intelligence is manifested by becoming involved in pursuits that lead to a meaningful, rich, and full life.
Striving to actualize one’s potential involves developing enjoyable and meaningful activities and can mean a lifelong effort and an enthusiastic commitment to long-term goals. Self-actualization is an ongoing, dynamic process of striving toward maximum development of one’s abilities, capacities, and talents. This factor is associated with persistently trying to do one’s best and trying to improve oneself in general. Excitement about one’s interests energizes and motivates him/her to continue these interests. Self-actualization is affiliated with feelings of self-satisfaction.
Independence: Independence is the ability to be self-directed and self-controlled in one’s thinking and actions and to be free of emotional dependency. Independent people are self-reliant in planning and making important decisions. They may, however, seek and consider other people’s opinions before making the right decision for themselves in the end; consulting others is not necessarily a sign of dependency. Independence is essentially the ability to function autonomously versus needing protection and support – independent people avoid clinging to others in order to satisfy their emotional needs.
The ability to be independent rests on one’s degree of self-confidence, inner strength, and desire to meet expectations and obligations, without becoming a slave to them. Interpersonal Empathy: Empathy is the ability to be aware of, to understand, and to appreciate the feelings of others. It is “tuning in” (being sensitive) to what, how, and why people feel the way they do. Being empathetic means being able to “emotionally read” other people. Empathetic people care about others and show interest in and concern for others.
They also show a keen ability to understand and respond to the issues and concerns behind another’s feelings. Interpersonal Relationship: Interpersonal relationship skill involves the ability to establish and maintain mutually satisfying relationships that are characterized by intimacy and by giving and receiving affection. Mutual satisfaction includes meaningful social interchanges that are potentially rewarding and enjoyable. Positive interpersonal relationship skill is characterized by the ability to give and receive warmth and affection and to convey intimacy to another human being.
This component is not only associated with the desirability of cultivating friendly relations with others, but with the ability to feel at ease and comfortable in such relations and to possess positive expectations concerning social intercourse. This emotional skill generally requires sensitivity towards others, a desire to establish relations, and feeling satisfied with relationships. Social Responsibility: Social responsibility is the ability to demonstrate oneself as a cooperative, contributing, and constructive member of one’s social group.
This ability involves acting in a responsible manner, even though one may not benefit personally. Socially responsible people have social consciousness and a basic concern for others, which is manifested by being able to take on community-oriented responsibilities. This component relates to the ability to do things for and with others, accepting others, acting in accordance with one’s conscience, and upholding social rules. These people possess interpersonal sensitivity and are able to accept others and use their talents for the good of the collective, not just the self.
People who are deficient in this ability may entertain antisocial attitudes, act abusively towards others, and take advantage of others. Adaptability Problem Solving: Problem solving aptitude is the ability to identify and define problems as well as to generate and implement potentially effective solutions. Problem solving is multiphasic in nature and includes the ability to go through a process of (1) sensing a problem and feeling confident and motivated to deal with it effectively, (2) defining and formulating the problem as clearly as possible (e. . , gathering relevant information), (3) generating as many solutions as possible (e. g. , brainstorming), and (4) making a decision to implement one of the solutions (e. g. , weighing the pros and cons of each possible solution and choosing the best course of action). Problem solving is associated with being conscientious, disciplined, methodical, and systematic in persevering and approaching problems. This skill is also linked to a desire to do one’s best and to confront problems, rather than avoiding them.
Reality Testing: Reality testing is the ability to assess the correspondence between what is experienced and what objectively exists. Testing the degree of correspondence between what one experiences and what actually exists involves a search for objective evidence to confirm, justify, and support feelings, perceptions, and thoughts. Reality testing involves “tuning in” to the immediate situation, attempting to keep things in the correct perspective, and experiencing things as they really are, without excessive fantasizing or daydreaming about them.
The emphasis is on pragmatism, objectivity, the adequacy of one’s perception, and authenticating one’s ideas and thoughts. An important aspect of this factor is the degree of perceptual clarity evident when trying to assess and cope with situations; it involves the ability to concentrate and focus when examining ways of coping with situations that arise. Reality testing is associated with a lack of withdrawal from the outside world, a tuning into the immediate situation, and lucidity and clarity in perception and thought processes. In simple terms, reality testing is the ability to accurately “size up” the immediate situation.
