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Haidri Beverages Islamabad is situated on the Kahota Road industrial Triangle Islamabad. It occupies an area of about 8 acres. It is a private factory. This factory manufactures carbonated beverages and pure water and sells it as Pepsi, Miranda, 7Up, Mountain Dew and Aquafina. To sell these beverages and water, factory has got the license from Pepsi Co International (PCI) USA. So that Haidri Beverages PCI standards are followed.

The administrative setup of the factory includes a Managing Director under his supervision come a General Manager Admin, a General Manager Technical and a General Manager marketing. G. M Admin: Controls the whole administration of the factory. Under his supervision come manager Admin and Human Resources Manager, Audit and Manager Accounts. G. M Technical: Controls the production of the factory. Under his supervision come quality control manager and production Manager. G. M Marketing: Controls the sales and marketing of beverages. Under supervision come unit manager, shipping manager and sales officers.

The unit manager is responsible for selling of the beverages after it has been manufactured. The selling process includes transportation of filled bottles to the prescribed shops in the areas allocated to the beverage plant and returning of empty bottles back to factory. For this purpose sales officers and supervisors come under his supervision. Unit manager is responsible for taking measures which increases the consumption and hence the sale of beverages such as advertisements. For these and other similar jobs the sales staff works under the supervision of unit manager.

Accounts Manager is responsible for checking accounts of the factory. He is responsible for checking expenditure of factor and income from sale of beverages and the net income achieved. He is also responsible for other such similar matters dealing with money. The production manager deals with the matters which are the core of factory i. e. the manufacturing of beverages. While the quality control manager is responsible for the maintenance of quality in each and every sense for this purpose chemists and shift in charge work under his supervision. The factory work in two shifts of 8 hrs, most of the time during peak season i. . from March to August and occasionally in three shifts. This is because the production machinery is very efficient. Thus normally there are 16 hrs productions, during these months. Each shift has different chemists and shift in charges and under their supervision work the labors. There is total permanent staff of about 300, but during peak season many labors are temporary employed on daily wedges. From September to February the factory work in one shift and there may not be daily production due to decrease demand in these days. The distribution area of Haidri beverages is very large.

Therefore it is divided into different zones. There are two zones of Rawalpindi and Islamabad each, then there are three main out station zones i. e. Azad Kashmir, Haripur (Hazara) and Gujar Khan Jehlum zone. To carry beverage production the factory has efficient machinery which has capability to produce 60000-80000 crates per day of filled bottles at normal speed. Making suitable adjustment when required can increased this efficiency the production side of Haidri beverages is divided in to three main sections. 1. 2. SECTIONS * Haidri—I (carbonated) * Haidri—II (carbonated) * Aquafina (non carbonated)

Haidri–I: There are three production lines in Haidri-I, where mostly returnable bottles are produced but some time PET bottles are produced when demand is increased. Tin cans also produced in Haidri-I Haidri–II: In Haidri-II PET bottles are produced. The bottles are manufactured over there. All the processes run automatically. Aquafina: The third section of Haidri Beverages is Aqua Pack where pure and distilled water is prepared. Thus the factory has efficient production lines having efficient labor and machinery and is playing an important role in economy of the country. SECTION 2

NON CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS CHAPTER # 02 AQUAFINA Haidri beverages Islamabad is being produced Aquafina (pure water) the plant which is privileged with latest technology. The whole system is automatic and very efficient. Here the distilled and pure water is produced. For the production of the pure water at Haidri beverage the raw water is brought from deep water turbine and store it in a large chlorinated water storage lank having capacity of 100m3. 2. 1. HISTORY Aquafina was introduced in Wichita, Kansas, in 1994 and reached national distribution in 1997. Since its debut, Aquafina has great purity and taste.

Aquafina is currently American’s best selling national brand of bottled water based on 2007 sales volume. There are more than 40 Aquafina purification sites throughout the United States and Canada. Each facility is equipped with the purification system designed to deliver the purest water. 2. 2. HIERARCHY OF NCSD SECTION (AQUA FINA) Production & Quality Control Manager SAJJID HUSSAIN (Food Technologist) Assistant Production Manager Microbiologist Mr. Syed Qasim Raza Uzma aziz (Chemical Engineer)

Analyst Mr. Bilal Kiyani (F. T) Mr. Rashid (Chemist) Mr. Amjid (Chemist) 2. 3. SUB SECTIONS OF NCSD DEPARTMENT There are 4 sub sections. Water treatment Filling area Microbiological laboratory Analytical laboratory CHAPTER # 03 WATER TREATMENT Aquafina originates from public water and then is purified through a rigorous, seven-step process called Hydro-7 process. The process that include reverse osmosis and other filtering and purification methods. 3. 1 FLOW CHART OF HydRO-7 PROCESS Under ground water

Chlorination Sand filter Activated carbon filter 5 µm filter Ultra violet light (254 nm) Reverse osmosis Addition of salts 1 µm rinsing tank 1 µm filter Ozonation Product tank 3. 2 DESCRIPTION OF HydRO-7 PROCESS 3. 2. 1. CHOLORINATION Chlorination is the 1st treatment in Aquafina plant where sodium Hypochlorite is added to raw water to a range of 6-8ppm. Cholorine is added because it destroy the bacteria (as disinfectant) and oxidation of organic contamination 3. 2. 2. SAND FILTER Chlorine (sodium hypochlorite) added at the inlet of sand filter.

The sand filter is made up of carbon steel material having 1meter sand bed and the sand size is 0. 6mm, 1. 0mm and 1. 6mm. The flow rate of water in sand filter is 40m3 per hour. Here the suspended particles are removed the sand filter is back washed on daily basis and sanitation with 50ppm chlorine monthly and the silica sand is changed after 3 years. From sand filter chlorinated water come into storage tank having capacity of 100m3. In this tank the water is distributed in two ways the first one is used for decholorination and other is used for back washing of sand and carbon filter. . 2. 3. ACTIVATED CARBON Activated carbon purifier tank is made up of stainless steel, having 1. 5m activated carbon bed. The flow rate of water is 40m3 per hour. It removes chlorine, odor, taste and other organic contamination by adsorption. It is back washed on daily basis and hot sanitation (65C) is done weekly. The media (activated carbon) is changed yearly. 3. 2. 4. 5 MICRON FILTER From activated carbon water inters into five micron filter. It is consist of stainless steel and cartridge filter material is made up of poly propylene.

The housing has 12 cartridges inside as a carbon trapper, which removes particles having size greater than 5micron. This filter act as a safety guard of R. O membrane. Its CIP is done weekly with 0, 3 to 0. 5 anoxia active. Its filter is changed quarterly on the basis of differential pressure greater than 0. 35 bars or microbiological load. 3. 2. 5. U. V LIGHT (ULTRA VIOLET) Ultra violet light is used for disinfection of microorganism. The light works on 254 nm wave length. The action of U. V light is on the DNA of microorganisms. 3. 2. 6. R. O (REVERSE OSMOSIS) * OSMOSIS:-

Water diffuses through a Sami permeable membrane towards higher concentration solution to equalized solution strength is called osmosis. * R. O:- A pressure greater than osmotic pressure applied on zone of higher concentrated compartments forced the water to cross the Sami permeable membrane to the outer compartment. It is the reverse osmosis. * R. O MEMBRANE AND MODULES After 5 micron filtration water inters in reverse osmosis process. In R. O compartment there are 5 modules which are horizontally located having 5 membranes in each. The module tube having 10” inch dia and 40 inches length.

