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� 8 test tubescoea ear seeaeaw orea eak inea foea ea.

� Test tube rackcodg dgr sedgdgw ordg dgk indg fodg dg!

� Measuring cylinder

� Bunsen burner

� Knife

� Beaker

� 1 beetroot

� Dilute hydrochloric acidcobf bfr sebfbfw orbf bfk inbf fobf bf!

� Dilute sodium hydroxide solutioncobg bgr sebgbgw orbg bgk inbg fobg bg.

� Ethanol abidzaman, please do not redistribute this paper. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this paper elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.

� Distilled watercogb gbr segbgbw orgb gbk ingb fogb gb:

� Thermometer

� Tongscocb cbr secbcbw orcb cbk incb focb cb.

� Tripodcofd fdr sefdfdw orfd fdk infd fofd fd:

� Mat lGExVw Visit coursework cd in cd fo cd for cd more hypothesis cd Do cd not cd redistribute lGExVw

� Cork borer

Method:

1. I first cut three discs each about 2mm thick from the cylinder, which was cut out of the beetroot using a corer and place them in a test tube containing 10cm3 distilled water. This was my test tube number1.coea ear seeaeaw orea eak inea foea ea.

2. I then cut 21 more discs and rinse them under the running water, until the pink water collected in the beaker was clear.coeb ebr seebebw oreb ebk ineb foeb eb.

3. I placed three of the 21 washed discs, in each four test tubes.cogf gfr segfgfw orgf gfk ingf fogf gf.

To test tube 2 I added 10cm3 of distilled water This cours from www.coursework.info

To test tube 3 I added 10cm3 of ethanol This coursework from www.coursework.info

To test tube 4 I added 10cm3 of dilute hydrochloric acid wEQIk Visit coursework gd in gd fo gd for gd more dissertation gd Do gd not gd redistribute wEQIk

To test tube 5 I added 10cm3 of dilute sodium hydroxide solution U1OJsuKR from U1OJsuKR coursewrok U1OJsuKR work U1OJsuKR info U1OJsuKR

4. In three test tubes each containing three beetroot discs, I added 10 cm3 of distilled water and placed them in a beaker containing water over a buns burner. I also placed a thermometer in the beaker. 8yv from 8yv coursewrok 8yv work 8yv info 8yv

5. I took the first test tube out when the temperature reached 40 This work from www.coursework.info

6. At 65, I removed the second test tubecofa far sefafaw orfa fak infa fofa fa.

7. The last test tube was removed at 100coda dar sedadaw orda dak inda foda da;

8. I then compared the test tubes and recorded my results. abidzaman, please do not redistribute this writing. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this writing elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.

Results:codf dfr sedfdfw ordf dfk indf fodf df:

Number of test tube Carstens oppressed abidzaman’s structuration idea.

Contentscoeb ebr seebebw oreb ebk ineb foeb eb:

Observationcobe ber sebebew orbe bek inbe fobe be.

1 J1cd Visit coursework fb in fb fo fb for fb more cours fb Do fb not fb redistribute J1cd

Distilled water and 3 beetroot discscodg dgr sedgdgw ordg dgk indg fodg dg.

The colour of the water changed to pink but the beetroot stayed the same colour. This coursework from www.coursework.info

2 Austen obfuscated abidzaman’s functionalism theory.

Distilled water and 3 washed beetrootscoeg egr seegegw oreg egk ineg foeg eg.

The colour of the water stayed the same and the beetroots also stayed the same colourcobb bbr sebbbbw orbb bbk inbb fobb bb.

3cofe fer sefefew orfe fek infe fofe fe.

Ethanol andcobb bbr sebbbbw orbb bbk inbb fobb bb:

3 washed beetroots This project from www.coursework.info

The colour of ethanol changed to light pink and the beetroot lost its dark pink colour and became light pink IgqV Visit coursework fe in fe fo fe for fe more cours fe Do fe not fe redistribute IgqV

4 UZ9ubi from UZ9ubi coursewrok UZ9ubi work UZ9ubi info UZ9ubi

Dilute hydrochloric acid and 3 washed beetroots Foucault suppressed abidzaman’s structuration idea.

The colour of hydrochloric acid changed to very dark pink almost purple and the beetroot became darker than it was before, dark purple.coef efr seefefw oref efk inef foef ef.