Flexibility: Flexibility is the ability to adjust one’s emotions, thoughts, and behavior to changing situations and conditions. This component of emotional intelligence refers to one’s overall ability to adapt to unfamiliar, unpredictable, and dynamic circumstances. Flexible people are agile, synergistic, and capable of reacting to change, without rigidity. These people are able to change their minds when evidence suggests that they are mistaken. They are generally open to and tolerant of different ideas, orientations, ways, and practices. Stress management
Stress Tolerance: Stress tolerance is the ability to withstand adverse events and stressful situations without “falling apart” by actively and positively coping with stress. It is the ability to weather difficult situations without getting too overwhelmed. This ability is based on (1) a capacity to choose courses of action for coping with stress (i. e. , being resourceful and effective, being able to come up with suitable methods, and knowing what to do and how to do it), (2) an optimistic disposition toward new experiences and change in general and towards one’s ability to successfully overcome the specific problem at hand (i. . , a belief in one’s ability to face and handle these situations), and (3) a feeling that one can control or influence the stressful situation (i. e. , keeping calm and maintaining control). This component of emotional intelligence is very similar to what has been referred to as “ego strength” and “positive coping. ” Stress tolerance includes having a repertoire of suitable responses to stressful situations, Stress tolerance is associated with the capacity to be relaxed and composed and to calmly face difficulties, without getting carried away by strong emotions.
People who have good stress tolerance tend to face crises and problems, rather than surrendering to feelings of helplessness and hopelessness. Anxiety often results when this component of emotional intelligence is not functioning adequately, which has an ill effect on general performance because of poor concentration, difficulty in making decisions, and somatic problems like sleep disturbance. Impulse Control: Impulse control is the ability to resist or delay an impulse, drive, or temptation to act.
It entails a capacity for accepting one’s aggressive impulses, being composed, and controlling aggression, hostility, and irresponsible behaviour. Problems in impulse control are manifested by low frustration tolerance, impulsiveness, anger control problems, abusiveness, loss of self-control, and explosive and unpredictable behaviour. Sometimes this skill is also called self-regulation or delaying gratification. It involves self-control and the ability to handle our emotions. General mood Happiness: Happiness is the ability to feel satisfied with one’s life, to enjoy oneself and others, and to have fun.
Happiness combines self-satisfaction, general contentment, and the ability to enjoy life. This component of emotional intelligence involves the ability to enjoy various aspects of one’s life and life in general. Happy people often feel good and at ease in both work and leisure; they are able to “let their hair down,” and enjoy the opportunities for having fun. Happiness is associated with a general feeling of cheerfulness and enthusiasm. Happiness is a by-product and/or barometric indicator of one’s overall degree of emotional intelligence and emotional functioning.
A person who demonstrates a low degree of this factor may possess symptoms typical of depression, such as a tendency to worry, uncertainty about the future, social withdrawal, lack of drive, depressive thoughts, feelings of guilt, dissatisfaction with one’s life and, in extreme cases, suicidal thoughts and behaviour. Optimism: Optimism is the ability to look at the brighter side of life and to maintain a positive attitude, even in the face of adversity. Optimism assumes a measure of hope in one’s approach to life. It is a positive approach to daily living. Optimism is the opposite of pessimism, which is a common symptom of depression.
IMPORTANCE OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE From Daniel Goleman’s 1998 book “Working with Emotional Intelligence” * I. Q. is about 24 points higher now than in 1918 – due to better nutrition, more school, smaller family size, etc. However, EQ is down compared to the last generation. Kids now are more lonely and depressed, more angry and unruly, more nervous and prone to worry, more impulsive, and more aggressive. Now, there are rising rates of despair, alienation, drug abuse, crime and violence, eating disorders, unwanted pregnancies, bullying, and dropping out of school. Predicting job performance is a favourite past time in business and psychology. When job performance is comprehensively measured according to superiors, peers, and subordinates, E. Q. predicts higher performance three times better than I. Q. This finding has been replicated by dozens of different experts in close to five hundred corporations, government agencies, and non-profit organizations worldwide. * Leadership is largely an emotional intelligence. Some estimates put it as high as 90%. Leadership encompasses influence, achievement drive, self-confidence, team skills, and political awareness.