The flow rate of water through the membrane is 40m3/hr. There are two stages at R. O plant. In first stage there are three modules that is called 1st step process while other stage consists of two modules. The concentrate of 1st step is inter into 2nd step as a feed and further treated the permeate is feed to product tank and concentrate is drained. For the maintenance of pH H2SO4 or Noah is used. To prevent scaling on membrane antiscalant is used. R. O permeate water is distributed in two ways. 1-To product tank 2-To Rinser tank * R. O Analyze * Ro removes 95% contamination. The recovery percentage of raw water is 80% * CIP with 0. 3%–0. 5% oxonia active is done weekly. * The water is flashed for 15 minutes every startup. * Daily check pH, TDS, hardness and alkalinity of feed water and permeate water. * Weekly check iron manganese and silt density index (SDI) level of R. O feed water. Product and Rinser Tank a) Product tank Product tank consist of stainless steel having capacity of 11m3 here pH, conductivity and ozone is maintained as per Aquafina specification. Thirty minutes retention time is given to ozone (0. 2-0. 4 ppm) then the water is used for bottle filling. ) Rinser Tank The capacity of raiser tank is 3m3. Here only 0. 2-0. 4ppm 0zone Is maintained for 30 minutes and this ozonated water is used for bottle washing and also after deozonation used for mineral dissolving, water treatment system CIP, and filler CIP. 3. 2. 7. BATCHING OR SALT MIXING After R. O the treated water has no salts or minute amount (0-5ppm) to fulfill the requirement in pure water the following salts are added in specific amount to maintain 210 conductivity (1) Potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3) (2) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) (3) Sodium chloride (NaCl) 3. 2. 8. 1 MICRON FILTER

The 1 micron absolute filter water provides find filtration of the water prior to filling. Combine with the R. O system it provides a desired multi barrier protection against girdia and cryplosporidum as well as other pathoges. 1 micron filter is of differential pressure greater then 0. 35 bars or microbiological load. 3. 2. 9. OZONATON Ozone is a colorless gas with a very pungent odor at 1ppm. The odor is sulfur like. It solubility in water is 3 ppm at 20c The product and Rinser tank is ozonated through 1injection point in feed line and 1injection point in circulation loop. Here 30 minutes retention time is iven to ozonated water. Ozonation is the last step adopted to destroy all microorganisms. CHAPTER # 04 FILLING AREA Following steps are done in Filling Area i. Blow pet bottles ii. Rinsing of bottles iii. Filling of water iv. Nitrogen injection v. Capping vi. Neck sleeve vii. Packing viii. Cooling ix. Stacking 4. 1. BLOW PET BOTTLES These bottles come from pet bottle section through a conveyor belt. 4. 2. RINSING These bottles are rinsed with water having ozone . the process of bottle rinsing includes certain steps at first step. * Bottle is captured in a stand * Water is sprinkled by a nozzle which done washing . 3. FILLING OF WATER After rinsing bottles are proceeded from rinsing machine to filling machine which does fixing of bottles and fill it a detector is present in these machines which give information to the filling machine that bottle is now in front of it and ultimately machine start filling. 4. 4. NITROGEN INJECTION After filling of water single drop of nitrogen is added to the bottle to give it fluffy texture . 4. 5. CAPPING After nitrogen injection caps are placed on the bottle. 4. 6. NECK SLEEVE Now bottle head portion is covered by sheet and detector is there which tells that cap is not properly sealed.

This bottle should be rejected on next step now this bottle moves on conveyor belt a detector is there which help in the elimination of bottle not properly sealed. After this these bottles pass through shrinking chamber which have heaters on above side and hot air is provided from lower side . this help in smoothing neck sleeve. After passing from it sensor is there which detect the presence of bottle on conveyor belt and give instruction to the printing machine to eject ink and print desired information on the bottle. Then it is passed through packing machine which pack bottles in the bundle of 9 or 12 4. 7. BLOWING OF PACKED PET BOTTLES

These packed bottles are blowed with blower to give cooling effect to packed pet bottle crates. because when it passed from packing machine . 4. 8. STACKING Crates of bottle are stacked and their shipment is done after 3 days because when microbial and analytical testing give positive result their shipment is done. CHAPTER # 05 SANITATION OF WATER TREATMENT AND FILLING AREA 5. 1. SANITATION Process used to keep the processing area, plant employees, finished products free from any dirt, contamination and micro organism is termed as Sanitation. 5. 2. TYPES OF SANITATION 5. 2. 1. External sanitation (external CIP)

External CIP of water treatment and filing area is done by Toppex (3-5%). Toppex is an alkaline detergent 5. 2. 2. Internal sanitation (internal CIP) Internal CIP of water treatment is done by Oxonia; of filing area is done by Caustic (2%) and hot water. Oxonia is a per oxi acetic acid sanitizer. Sanitizing agents: Chlorine, Hot water (85C ? ) and Oxonia (0. 3-0. 5%) CHAPTER # 06 MICROBILOGICAL LAB. 6. 1. EQUIPMENTS USED 6. 1. 1. AUTOCLAVE Autoclave is used to sterilize the media at 121C ? at corresponding pressure 15PSI for 15 mints. 6. 1. 2. HOT AIR OVEN Hot air oven is used to sterilize the glass ware (Petri dishes) It is done at 121C ? or 1 hour. 6. 1. 3. INCUBATORS Incubators are used to provide the proper growth conditions like temperature, humidity and proper time for the rapid growth of micro organism. 6. 1. 4. FILTRATION ASSEMBLY This method is used for estimation of total bacterial count and yeast/mould population 6. 1. 5. OZONE DESTRUCTIVE UNIT It is used to make the sample ozone free, because if ozone is present in sample then there will be no microbial growth. Ozone destructive unit has U. V lamp in it which causes destruction of ozone. The wavelength of U. V. lamp is 220nm. 6. 1. 6. ELECTRICAL BALANCE It is used to measure the weight of different materials. . 1. 7. MICROSCOPE It is used to check the morphology of micro organism after Gram Staining. 6. 1. 8. COLONY COUNTER It is used to count the colonies of m. o. which are not able to count by naked eye. 6. 1. 9. HOT PLATE STIRRER It is used to provide heat and mixing to material. A magnetic stirrer is used for stirring which creates magnetic field to facilitate stirring. 6. 1. 10. WATER BATH It is used to heat the media in water. 6. 1. 11. REFRIGERATOR It is used to store the media for the growth of m. o. Medias like Agar plates and Ampule broth media 6. 1. 12. U. V. LAMP It is used to check the florescence. In it frequency used of 420nm. . 1. 13. GERM CLEANER It is used to clean the environment. Make environment A-septic means that there is no contamination. 6. 2. CHEMICALS USED TO CREATE A-SEPTIC CONDITIONS IN MICRO LAB. 70% Ethanol 70% Iso Propyl Alcohol KMnO4 fumes 6. 3. TEST OF ENVIRONMENT. (on monthly bases) This test is done for following areas. Micro lab. Filling area 6. 3. 1. PROCEDURE 1) Prepare nutrient agar 2) Sterilize it in Autoclave (121C ? , 15PSI, 15 mints) 3) Pour the media on sterilized Petri plate 4) Place the nutrient agar plate in filling area or micro lab for 30 mints by placing lid opened 5) After 30 mints, cover the lid ) Wrap with Al foil 7) Incubated it for 5 days at 25C ? 8) After 5 days, check growth Here Y/C growth not more than 50 cfu. 6. 4. SWAB TEST 6. 4. 1. PURPOSE: to check microbial growth after sanitation 6. 4. 2. PROCEDURE 1) To make a swab from cap, filling valve and micro lab. 2) Put the swab sample in Buffer set. Place the dehydrated media into saline for 5 mints 3) Remove the media, incubate and count colonies Note: swab test is done for Cap closure filling valve micro lab surface 6. 5. A-SEPTIC SAMPLING Samples are collected in such a manner that there is no contamination. . 5. 1. MATERIALS USED FOR SAMPLING Sterilized bottles World pack bags 6. 5. 2. PROCEDURE Sample should be taken from water treatment and filler area. * Tear off top section of bags. * Pull the bag open by grasping white tabs. * Collect the required amount of water in bags. * Hold the yellow bag to seal the opening. 6. 6. MICRO BIOLOGICAL SAMPLING AND LIMITS S. No. | Sample| Frequency| Test Required| Limits| 1| Raw Water| Weekly | TCCCF. S. P. A. | 500 cfu/1 ml0 cfu/100ml0 cfu/100 ml0 cfu/100 ml| 2| After Carbon| Weekly| TC| 500 cfu/1 ml| 3| After 1 µm Filter prior to Ozonation| Weekly| TC| 500 cfu/1 ml| | Finished Product| 10 random sample per each day of production| TCCCF. S. P. A. Y/CE-coli| 10 cfu/100ml0 cfu/100ml0 cfu/100ml0 cfu/100mlY=15, M=50 cfu/100ml| 5| Filler Valve Rinse Water| 10% valve sanitation| TCCCY/C| 100cfu/100ml0 cfu/100 mlY=15, M=5| 6| Swab test| 3 snifts/sanitation| TCCCY/C| 100cfu/100ml0 cfu/100 mlY=15, M=5| 7| Empty bottle & Closure| 4 samples/incoming lot| TCCCMould| 10cfu0 b. closure5| 8| Filling room & Micro Lab| Monthly| Y/C| Y=50 cfuM=50cfu| 9| Air Filter| Per production| Visual Inspection of Filter Integrity| Free of dirt and debris| 6. 7. FINISHED PRODUCT OF AQUAFINA