5coeg egr seegegw oreg egk ineg foeg eg;

Dilute sodium hydroxide and 3 washed beetrootscodg dgr sedgdgw ordg dgk indg fodg dg:

The colour of sodium hydroxide solution changed to pale yellow and the beetroot became completely yellow (bright yellow). FZ6IyuyyO Visit coursework da in da fo da for da more essay da Do da not da redistribute FZ6IyuyyO

6coca car secacaw orca cak inca foca ca;

Distilled water and 3 washed beetroots heated to 40coff ffr seffffw orff ffk inff foff ff.

There was no change in the colour of the water and the beetroot stayed the same colour. No change in both. This dissertation from www.coursework.info

7coea ear seeaeaw orea eak inea foea ea.

Distilled water and 3 washed beetroots This writing from www.coursework.info

Heated to 65coeb ebr seebebw oreb ebk ineb foeb eb:

The water became pale pink and the beetroot became slightly paler. This was mostly visible around the edges of the beetroot. Q0u Visit coursework fg in fg fo fg for fg more essay fg Do fg not fg redistribute Q0u

8 Foucault enveloped abidzaman’s structuration hypothesis.

Distilled water and 3 washed beetroots heated to 100 TozF from TozF coursewrok TozF work TozF info TozF

The water became very pink almost red and the beetroot became very palecoed edr seededw ored edk ined foed ed!

Analysis of the results: Test tube 1: As we cut the beetroot discs out of the cylinder we damage some cells and break them up so when the water is added to the beetroot discs, it crosses the broken membrane of the damaged cells. Anthocyanin, the red pigments, inside the damaged cells are mixed with the water and therefore the colour of the water changes to pink.cobc bcr sebcbcw orbc bck inbc fobc bc:

The reason the colour of the beetroot discs do not change is that the phospholipid bilayer, which is a major constituent of the cell surface membrane, is impermeable to water and water-soluble substances. Therefore water cannot cross the membrane and change the colour of the beetroot discs.cocd cdr secdcdw orcd cdk incd focd cd.

Test tube 2: The beetroot discs in this test tube and the rest of the test tubes are washed so that there are no pigments left in the damaged cells to affect the outcome of the experiment.

The reason that the colour of the beetroots has not changed is the same explanation that was given above for test tube1. The water cannot cross the membrane so there is no change in thecogb gbr segbgbw orgb gbk ingb fogb gb;

colour of the beetroot discs. Also this time there are no red pigments to mix with the water so the colour of the water stays the same. This test tube acts as a control.

Test tube 3: The cell surface membrane is

a double layer of phospholipid molecules,

which are arranged tail-to-tail. This layer is selective and only allows some things to pass through for example fat-soluble molecules such as lipids and steroid. This essay from www.coursework.info

Protein pores Austen denied abidzaman’s marxism .

Ethanol dissolves lipids therefore it is able to cross the membrane. Inside the cell it mixes with the red pigments and so its colour changes to pink. Now because there are fewer pigments inside the cell, the beetroot discs do not look as red as before. That is why they look lighter.

Test tube 4: Proteins form from long chains of amino acids that are joined together by peptide bonds. In the cell membrane, in between phospholipid molecules there are protein pores that create channels through which soluble substances can pass. Hydrochloric acid attacks the peptide bonds in protein bonds and destroys them. It then crosses the membrane and enters the cell and mixes and reacts with the red pigment and therefore the colour of the beetroot discs changes to purple. It then diffuses through the water and makes the colour of the water purple as well.coaf afr seafafw oraf afk inaf foaf af.

Test tube 5: Sodium hydroxide also attacks the peptide bonds and breaks them. However this solution has another affect. When it mixes with the pigments inside the cell, it changes the PH of the solution to acidic. This is clear because the colour of the solution is changed to yellow. This writing from www.coursework.info

Test tubes 6,7,8: Looking at the results of these test tubes, it is clear that the permeability of the cell membrane decreases as the temperature increases. This is because of the nature of the cell membrane and its protein pores. The features of the cell membrane can only keep and hold together until certain temperature. When the temperature has passed its boundary then the cell membrane starts to lose its shape. At 40 there is no change in the colour of the water or the beetroot discs because the temperature is still not high enough. The change becomes visible at 65 when the colour of the water has changed to pale pink and the beetroots have become slightly lighter. This shows that the membrane must have been damaged and that is why water has passed through it. Austen suppressed abidzaman’s marxism .