Failed leaders were too critical, moody, angry, defensive, and lacked empathy. * All interaction can be gauged along a continuum from emotionally toxic to nourishing. Emotionally intelligent people are aware of that, and, consequently, so are the people around them. * Two-thirds of workers say communication problems are the leading cause preventing them from doing their best work. * Countries have incorporated an emotional intelligence curriculum for the whole state schools, hospitals, prisons, government employees, etc.
For e. g. Rhode Island MEASURING EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE “In regard to measuring emotional intelligence – I am a great believer that criterion-report (that is, ability testing) is the only adequate method to employ. Intelligence is an ability, and is directly measured only by having people answer questions and evaluating the correctness of those answers. ” –John D. Mayer Reuven Bar-On’s EQ-i A self-report test designed to measure competencies including awareness, stress tolerance, problem solving, and happiness.
According to Bar-On, “Emotional intelligence is an array of noncognitive capabilities, competencies, and skills that influence one’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures. ” Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS) An ability-based test in which test-takers perform tasks designed to assess their ability to perceive, identify, understand, and utilize emotions. Seligman Attributional Style Questionnaire (SASQ) Originally designed as a screening test for the life insurance company Metropolitan Life, the SASQ measures optimism and pessimism. Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI)
Based on an older instrument known as the Self-Assessment Questionnaire, the ECI involves having people who know the individual offer ratings of that person’s abilities on a number of different emotional competencies. E. Q. vs. I. Q. David Caruso: “It is very important to understand that emotional intelligence is not the opposite of intelligence, it is not the triumph of heart over head — it is the unique intersection of both. ” The EQ concept argues that IQ, or conventional intelligence, is too narrow; that there are wider areas of emotional intelligence that dictate and enable how successful we are.
Success requires more than IQ (Intelligence Quotient), which has tended to be the traditional measure of intelligence, ignoring essential behavioural and character elements. We have all met people who are academically brilliant and yet are socially and inter-personally inept. And we know that despite possessing a high IQ rating, success does not automatically follow. Emotional intelligence gives you a competitive edge. Even where everyone is smart, studies find that the most valued and productive engineers are those with the traits of emotional intelligence—not necessarily the highest IQ.
Having great intellectual abilities may make you a superb fiscal analyst or legal scholar, but a highly developed emotional intelligence will make you a candidate for CEO or a brilliant trial lawyer. Empathy and other qualities of the heart make it more likely that your marriage will thrive. Lack of those abilities explains why people of high IQ can be such disastrous pilots of their personal lives. An analysis of the personality traits that accompany high IQ in men who also lack these emotional competencies portrays, well, the stereotypical nerd: critical and condescending, inhibited and uncomfortable with sensuality, emotionally bland.
By contrast, men with the traits that mark emotional intelligence are poised and outgoing, committed to people and causes, sympathetic and caring, with a rich but appropriate emotional life—they’re comfortable with themselves, others, and the social universe they live in. CONCLUSION Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotion and emotional meanings, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote both better emotion and thought.
It is our belief that the adaptive use of emotion-laden information is a significant aspect of what is meant by anyone’s definition of intelligence, yet it is not studied systematically by investigators of intelligence not included in traditional school curricula. Presently, we are at the beginning of the learning curve about emotional intelligence; the coming years should bring exciting research that contributes to our understanding of the concept. In short the significance of studies on EQ has increased with the expanding scope of knowledge.
It has the same qualification in the field of law as well. The people related to field of Law everyday come across a number of stories which gave rise to conflicts and disputes evoking the need of solution through law suits. These stories are brimmed with emotional and sentimental behaviour of people. Legislators, advocates and judges may not ignore the emotional aspect of any incident. It can, therefore, be concluded that the knowledge of EQ should not be confined to the books of psychology; rather it should be made applicable to all fields of life.