Take sample from finished product Wait for 24 hrs until the ozone gets ozonated or the sample make free from ozone by using Ozone Destructive unit Filter 100ml sample by using 0. 45µm size filter paper Add media on filter paper Incubate it Count colonies 6. 8. MICRO ORGANISM UNDER WORKING In Aquafina micro lab these m. o. are under working TC (Total bacterial count) CC (Total coliform count) Y/C (yeast and mould count) Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Faecal Streptococcus E-coli 6. 9. MEMBRANE FILTRATION METHOD 6. 9. 1. PURPOSE This method is used for estimating TC, CC and Y/c population. 6. 9. 2. PROCESS FLOW CHART

Acquire sample Inert to mix Place micro check on vacuum Place sample into monitor Turn on vacuum Pass sample through membrane Turn off vacuum Add media Turn on vacuum Turn off vacuum Place cover plug Incubate Count colonies MONITOR It’s a container in which samples are placed MEMBRANE To capture m. o. MEDIA To promote growth of m. o. 6. 10. MEDIA PREPARATION Medias for TC, CC, Y/C and E-coli are available in prepared form as a Broth, so Medias for Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Faecal Streptococcus have to prepare. 6. 10. 1. Preparation of medias m. o. P. Aeruginosa m. o. F. Streptococcus

Media Pseudomonas cetramide Media Slants & Bartley Agar Agar Composition 41. 5g in 1L Composition 45. 3g in 1L Autoclaving at 121C ? , 15Psi, 15m 10g glycerol (C source) also added Autoclaving at 121C ? , 15Psi, 15m 6. 11. FILTARTION ASSEMBLY FLOW CHART FOR PSEUDO AND FAECAL. Acquire sample Invert to mix Place Filter paper of 0. & 0. 45 µm in monitor Turn On Vacuum Pour Aquafina into Monitor Pass sample through membrane Turn off vacuum Pick The Filter paper Remove monitor Place it on for agar plate(in respect to their media) Incubate it Count Colonies 6. 12. MICROBILOGICAL SPECIFICATION CHART S No. | Micro organism| Media used| Incubation temp. (C ? )| Incubation time| Colony color| Frequency (cfu/ml)| 1| TC| M-TGE Broth| 35. | 24 hrs| Yellow| 10| 2| CC| M-Endo Broth| 35. 5| 24hrs| Red| 0| 3| Y/C(yeast & mould)| YM-Green Broth| 25| 72 hrs| Yeast=white, pink, black, green. Mould=black, green, white, yellow. | Yeast=15Mould=5| 4| Pseudomonas Aeruginosa| Pseudomonas Cetramide Agar| 41. 5| 24 hrs| Green| 0| 5| Faecal streptococcus| Slants and Bartley Agar| 35. 5| 48 hrs| Yellowish white| 0| 6| E-coli| MFC Broth with rosolic acid| 35. 441. 5| 4 hrs20 hrs| Blowish color| 0| TC= Total bacterial count CC= Total coliform count Y/C= yeast and mould count 6. 12. 1. MEDIAS M-TGE BROTH M-Endo Broth YM-Green Broth

Slants & Bartley Agar Pseudomonas Cetramide Agar 6. 13. CONFIRMATORY TESTS 6. 13. 1. GRAM STAINING In it we check the morphologic character of m. o. It is done by applying following 4 chemicals for 1 mint and then washing by H2o. 1) Crystal violet 2) Gram iodine 3) Alcohol 4) Saffranine After this check morphology under Microscope. Purple color show Gram+ Red/pink color show Gram- 6. 13. 2. CATALASE TEST 1) Take 1ml of H2o2 2) add 9ml distilled water in it 3) Take one drop from above solution on slide 4) Take colony of m. o. nd disperse on slide and check bubbling Presence of bubbles show Catalase+ Absence of bubbles show Catalase- 6. 13. 3. OXIDASE TEST 1) Take 0. 1g of Tetra methyl Paraphenyline diamine 2) Dissolve it in 10ml distilled water 3) Take one drop from above solution on slide 4) Take colony of m. o. and disperse on slide and check color Changes. Presence of Purple color show Oxidase+ Absence of Purple color show Oxidase- CHAPTER # 07 ANALYTICAL LAB. 7. 1. INSTRUMENTS USED * Flame photometer (Genway) For determination of sodium and potassium * Colorimeter (Hach)

For determination of Sulphate, Nitrate, Nitrite, Iron, Manganese, Color and Turbidity. * PH meter (Hach) * Conductivity meter (Hach) * Torque tester (Secure pak) * Nitrogen pressure tester (Zaham & Nagle) * Secure seal tester (Secure pak) * Titration For chloride, total hardness & magnesium * Ozone Comparator (Hach) For Ozone detection * Ozone destruction Unit (Aquafina) 7. 1. 1 FLAME PHOTOMETER PRINCIPLE Flame photometer based upon the principle that Alkali & Alkaline earth metals, Atoms Thermally Exited and then De-exited to ground state and emit radiation in visible region. PROCEDURE * Turn on the Flame Photometer Stabilized the flame * Select the filter e. g. Either for Na+ or K+ * Note the emission of standard solution for Na+(5ppm ,10ppm,15ppm & 20ppm) for K+ (0. 5ppm, 1ppm and 2ppm) * Note the emission of sample and compare with the standard. 7. 1. 2. COLORIMETER DR890\ PRINCIPLE * The colorimeter is an apparatus that allows the absorbance of a solution at a particular frequency of visual light to determined * The colorimeter works on the principle of Lamberd Beer Law of Spectrophotometery * The principle stated as “the absorption of light radiation in the solution is proportional to its Concentration & path Length.