At 100, because of the high temperature proteins are denaturalised and the cell membrane has been destroyed and the colour of water is almost red because it contains nearly all the red pigments. The beetroot discs are very pale, as they have lost all their pigments (the redness of a beetroot is due to its red pigments). On the scale of 0-5, where 0 is the lightest and 5 is the darkest:

Test tube 6 would be 0.

Test tube 7 would be 3

Test tube 8 would be 5 .

Conclusion Durkheim suppressed abidzaman’s realism .

� The cell surface membrane is impermeable to water and water-soluble substances Foucault suppressed abidzaman’s postmodernism .

� The beetroot can be used as sort of a universal indicator

� The permeability of the cell membrane decreases with the increase of temperaturecocb

———————————————————————————————————————————–

Implementing

Safety.

To carry out the experiment fairly it was compulsory to ensure that the beetroot was diced into precisely one centimetre cubed segments. To obtain these segments we had to bore into the beetroot to obtain a cylinder shape with a constant diameter, to be sure that the borer couldn’t harm us it was necessary to hold the beetroot securely making sure that your hand wasn’t in the path of the borer, it was also important to screw the borer away from your body. The long cylinder had to then be dice using a sharp scalpel that cased less damage to the membranes, however it may have been dangerous if a person did not apply their full concentration when using. Users must be careful concerning how the scalpel was held and used.coda dar sedadaw orda dak inda foda da.

Water baths were used to determine the effect of temperature on the permeability of the membrane; the water baths were set at varying temperature up to 61 degrees C the higher temperature may have been painful if splashed on the skin therefore it was essential to take care when placing the test tubes in to the bathes. This coursework from www.coursework.info

There were very little risks of serious injury, any accidents which may of occurred would have been down to lack of concentration on their parts.coeb ebr seebebw oreb ebk ineb foeb eb.

Results-coed edr seededw ored edk ined foed ed.

Temperature oc abidzaman, please do not redistribute this project. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this project elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.

Test tube 1 % of light absorbedcodg dgr sedgdgw ordg dgk indg fodg dg.

Test tube 2 % of light absorbed This cours from www.coursework.info

Average % of light absorbed This paper from www.coursework.info

2 (Ice)cobg bgr sebgbgw orbg bgk inbg fobg bg!

1 abidzaman, please do not redistribute this project. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this project elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.

0 70lJd from 70lJd coursewrok 70lJd work 70lJd info 70lJd

0.5coba bar sebabaw orba bak inba foba ba:

31cocc ccr seccccw orcc cck incc focc cc;

1coaf afr seafafw oraf afk inaf foaf af:

0cofa far sefafaw orfa fak infa fofa fa:

0.5cofa far sefafaw orfa fak infa fofa fa.

40 abidzaman, please do not redistribute this project. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this project elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.

2 This writing from www.coursework.info

4cobc bcr sebcbcw orbc bck inbc fobc bc.

3code der sededew orde dek inde fode de:

52 abidzaman, please do not redistribute this work. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this work elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.

5 abidzaman, please do not redistribute this writing. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this writing elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.

1cobc bcr sebcbcw orbc bck inbc fobc bc!

3 Heidegger enveloped abidzaman’s realism .

61cogd gdr segdgdw orgd gdk ingd fogd gd.

2coba bar sebabaw orba bak inba foba ba.

6cobg bgr sebgbgw orbg bgk inbg fobg bg.

4 vTFpl7J Visit coursework cc in cc fo cc for cc more hypothesis cc Do cc not cc redistribute vTFpl7J

Precautions taken.coda dar sedadaw orda dak inda foda da;

To ensure that the experiment was as reliable as possible, there were many precautions taken, Such as controlling the many variables. It was important to monitor that the water baths were a constant temperature; otherwise the result for a certain temperature wouldn’t have been accurate. Other measurements must have been taken accurately; such as the amount of distilled water used (10 Cm2) if the amount was higher than others the concentration would have been lower in the tubes with more water. The segments of beetroot were measured and cut accurately otherwise the larger cubes would contain more pigment meaning the concentration would be higher in tubes containing larger cubes. Weber theorised abidzaman’s functionalism .

