Globalization in Thailand Nowadays, many countries around the world have established gradually closer contact, which is the result of unprecedented changes in communications, multinational company, transportation, and deregulation market. This phenomenon is known as globalization. Globalization causes changes in cultures, economies, laws, migrations, and politics across the globe. There are many people from the West who know Eastern culture. For example, Asians use chopsticks to eat and bowing is the way to pay respect in Japan. Hence, it can be included that these are good points of globalization.
Another benefit is importing and exporting goods among countries; these will increase their countries’ GDP (Gross Domestic Product), which means their citizens earn more salaries than the normal rate. However, globalization also has drawbacks. Some people believe that it affects poor countries because they do not have sufficient power to compete with well-developed countries. These will cause problem in increasing the gap between less-developed and developed countries. Well-developed countries’ economy will grow faster and earn more benefit than less developed countries.
Because of many advantages and disadvantages, this topic is very interesting to study. For this reason, I will discuss the effects of globalization on Thailand, which is the place I was born, and why does it bring more benefits than detriments to my country. Moreover, how it affects the Thai economy and culture is the main focus. This essay will be divided into 4 main parts: the description of globalization, what causes globalization, the advantages and disadvantages of globalization, and the effects of globalization in Thailand. The last section will include both positive and negative effects.
Definition of globalization The most important thing to know before study the effect of globalization is the definition of globalization. However, there are no specific words to describe globalization because there are many different topics included in this title, such as, migrations, economics, global citizenship, politics, and cultures. Anthony (1990) stated that globalization is ‘multiplicity of linkages and interconnections that transcend the nation states which make up the modern world system’. Another meaning of globalization is the increase in interrelationship of culture, people, and economic activity with in the lobe (Wikipedia, N. D. ). In addition, I will give my definition of globalization as any relationship between nations around the world. Cause of globalization After knowing what is globalization, the next step is to know how globalization happens. There are many causes of globalization. The first cause is communication medium. Technology in aiding communications has been largely developed. It is easy and cheap to make a call to a friend who lives in a different country. This benefits people who do the international business. The greatest invention of communication medium is the Internet.
Using the Internet to contact with people between different nations is cheaper than a call, such as Skype. This program uses the Internet to call to other people who install the program and the Internet for free or it can call to their phone with lower cost than making a call via telephone. Next cause is the development of transportation. Greater transportation greatly encourages people to travel between countries, because it is cheaper and faster. Thus, it is convenient for export and import goods and services as well. In addition to an improvement in transportation, multinational companies also cause globalization.
These multinational companies increase number of employee migration and trading between nations. Cross-culture and economic activities between countries are the results of migration and trading. Last cause is the deregulation to encourage foreign firms to invest in such countries. These four causes are the main reason for the creation and development of globalization. Advantages and Disadvantages of Globalization Reduction of the rate of poverty is the first advantage of globalization, because it encourages trading activity between nations. This will increase GDP in the nations (Jonathan and Samuel, 2002).
An increasing in GDP means that income in each citizen increase. This helps decreased poverty in developing countries. Next benefit is that goods will be cheaper as a result of high competition in the market. Competition between companies encourages the companies to create new technology and to increase productivity to reduce cost of goods to compete with their competitors. The last advantage in this essay is cross-culture. When people have different culture due to their nations and geography, it hard to understand each other. Sometime miscommunication results in conflicts or problems between people or nations.
Cross-culture causes people to understand each other more and to prevent conflicts. On the other hand, globalization has drawbacks in many ways. First one is that globalization might result in communicable diseases in human and animals, such as H1N1 virus (bird flu) and West Nile virus (Katherine et. al, 2007). These viruses spread from countries to countries by carriers who travel around the globe. Another negative effect is that globalization increases pollution. One example is that transportation between globe use fuels, which produce Carbon Dioxide (CO2).