PROCEDURE * Rinse the sample cell with deionizer water. * Fill the sample cell with sample up to the mark. * Add the specific reaction reagent in the sample cell for specific element to detect. * Give the specific reaction time. * Take zero reading with blank. * Introduce the sample in the sample holder and take the reading. 7. 1. 3. PH METER PH is negative logarithmic of concentration of H+ Ions PRINCIPLE A pH meter measures essentially the ecltro-chemical potential between a known liquid inside the glass electrode (membrane) and a unknown liquid outside. PRPCEDURE Calibrate the pH meter with standard buffer solutions. * Rinse the pH Electrode with the deionizer Water & clean it. * Immersed pH electrode into sample & note the Ph 7. 1. 4. CONDUCTIVITY METER PRINCIPLE Electrical conductivity is the ability of solution to transfer electric current. PROCEDURE * Calibrate the conductivity meter with standard solution of NaCl * Rinse the pH Electrode with the Deionizer Water & clean it. * Immersed Conductivity Electrode into sample & note the conductivity. 7. 1. 5 TORQUE TESTER * Closure Removal & Incremental Torques PURPOSE

To determine closure application and opening torque. Opening Torque= Force to release initial seal Incremental Torque=Force to rotate 6 ? beyond original position. PROCEDURE * Zero the display * Turn closure counter clock wise * Record removal torque * Turn closure clockwise (rotate 6 ? beyond original position. ) * Record incremental torque * Check against specification 7. 1. 6. SECURE SEAL TESTER PRINCIPLE It is instrument used to evaluate the seal of closure. * This test is performed by including gas at the control rate & time into the head space of bottle which is inserted in water bath. No sign of gas leakage bubble will insure that seal is properly sealed. PROCRDURE * Cut approximately 1/8 “Below the Neck Support Using Cut-off Tool. * Insert the cut-off the PET in the assembly & then put into the sealed Water bath. * Apply the pressure 150-175psi for 1 to 2 minutes. * Note the gas bubbles. 7. 1. 7. TITRATION PRINCIPLE It is the quantitative technique measure the concentration of substance using known strength of the solutions. Titration is done for checking Chloride, Total Hardness and Mg. CHLORIDE * At is based upon the agent metric titration. * Take 100 ml sample in titration flask. Add 2-3 drops of 5% potassium dichromate indicator. * Titrate it against 0. 02 N, AgNO3 solution. * Note the End point that is brick red ppt. * Record the ml used of AgNO3. * Multiply the reading with the dilution factor. TOTAL HARDNESS & MAGNESSIUM PRINCIPLE The method is based on the reaction of heavy metal ions and alkaline earth metal ions (mostly Ca and Mg) with EDTA in basic solution. PROCEDURE Take 100ml sample in Titration Flask. * Add NH3 buffer solution 1 to 2ml (pH 10) * Add 1-2 drops of EBT Indicator * Titrate it against 0. 01 M EDTA Solution. * Note the end point that is blue color. Record the ml used of EDTA * Multiply the reading with the dilution factor Total Hardness=Ca++ Hardness + Mg++ Hardness * In Aquafina there is no calcium so,Total Hardness=Mg hardness * Mg++ Total Hardness x 0. 24 7. 1. 8. OZONE COMPARATOR * The Limit of ozone in product is 0. 2-0. 4ppm. * DPD 4 tablets are used. * Take 5 ml sample in test tube & add DPD 4 tablet. * Compare the color on comparator. SECTION 3 CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS CHAPTER # 08 CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS 8. 1. HISTORY The beginning of carbonated beverage industry date back to the closing years of the 18th century.

The first name that comes in mind regarding the development of carbonated beverages is that of Joseph priestly an English man. Although he is famous for the discovery of oxygen become interested in the “fixed air” that lay over the liquids in fermentation vats in the brewery near his home. While conducting experiments, He produced fixed air “Co2” by pouring acid over chalk. Upon introducing the gas usually produced by fermentation, into water, he obtained a pleasant taste and sparkling water. In 1772 he published a pamphlet on this subject entitled “impregnating water with fixed air”.

This is generally considered the start of carbonated beverage industry. In United States, in 1785, Dr Philip Physick collaborated with Townsend Speak man a druggist in the preparation of artificially carbonated water to be used in the treatment of patients. Speak man however expanded the original concept by adding fruit juices as a flavoring ingredient and thus is considered as founder of carbonated beverage industry. In Europe, the preparation of carbonated water on the commercial scale was begin about 1790 by “Paul” in Geneva and by Schweppes in London in the same period.

By 1807 Benjamin Sill man operated an establishment in new Hearen for producing and selling “Soda water”. Thus it was that from the original idea of imitating natural carbonated mineral water that the production of sweetened, carbonated and flavored drinks developed. However it should be burn in mind that naturally carbonated water was well known even before Priestley and considerable work had been done on them. Indeed one of the fields of natural carbonated water was that of Libavius about 1606. During last decades of 19th century famous companies of carbonated beverage, link Pepsi-Cola, Coca-Cola and 7Up were established.

In twenty century new brands of carbonated beverages like Mountain dew, Miranda, Teem, Sprite, Fanta etc were introduced and the demand of consumption of the beverage increased, and latter they spread their business throughout the world and are still the leading companies of the carbonated beverages of the world. Pepsi is the first company to respond to consumer preference with light weight recyclable and plastic bottles. In 1996 Pepsi celebrated 100th anniversary. Pepsi-Co Chairman and CEO Roge A. Enrico donated his salary to provide scholarship for children of Pepsi Co employees. 8. . HIERARCHY OF CSD SECTION Quality control manager Mr. Ahmad Deputy QCM Mr. Tahir Assistant manager Mr. Naeem Chemist Microbiologist Quality staff Production staff 8. 3. SUB SECTIONS OF CSD DEPARTMENT Water treatment Syrup room Filling line Microbiological laboratory Analytical laboratory CHAPTER # 09 INGREDIENTS OF CARBONATED BEVERAGES 9. 1. INGREDIENTS At Haidri beverages different types of products are prepared such as. 1- Pepsi and Pepsi diet. 2 – 7up and 7up diet. 3- Miranda. 4- Mountain dew.

The main ingredients used in carbonated beverages are as under. 1. Water. 2. Carbon dioxide. 3. Sugar. 4. Citric acid. 5. Sodium citrate. 6. Sodium benzoate. 7. Concentrate. The water is obtain from the tube wells bored with in the vicinity of the factory and is treated to make it fit for the beverage production . CO2 is prepared in plant but can’t fulfill the need so the required amount is purchased from outside. Sugar used in beverage is commercial sugar is prepared by shakar Gung sugar mill. The last four listed ingredients are prepared by PCI at Hattar (Hripur) and delivered to Haidri beverages plant. . 2. FUNCTION OF INGREDIENTS 9. 2. 1. WATER Water is the main ingredient of the beverage and constitutes a large portion of the finished beverage i-e almost 88-90%. Water is not only the solvent for all other ingredients but it also performs the function of quenching the thirst which is the necessary function for any product to be considered as a beverage. 9. 2. 2. CARBON DIOXIDE Carbon dioxide is one of the important factors governing the appeal of carbonated beverage. It enhances both the taste and appearance of the beverage giving a shiny appearance to the water.

CO2 imparts a characteristic acidic taste to the finished beverage as well as creates a greater eye appeal. Also it acts to a lesser extent as a preservative. 9. 2. 3. SUGAR/SWEETNER Sweetener is a very important part of the beverage. It affects the final product. Sugar is the sweetening agent of the beverage it imparts a particular taste, in combination with the acid and flavor to the beverage. Correct proportion of sugar, acid and flavor is necessary in beverage otherwise the standard taste will be distributed and may give rise to unacceptable taste the food value is also dependent upon the amount o f sugar.

This is because sugar is the only ingredient of beverage which has some calorific value. Other sweeteners used are mostly regarded as non nutritive sweeteners. They had made it possible to provide diet soft drinks with no or few calories. Aspartame and saccharine are used in the diet soft drinks. 9. 2. 4. CITRIC ACID Citric acid is added in all of the beverages except Pepsi. The acid added in the carbonated beverage performs a number of functions, it helps in the preservation of beverage thereby enhancing the action of added preservative modifies the sweetness and enhancing the flavor.

With out acid, the carbonated beverage would taste flat or sickeningly sweet the acids add the tartness required balancing the excessive sweetness of beverage. Until proper balance of tartness and sweetness is achieved the flavor cannot develop to its full potential. Citric acid is preferred over other acids because it adapts well to lemon flavor of 7up and orange flavor of Miranda. Citric acid has a clean fruity tartness while other acids show slight pungency and are flat sour. 9. 2. 5. SODIUM CITRATE It acts a preservatives in the beverage especially in 7up.

It is particularly help full in retarding the growth of such micro organism which have the ability to grow even in an acidified medium, such as molds. It also reduces sharpness of acid taste if quantity of acid exceeds the desired level by chance. 9. 2. 6. SODIUM BENZOATE The only function of sodium benzoate is that it acts as a preservative it retards the growth of molds. It is not used in 7Up and Pepsi. 9. 2. 7. CONCENTRATE The concentrate is brought from PepsiCo international. PepsiCo international has established an industry at Hattar where concentrates is prepared and delivered to the beverage industries.

This has got the license from PepsiCo international. Generally there are two parts of concentrates, part A and Part B. In case of Pepsi the part A is acidulates (CH3PO4) while part B is flavor of Pepsi. In case of other beverages part A is the flavor ,while part B is solid, portion which, contains citric Acid, sodium citrate, Ascorbic Acid Sodium benzoate, Saccharine, or aspartame according to ingredients required for the preparation of certain beverage. The concentrate is very important in the confidential part of the beverage. It is the only difference between Pepsi and other brands.

Without concentrate it is almost impossible to produce a beverage of quality. CHAPTER # 10 WATER TREATMENT Water treatment is considered the starting and most vital unit operation during beverage preparation, as water constitutes a large portion of final product. 10. 1. WHY TREATMENT IS NECESSARY * To reduce alkalinity * To reduce/remove hardness * To reduce TDS * To kill micro organism * To remove any suspended material 10. 2. TREATMENT METHODS USED There are 2 methods used for water treatment 1. Coagulation method * Used for beverage 2. Ion exchange method Used in * Boiler * Washer * Warmer 10. 3.

WATER TREATMENT BY COAGULATION It is also called Conventional Lime Treatment System. 10. 3. 1. FLOW CHART Raw water Reaction tank Buffer tank Filtration process (sand filter, Carbon purifier, polisher) U. V. Radiations Distributors All the tanks used in water treatment are made up of SS except Reaction tank. 10. 4. RAW WATER Water is a great blessing from Allah to his creature. It is importance cannot be ignored as it constitutes the major portion of living beings. That’s why its requirement and its related problems acquire importance to a great extant. Water is the main constituent in carbonated and non carbonated beverage.

As water is universal solvent it can dissolve many ingredients and it will result in tasty and refreshing drinks. 10. 4. 1. IMPORTANCE OF WATER The importance of water in the production of soft drink can’t be stressed enough we need only to say that approximately 90% of our product is water. Therefore without good water we don’t have a good quality product. Water is most widespread natural resource to all intents and purposes no new water is being formed. However unlike our natural resources very little water is being lost so essentially there is the same amount of water now as when the earth was first created. 0. 4. 2. SOURCE OF WATER Water is used from different sources including, deep ground water, shallow ground water, river, lakes, rain and even sea water from these source is, in most of the cases, not fit for human consumption especially in beverage industry water from different sources or from different areas vary in composition. So it cannot be used so it is treated before when we go to make a beverage. The source of water in Haidri beverages Islamabad is deep ground water. There are 12 tube wells each 300ft deep. The water is pumped into the underground storage tank of 10, 00000 gallons capacity.

Then water is pumped in to over head tank having capacity of 100,000 gallons. 10. 5. REACTION TANK It has the capacity of 176000 L In this reaction tank, raw water is treated with lime which reduces alkalinity and also removes temporary hardness caused by bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium. There are two types of processes in treating water. (a) Chemical (b) Physical The chemical reaction includes, (1) Alkalinity reduction. (2) Floc formation. (3) Super chlorination. (4) Adjustment of PH. (5) Special reaction (CaCl2) The physical process include, (1) Reaction (2) Coagulation. (3) Clarification

For chemical clarification the procedure followed at the Haidri beverages Islamabad is as under, (1) First chemical are prepared. (2) Than water and chemicals are feed in to reaction tank. (3) Clarified water from reaction tank goes in to the buffer tank. 10. 5. 1. CHEMICAL PROCESS A- Chemicals Functions and Preparation In water treatment the following chemicals are used (1) Lime (CaCOH2) (2) Bleaching powder (CaOCl2) (3) Ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) (4) Calcium chloride (Ca Cl2) (1) HYDRATRD LIME Lime is added into reaction tank at the rate of 4900 ml/min although lime is alkaline. Material, it reacts the dissolved water alkalinity.

Lime reacts with calcium and magnesium. Bicarbonates to form calcium and magnesium carbonates. As calcium and magnesium carbonates are very slightly soluble, it will come out of the water as fine Particles the reaction is Mg (HCO3)2+2Ca (OH)2 ————— Mg(OH)2+2CaCO3+2H2O Ca (HCO3)2 + Ca (OH)2 —————-2CaCO3 + 2H2O The lime also helps in the adjustment of pH. As the final product is acidic in nature. So according to PCI standard pH 8. 5 – 9. 5 is very essential for PH adjustment of final product. For this purpose 2-7ppm Hydroxyl alkalinity is maintained; also lime reacts with CO2 which is present in water.

CO2 being acidic lower the PH of the water and adjust the PH of water. CO2 +Ca (OH)2 ————————CaCO3+ H2O a- Sodium alkalinity In some areas water alkalinity may be due to sodium bicarbonates. In this case, it is necessary to convert the alkalinity into a form whereby the lime reaction can takes place. This is done by adding calcium chloride which forms calcium bicarbonates, as calcium bicarbonates form, it reacts with lime to form calcium carbonate. The reaction is. First step 2NaHCO3+ CaCl2———————-Ca (HCO3)2+2NaCl 2nd Step Na2+ CO3+CaCl2——————-CaCo3+2NaCl (2)FERROUS SULPHATE

Ferrous sulfate is added at the rate of 2300 ml/min the ferrous sulfate reacts with lime to form green gelatinous ferrous hydroxide which in turn is converted to brown ferric hydroxide (floc) by chlorine. The main function of ferrous sulfate is the floc formation and coagulation. Suspended material attaches itself to ferric hydroxide particles to forms heavy clumps which quickly settle down as sludge in the bottom of reaction tank from which the sludge is removed periodically. The reaction is, FeSO4+Ca (OH)2 ————– Fe (OH)2 + CaSO4 2nd step 4Fe (OH) + Ca (ClO)2 + 2H2O ———————–4Fe (OH)3(Flock)+ +CaCl2 2-13% sludge of reaction tank should be removed. For alkalinity reduction, the best PH is about 10. 5 since ferrous sulfate coagulates well is the PH ranges 8. 5—11. This is preferred coagulant. (3)- BLEACHING POWDER Bleaching powder has no direct reaction in water rather it adds chlorine in water in the form of hypochlorite, the optimum quantity of chlorine is, 8—-12 PPM. 1900 ml/min Solution is deeded in to reaction tank. Bleaching powder gives rise to chlorine gas. Chlorine gas is highly soluble in water. It hydrolyzes the water and forms hypochlorite ions and hypochlorous acid. These are also called as free residual chlorine.

HOCl is most effective form of Cl2. The reaction is CaOCl2+H2O —————– Ca (OCl)2+HOCl HOCl————————–HCl+ (O) The atomic oxygen is anti microbial and is used against algae and slime mold. Chlorine in the form of hypochlorite performs a number of activities such as * It destroys bacteria and other microbes. * It oxidizes ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide. * It oxidizes organic materials. * It destroys odors such as hydrogen sulfide. * It destroys off taste derived from organic or certain inorganic materials. 10. 5. 2. CHEMICAL DOSING %age AND THEIR STORAGE TANK CAPICITIES S No. | Chemicals| %age| Tank capacity| | Lime| 70-75%| 2778 L| 2| Ferrous Sulphate| 60-65%| 10,000 L| 3| Bleaching powder| 40%| 10,000 L| If water flow rate is 1220ml/min, Then Lime (Ca (OH)2)=4300ml/min FeSO4 =2300ml/min Chlorine =1500ml/min 10. 5. 3. PHYSICAL PROCESS Reaction tank The raw water from storage tank is pumped in to the reaction tank. In which the chemicals are also pumped during which chemical reactions takes place. There are two reaction tanks in Hairdo beverages Islamabad having capacity of 300 gallons and 4500 gallons. The process carried out in reaction tank is a continuous process but the retention time of two hours is necessary for good calefaction .