Lastly, globalization helps trading goods to become easier and cheaper, which includes illegal products, such as illegal drugs. This is a serious problem in many countries. For instance, Thailand and Myanmar. Thailand is next to Myanmar, which is the second ranked country where drugs are originally produced. Thailand border Burma has a lot of fight against Myanmar’s drug trading. Effect of Globalization in Thailand From above, the basic information of globalization has been provided. I will focus on effect of globalization in Thailand. Thailand is a developing country, which has been influenced in many ways by globalization.
In a positive way, Thailand has created deregulation market for international and local industry. For example, free zone in Thailand is an area to import parts or materials of industrial products that produce in the area without taxation, such as, value added tax (VAT) (Wannee, 2006) (The Customs Department Thailand, N. D. ). Many multinational companies have been encouraged by this deregulation market to invest and enter in Thailand market, such as, Michelin, Toyota, Honda, and Mercedes Benz. Investments from foreign companies help Thailand to increase GDP and reduce unemployment rate by providing jobs and high salary.
Thai students go to study aboard more in each year; Thai student registered in Australian university had grown 17% in 2002 compare to 2001, because globalization encourages Thai youths to study aboard, which can be beneficial for them because of higher education system. Students believe that studying aboard in developed countries will create an opportunity to get a job and get higher salary. In addition, it is cheaper, and safer than it use to be due to low cost of transport and better communication system between countries.
Thai food are very famous around the globe, this is also the effect of globalization beside deregulation market and studying aboard. I believe that a quarter of world population know Thai food, such as, Tom Yum Gung, Pad Thai, Thai green curry and Papaya salad. The reason that Thai food is very popular is because foreigner who have travelled to Thailand disperse how delicious Thai food is to their friends when they go back to their country. However, Not only positive effects happen because of globalization, it has negative effect on my country as well. First drawback is that Thai culture is absorbed by foreign culture little by little.
For example, Thai dance or ‘Ram Thai’. Nowadays teenager has forgot how to do ‘Ram Thai’, they turn to do ‘K-pop dance’ or western dance as they saw it most in the TV. An increasing in number of tourist came to my country in each year because of globalization spread around the world. This might results in high disposal of waste by tourism especially in the seas and forests. Last effect is that fast food from western countries spread to Thailand. Fast food is very famous among teenager due to efficiency of advertising. It is harmful to consumer due to high calorie and fat it provided.
From above positive effects and negative ones, I might say that globalization is more beneficial to Thailand than harms, because we can diminish the negative effect by using event and advertising. For example, encouraging teenager to continue Thai culture. Conclusion Globalization is very important topic in nowadays. Everywhere in the earth has been affected by globalization, because globalization is an increasing interrelationship of culture, people, and economic activity around the world. An improvement in transportation, a development in communication, spreading of multinational firms, and deregulating markets result in globalization.
Globalization has both advantages and disadvantages as given above, but for my country, Thailand, I can say that for now it is more beneficial than harmful. It will improve living standard, but Thai people might loss their culture in the long term.
- -Anthony M. (1990); ‘A Global Society’ in Stuart Hall, David Held, and Anthony McGrew, Modernity and Its Futures; Cambridge, Polity Press.
- -Wikipedia (N. D. ) Date retrieved 11 July 2012, Sociology of gender. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Sociology_of_gender -Jonathan E. and Samuel K. (2002); technology, geography, and trade; The Econometric Society.
- -Katherine F. S. , Dov F. S. Steven D. G. , Vanina G. , and Jean F. G. , (2007); Globalization of Human Infectious Disease, Ecological Society of America
- -Wannee K. (2006), international workshop on country practices in compilation of international merchandise trade statistic, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Statistic Division.
- -The Customs Department Thailand (N. D. ) Date retrieved (11/07/2012) http://www. customs. go. th/wps/wcm/connect/custen/traders+and+business/customs+incentive+schemes/free+zone/freezone
- -Nattavut P. (2005); A Family Affair: The effect of family on Thai students’ Choice of International Education, Springer