To achieve, this process is design so that water entering at a particular time will leave the reaction tank after 2 hour. Inside the tank a paddle agitator which revolves at the rate of 5-15pm. This stirrer helps in mixing the chemicals and raw water to ensure the completion of reaction and coagulation. To inspect the water from different region of tank, there are five tapes which indicate the reaction process tape no1 comes from bottom of the tank and tap No4 comes from the middle of tank and tape no5 shoes clarified water. In bottom there are sludge drainage valve is present from which sludge is drained.

In reaction tank four principle events takes place. Which are? (1)Reaction (2)Coagulation (3)Clarification 1- Reaction Lime reacts with calcium and magnesium bicarbonates present is the water and bring them in suspension. If calcium chloride is used it converts NaCO3 and NaHCO3 into NaCl and lime also react with dissolved CO2. 2- Coagulation Ferric on its way physically entraps salts of calcium and magnesium (which are in colloidal suspension) and coagulates. 3- Clarification After coagulation because of maximum settlement of the insoluble salts occur.

These salts are settle down at the bottom of reaction tank in the form of orange color sludge, from which sludge is removed periodically and this water is the region of tape no 5. 10. 6. BUFFER TANK Water from the region of tape No-5 is brought to the buffer tank through a pipe having valve. The capacity of buffer tank is about 2000 gallons. * In buffer tank water is collected in order to make possible the continuous supply of water as discharge from the reaction tank is slow and intermittent. The water from the buffer tank is also used for backwashing of sand filter and carbon purifier. 0-15% reaction completes in it * It maintains pH 10. 7. FILTRATION PROCESS Filtration is a process in which suspended particles are filtered out from water through the filtered media. 10. 7. 1. SAND FILTER After buffer tank the treated water is pumped into the sand filter. The sand filter is made up of stain less steel inside the tank sand and gravels of different size are filled. Water passes from the sand filter that retains finely suspended, Particles and hence turbidity is reduced. Normally the water entering the sand filtration has a turbidity of 10-15 NTU.

There are six layers ranging from sand to gravel and the minimum thickness of any layer is 25 inches although sand layer is 3 feet thick. The flow rate of water is maintained 5m3/hr/m2. The pore size of sand is 30micron, when water passes sand all suspended impurities are trapped in sand and clear water is allowed to pass. Due to continuous retention of particles from water sand filter need to be back washed at regular intervals (Normally 24 hrs) for continuous good efficiency. Back washing of the sand filter done by reversing the flow of water for this purpose water from buffer tanks is used.

Normally after three years the sand is removed for achieving good quality of water. The new sand and gravels are arranging from sand to gravel and standardized by passing water 2 to 3 hrs and water is drained. Then sand filter is sterilized by filling with 50ppm available chlorine solution and holding it for 24 hrs. Composition of sand filter Total height 8’-0’’ diameter of tank 7’-2” Coarse gravel 0’-4”medium gravel 0’3” Fine gravel 0’-5” extra fine gravel 0’-6” Crush 0’-8”sand 3’-6” expansion space 2’-4” 0. 7. 2. CARBON PURIFIER Carbon purifier is not a filter. As its name indicates it performs part of the water purification process by removing chloride and any residual color or odor in the water. Chlorine is added is water to kill the germs is injurious for human health, especially causing stomach problem. Furthermore even a small amount of chlorine (0. 5 ppm) can cause bitterness in beverage. That’s why chlorine should be removed from the water. For this purpose water is passed through carbon purifier in which there is granular activated carbon which adsorbs chlorine.

The activated carbon acts like a sponge attracting and holding certain non-polar chemicals as water passes through it. There are two carbon purifiers in Haidri beverages which are alternatively used. Carbon purifier is a large stainless steel tank which is almost 75% with an activated carbon, sand and thin gravels. The minimum carbon depth should be 25——30 inch. The flow rate is same as in case of sand filtration and should not exceed that rate. Carbon purifier is also back washed after 24 hrs. The activated carbon of the carbon purifier is reactivated after a week by passing steam at 85 degree centigrade.

And the granulated carbon is changed after 3 year according to PCI standard. Composition of carbon filter Total height 8’-0’’diameter of tank 7’-2” Coarse gravel0’-6”medium gravel 0’4” Fine gravel 0’-2” extra fine gravel 0’-4” Crush 0’-5” sand 0’-7” expansion space 1’-6”carbon 4’-2” 10. 7. 3. POLISHING FILTER Polishing is the stage in water treatment section where by any minute suspended particles are removed from the water.

This is done by passing water through a polishing unit containing special filter which are known as spools. The polisher body should be either stain less steel or nickel plated brass. There are two polisher pair in Haidri beverage one pair has 42 spools and another pair has 54 spools. The polisher is located after carbon purifier. The polisher contains special filter papers or cotton cartridges, which are polishing media. These cotton cartridges retain small suspended particles which are able to pass through the sand filter and carbon purifier.

The polisher has capacity to retain particles of size as small as 10micron. Therefore this stage is called water polishing stage after polisher water is colorless, odorless, tasteless, slightly alkaline and free from any suspended material. A number of factors which will affect polisher’s ability to do the required job which include, * Water turbidity, * Water flow rate * Medium porosity * Available filtering area. The above factor damages the cotton cartridge when turbidity creases or water flow rate increase. The medium or spools are changed quarterly in a year. 10. 8. ULTRA VIOLET RADIATIONS

This is the final stage in water treatment section ultra violet treatment is given to reduce microbial count; at the end of water treatment . The water from polisher is passed through UV in which 100 HZ frequency is used. The water after complete treatment is conveyed through specially prepared stain less steel pipes to the desired place and the chance of contamination is reduced. 10. 9. DISTRIBUTORS Raw water passing from different steps are now available for processing. Now the pure water distribute to contimol and filling line etc. 10. 10. MAINTENANCE REACTION TANK Sludge formed is drained periodically when it exceeds 12%.

Reaction tank is drained completely every year and examined for any wear and tear. SAND FILTER AND CARBON FILTER Backwashed daily, sanitized daily, Sand and carbon changed annually. POLISHER Changed when pressure difference b/w inlet and outlet is 5PSI or greater. U. V. LIGHT Quarts sleeves are cleaned periodically. Lamp is replaced of its transmittance becomes lower than 60%. 10. 11. WATER STANDARDS Constituent| Limits (ppm)| Acidity| None | Total Alkalinity| 50| Chlorides| 250| Color| 5| Fluorides| 0. 08| Hardness| 200| Iron| 0. 1| Manganese| 0. 05| Organic matters| 1. 5| Silica| 25| Sulfates| 250|

T. D. S. | 500| LEAD| 0. 05| CHAPTER # 11 WATER TREATMENT BY ION EXCHANGE METHOD Ion Exchange is also a water treatment. The water treated for use in beverage production is not used for bottle washing. A separate water treatment is done for bottle washing, for this purpose no need of PH. adjustment or de chlorination. It just needs to removal of Ca+2 and Mg+2 hardness, because hard water can form soap scum with soap and scaling will occur on heating, that ‘s why for washer, boilers and heater hard water is not used. So Ion exchange process is used to remove the Ca+2 and Mg+2 completely.

For this purpose water is passed through the tank containing a resin, sodium Zeolite which is chemically sodium alimunio silicate. When water passes through molecular sieve of Na–Zeolite sodium is replaced by Ca+2 and Mg+2 ions and Na+ ion passed on to the water. Every 4—6ppm hardness adds 1ppm in water. Sodium ion don’t cause hardness so water becomes soft can be used safely for washing bottles and also use for making steam in the boiler reaction runs. Na–Zeolite+ MgCl2————————————NaCl +Mg-Zeolite Na-Zeolite+ CaCl2————————————-NaCl +Ca-Zeolite

There are four softeners at Haidri beverage Islamabad, and water is pumped from top where there is free space for expansion of sand and resin during back washing. First water passes through thick layers of Zeolite and than through sand and gravel so this water is also filtered. The calcium and Magnesium ions are attached to the Zeolite columns forming Ca and Mg Zeolite therefore softener need recharging and the sand present in softener retains much of suspended particles so it is also back washed . Normally softeners remain good for 24 hrs than it is first back washed for half an hour and then it is recharged by concentrated solution of NaCl.

Mg—Zeolite +NaCl——————–MgCl2 +Na-Zeolite Ca-Zeolite+ NaCl———————-CaCl2+ Na–Zeolite After softening this water is pumped to washing and boiler section where it is used for washing and steam production. CHAPTER # 12 TESTS FOR WATER TREATMENT 12. 1. 2P-M TEST It’s a point where hydroxyl and carbonates are titrated. P-VALUE: it’s the point where carbonates & hydroxyl ions are dissolved in water. 12. 1. 1. REAGENTS thyo sulfate, P indicator and H2SO4, Methyl red (for M) 12. 1. 2. PROCEDURE * Take 100ml of water from sand filter * add 3 drops of Thyo Sulphate + 3 drops of p-indicator * titrate against H2SO4 Take end point and note reading. NOW FOR M * take end point of P * add 3 drops of methyl red in it * titrate against H2SO4 * Take end point and note reading. Now obtain the reading of 2P-M by putting the values of P and M. this is the alkalinity of water 12. 2. M-VALUE (TOTAL ALKALINITY) It’s the point where solution is totally neutralized. 12. 2. 1. REAGENTS Methyl red indicator, H2SO4 12. 2. 2. PROCEDURE * Take 100ml water from C-filter * Add 3 drops of methyl red indicator * titrate against H2SO4 * Take end point and note reading. The volume used of H2SO4 is an M-value. 12. 3. TOTAL HARDNESS 12. 3. 1. PRINCIPLE

Hardness in water is caused by divalent of double charged cat ion Ca and Mg, and we titrate it with EDTA which is a chelating agent and binds all Ca and Mg. 12. 3. 2. PURPOSE Water hardness is necessary to determine * In plants where sodium alkalinity is present and to measure the effectiveness of coagulation system. * To measure the effectiveness of water softener and reverse osmosis. Water hardness test is conducted for raw water entering and reaction tank at water polishing and water going towards boiler and washer from softener. Hardness of water at polisher should be below 150ppm and after softener should be zero. 2. 3. 3. REAGENTS NH3 buffer, EBT indicator and EDTA. 12. 3. 4. PROCEDURE * Take 100 ml of water from carbon purifier * Add 3 drops of ammonia buffer + add EBT * Titrate it against EDTA and take reading The volume used of EDTA is the hardness. 12. 4. IRON TEST 12. 4. 1. PURPOSE * Detect iron in water to detect over the dose of ferrous coagulant. * * Raw water to monitor level of iron contributed by municipal treatment distribution. In filter water during filtration and corrosion in pipe line produce iron which affects the beverage so it is necessary to check the iron content. 12. 4. 2.

PRINCIPLE Ferrous is converted to ferric during floc formation in coagulation and ferric is colored material. First of all ferric ions are reduced by sodium sulfate to ferrous ions, phenanthroline complexes with ferrous ions to form an orange colored solution. The color intensity determines the iron concentration. 12. 4. 3. PROCEDURE * Take 5 ml of water from carbon purifier /raw water * Add ? pack iron agent * After mixing match color according to Strip. * Fe level should be zero (0. 1-0. 5ppm) 12. 5. CHLORINE TEST Chlorine test is conducted after sand filtration where it should be 2-7 ppm.

After carbon purifier where it should be zero. While at softener the level should not exceed 1 ppm. 12. 5. 1. PURPOSE Chlorine is tested because. * To find out of correct amount of Cl2 is in water or not, its reaction with micro organism is desirable. * At point where water should be free of Cl2 because any amount of Cl2 can affect color and taste of beverage. There are two types of residual chlorine * Free * Combined Free form is the forms which is most potent and react chemically the free forms are hypochlorite and hypochlorous acid. While combine form of chlorine exists in the form of chloramines or organic chloramines.

Chlorine is highly soluble in H2o and converted in to its hypochlorite and hypochlorous acid. 12. 5. 2. REAGENTS O-T solution (orthotoludine) 12. 5. 3. PROCEDURE * Take 100 ml water sample from sand filter in comparometer test tube. * Add 2-3 drops of o-T solution. * Mix it well. * Compare the color with Taylor calorimeter slide. 12. 6. VALUES OF WATER TREATMENT 2P-M Test | 2-7 ppm| M-Value| 25ppm| Cl| 7ppm| Fe| Nill| Hardness| < 100ppm| PH| 6. 5-8. 5| T. D. S| 450-500ppm| CHAPTER # 13 SYRUP ROOM Syrup manufacturing is the second major operation in carbonated beverage manufacture. It gets start after water treatment.

Syrup is manufactured by mixing the sugar with water at high temperature, (80—85C*). There are 2 syrup rooms in Haidri Beverages. * Batch system (old system) * Contimol (continuous process) 13. 1. BATCH SYSTEM * First take water in a tank and raise the temperature of the water at 85? C. * Then add 4600kg of sugar in water. * Agitate the mixture for 2 hours. * Pass from filter press (which has filter sheets, which remove sugar impurities and dust particles. Filter size is of 2µm. In it pressure is maintained at 200 PSI by hydraulic press) * Then lower down the temperature of the syrup from 85 ?

C to 20 ? C using plate and frame heat exchanger. Actually contimol system is used, I will discuss briefly about contimol. 13. 2. CONTIMOL SYSTEM Following steps are done in contimol system STEPS Sugar banker/water (60-65 ? C) Dissolving tank Heat exchanger Separator Reaction tank Filtration Dosing tank Bag filter Heat exchanger 13. 2. 1. SUGAR BANKER/WATER * 5 ton sugar added in it * made up of stain less steel * horizontal conveyor is used for conveying sugar after crushing * crushed sugar moves to dissolving tank * Treated Water comes from other side * Pass water from Shell & Tube heat exchanger Water temperature raise to 60-65 ? C Now water moves to dissolving tank 13. 2. 2. DISSOLNING TANK * Sugar and Water is added in dissolving tank * no process of agitation in dissolving tank 13. 2. 3. HEAT EXCHANGER * Jet mixer pump is used which moves mixture of water & sugar toward heat exchanger for maintain temperature at 85 ? C * The heat exchanger Shell & Tube exchanger is used for maintaining temperature of syrup at 85 ? C. 13. 2. 4. SEPARATOR * if sugar is not properly dissolved then it moves back sugar to dissolving tank * If sugar is completely dissolved than Brix is checked Brix is checked by laser refractor meter * Pore size of separator is 50 mash * Brix of initial syrup should be 62 then syrup can move to next step. 13. 2. 5. REACTION TANK % Activated Carbon is added in it * It removes color impurities, sand & dust particles and settle down. * It is also called storage tank and syrup can be store for 3 days * It has 15000 L capacity 13. 2. 6. FILTRATION * candle type filter used in it * 30 plates of filter are placed * each plate has strainer on it with the size of 30 mash * In filtration tank 2500L syrup is provided. 13. 2. 7. DOSING TANK 30-35kg Diomite earth filter powder is added in 1000L sugar syrup * Agitate it for 10-15 min * This mixing makes cakes layers which placed on plats in filtration tank during circulation * These cakes entrap sugar particle * Size of layer of cake is of 2mm * Circulation of mixture between 2 tanks (Dosing tank, Filtration tank) is at 2 bar pressure and for 45 mints. FILTER CHALKING It is a point at which cake is not entrapping any particle of sugar syrup in filtration tank; it is checked by the difference of pressure between upper and lower gauges Normal pressure of upper gauge and lower gauge is 1. bars Filter chalk if upper gauge of filtration tank shows pressure 4. 6 bar And lower gauge shows 1. 5 bar pressure. In this condition filter should be changed. 13. 2. 8. BAG FILTER * cloth like filter used in it * 30µm pore size of filter * It removes very small particles like dust particles which were not removed in Filtration tank * Still the temperature of syrup is 85 ? C. 13. 2. 9. SYRUP PASS FROM HEAT EXCHANGER * Plate & Frame Heat Exchanger used * Its purpose is to lower down the temperature of syrup from 85 ? C to20-25 ? C In plates there is syrup and in frames 3 chemicals

Treated Water having temperature of 25 ? C Treated water reduces syrup temperature from 85 ? C to 55 ? C Cooling Tower having temperature of 50 ? C Cooling tower reduces temperature of syrup from 55 ? C to 30 ? C. Brine section having temperature range of 0 to -0. 5 ? C While brine reduces temperature of syrup up to 20 ? C. 13. 2. SYRUP STORAGE Then this syrup having 20 ? C temperature moves to initial syrup storage tank, which has the capacity of 16000 L. 13. 3. FINAL SUYRUP ROOM Syrup from initial syrup storage tank moves to final storage syrup tank after mixing with other ingredient.

Brix of Final Syrup varies according to nature of Beverage which is going to be prepared. Final syrup is prepared for desired beverage by adding color flavor acid preservative. In syrup room there are 24 storage tank having capacity ranges from 10,000 Liter to 35,000 liter in these tanks final syrup for different products is prepared. 13. 4. 5 STEP SANITATION O ALL SYRUP TANKS (INTERNAL CIP) * Rinse the equipment with treated water * Flush the 0. 9-1% Trisodium Phosphate * Rinse with treated water * Flush with chlorine solution * Rinse with treated water 13. 5.

EXTERNAL CIP It is done manually by using water CHAPTER # 14 GLASS BOTTLE WASHING The preparation of bottles for reused is one of the important operations associated with the manufacturing of carbonated beverages. Therefore bottles are washed prior to the filling of beverages. There are certain measures taken before washing is done. These measures are often termed as foreign matter risk management (FMRM). This includes – Straw, dirt, and dust. – Wrappers – Bottle of another brand – Chipped bottles. So over all following processes are carried out. 1) Pre washing inspection, 2) Washer ) Post washing inspection 14. 1. PRE WASHING INSPECTION First of all the empty bottles are brought in the form of pallets. The pallets, which contain 50 crates, are brought to the de caser. The de-caser work with the help of hydraulic system. The de casers have pockets in which bottles are held by vacuum suction. These bottles are place on chain conveyer. Here pre washing inspection is done by workers. In which the dirty, bottle of another brand or damaged bottles are removed, and here cases are move to case washer where they are washed and after washing, they are move towards case packer.

The separated bottles from the lot chipped bottle and bottle of another brand are disposed off while dirty bottles are washed with concentrated H2SO4. 14. 2. WASHERS Washing is an important unit operation because the neat and clean bottles are the first impression on the consumers. If the bottles are clean properly there would be less chances of contamination and more will be the shelf life of the beverage. There are three washers in Haidri beverages Islamabad all washers are completely automatic. The bottle washing machine is consisting of 4 tanks.

These tanks are double walled so that steam can pass between walls to keep tank solution to a desired temperature. The empty bottles are conveyed by chain conveyer, to pocket conveyors. These conveyors convey bottles from one tank to another for bottles washing, holding the bottles in each tank for about 5 mints. At a time tank can hold 7–10 pocket conveyors. That’s why when 7—10 conveyors are filled with bottles the action of striker is stopped for some time, so that al-ready fed batch of bottles is thoroughly washed. 14. 2. 1. STEPS IN BOTTLE WASHING

The criterion for satisfactory reuse of bottles is that they should be sterilized, rinsed, free of chemicals sterilizing agents of acceptable appearance, and of good mechanical strength. In order to achieve these standards the concentration of detergent agent, temperature of washing solution, time of exposure of bottle to the cleaning agent and mechanical suitability of machinery to the bottles should be controlled. That’s why bottle washing is done in several steps, which helps to control the above discussed factors and give desirable properties to the bottles.

In each tank of bottle washing machine some treatment is given to the bottle. In this way 4 steps are completed in 4 tanks. 14. 2. 1. 1. PRE RINSING (Tank No-1) This is the first step of bottle washing. In this step bottles are just rinsed by warm water to 40 degree centigrade. The rinsing is done by jetting of water in the form of fine spray on and into the bottles. 13. 2. 1. 2. DETERGENT-1 (Tank 2) In this step 2. 5% caustic soda is used which is at temperature of 60 degree centigrade. To accomplish this step the third tank has two portions. In first portion the bottles are dipped in 2. % caustic soda in second portion jetting of 2. 5 % caustic soda is done into the bottles. In similar way as water jetting in pre rinsing step. 14. 2. 1. 3. DETERGENT-2 (Tank No 3) In this step jetting of 3. 5% caustic soda solution is done into the bottles. So that they are thoroughly washed from inside. The temperature of caustic soda solution is maintained at 70–75 degree centigrade. It is the last washing of caustic the gradual increase in the percentage of caustic facilitate proper cleaning operation and assure through sterilization of bottles. 14. 2. 1. 4.

HOT WATER WASHING (Tank-4) In this step hot water having 60 degree centigrade is used. This water is jetted into the bottles to remove caustic soda from the bottles. 14. 3. POST WASHING INSPECTION The washed bottles come out from the bottle washing machine. The discharge end of the washer opens in the inspection room the bottles are placed in conveyor, which convey the bottles through the inspection room where moving towards the filling room. This inspection is known as empty bottle inspection. For this train workers inspect the bottles in the background of bright light.

The bottles which are not thoroughly washed, the bottles which are not properly washed are retained for re washing while cracked or broken bottles are rejected and latter on discarded. The remaining bottles are considered fit for filling operation and are passed toward the filler. CHAPTER # 15 FILLING SECTION (DETAILED) The finished syrup when thoroughly prepared in the finish syrup tank, is ready for filling and carbonation but before carbonation the syrup must be diluted as finished syrup contains almost 50% sugar where as finished beverage contains round about 10% sugar.

Therefore before the syrup is conveyed to the carbo-cooler it is passed through syrup diluter. 15. 1. SYRUP DILUTER Syrup diluter is a small tank in to which flows the syrup from one side and treated water from another side. The oxygen content of water used for dilution of syrup is reduced. Treated water has 4-6ppm oxygen while the water used in dilution should have oxygen less than 1ppm this is b\c to avoid the oxidation in find beverage. This is done in de-aerator in de-aerator CO2 is dissolved in the water. As the solubility of (CO2) in water is more as compare to oxygen (O2) so oxygen is rendered insoluble in the water.

In syrup diluter a valve can controlled the rate of flow of water while the rate of syrup is constant. The rate of water flow is adjusted in such a way that syrup is diluted at the ratio of 5 parts of water to 1parts of incoming syrup. That is 5:1 the Brix of diluted syrup is checked a regular intervals. Carbo-cooler Carbo- cooler is a tank in which the syrup is cooled and then carbonated. For cooling purpose there are two plates in the tank that have coils on them liquefied compressed ammonia circulates in these coils, which cools the incoming syrup to 4°C.

When syrup is being cooled CO2 is injected into the carbo-color through an opening at lower portion in the tank. This opening is connected to the CO2 supply pipeline coming from the CO2 plant. The pressure of CO2 in carbo-cooler is maintained at 60 psi in most of the cases. In this process the temperature and the pressure are of important factors because any fluctuation in temperature and pressure will result in uncontrolled gas volume in the final beverage. So it will become difficult to maintain a uniform quality of the beverage. Filler