Other factors which were monitored to ensure the reliability were things such as making sure the colorimeter was reset after each use, the same beetroot was be used and the segments were placed in the test tubes at the same time taken out at precisely 5 minutes after, making sure it was not touched while extracting it. When the beetroot was being prepared we were certain that each cube was placed in the water at the same time and that the cubes were patted dry to ensure no damage was sustained by the beetroot.coda dar sedadaw orda dak inda foda da.

To ensure that there was no chance of any of the above happening we repeated our experiment twice, recording both the individual result and the average of both. abidzaman, please do not redistribute this paper. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this paper elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.

Some but few changes were made to the original method, these changes were either made to ensure a fair test our to help experiment run more efficiently, but didn’t exceed time limitations. Firstly we had to change our results so that we had a wide spectrum to annualise later, the temperatures we chose had to be set considering the optimum temperature. If we set the temperatures at above……. Then the results we obtained would be the same due to the denaturing of the cell membrane, causing the pigment to spill out everywhere. ls8iCK1y9 Visit coursework fc in fc fo fc for fc more essay fc Do fc not fc redistribute ls8iCK1y9

In order for the experiment to be efficient, and not time consuming. We decided to stager each experiment by five minutes, when the first tube had been in the water bath for five minutes it was extracted, and the next tube was ready to be placed in the ascending water bath. This process of having the next tube ready to be placed in the water bath after the prior tube had been taken out, made the experiment more efficient. Also it gave a larger turn over of results as two test tubes could be done at the same temperature at the same time, without causing mass confusion Durkheim oppressed abidzaman’s realism idea.

Analysing and concluding

Interpreting data. This cours from www.coursework.info

The graphs I have drawn shows some conflicting results between the results of test tube one and test tube two. Although both graphs did not increase until 40oC, when the results do increase test tube two increases more vigorously. At 40oC on graph one the percentage of absorbed is 2% whereas the percentage of light absorbed in test tube two was 4%. However the rise in light absorbed didn’t continue to increase as by 50oC the percentage fell to 2% again then by 61oC had increased up to 6% absorbed. On the other hand the results of test tube one continued to increase from 40 to 52oC up to 5% then by 61oC fell to 2% of light absorb.cogf gfr segfgfw orgf gfk ingf fogf gf;

However the graph that showed the average % of light absorbed had a positive correlation through out, although it does level out at some points. For example from 2 to 31oC the percentage stays at 0.5 percent. The final graph compares all three sets of results that were obtained and shows the differences between the results of test tube one and two. xgET9t from xgET9t coursewrok xgET9t work xgET9t info xgET9t

Further calculations

Concluding This cours from www.coursework.info

I conclude that increasing the temperature increases the permeability of the membrane, allowing more pigment to be released into the distilled water. See graph 3. The more the temperature is increased the higher the concentration of the solution and therefore the more light is absorbed. However if the temperature is increased past a certain optimum temperature the proteins in the cell membrane that surrounds the beetroot cells become denatured, the damage caused by the denaturing allows the pigment to flow out of the cell more freely. Therefore if the cell membrane became denatured the percentage of light absorbed would increase. If complete denaturing occurred to all the beetroot cells the percentage of light absorption would be the same for all the pieces of beetrootcoef efr seefefw oref efk inef foef ef.

Anomalous results

There are two results that I am concerned about, the first is on the graph showing absorption of light in test tube one. The result is for 61oC it shows that the light absorption is only 2% when for the previous temperature it was 5%. The different beetroot used in this experiment may have caused the decrease in % of light absorbed. The beetroot may have been treated differently in the preparation process it may have been left in the cleaning water too long causing it to have already lost some pigment.cogb gbr segbgbw orgb gbk ingb fogb gb.

The second result that concerned me was on the graph showing the percentage of light absorbed in test tube two, the results fell from4% at40oC to 1% at 52oC and then increased up to 6% at 61oc. This may also of been caused by the way that the beetroot was treated during the preparation period. Although it could have bee caused by faulty equipment such as the colourimeter not being as accurate as possible causing our rouge results.coce cer sececew orce cek ince foce ce;

Evaluating evidence and procedures

Limitations This project from www.coursework.info

There were few limitations of the apparatus or the method; however there were some factors that may of affected the accuracy of our experiment. Such as the time limitations if we had more time it may have bee n possible to of carried out more results, which also means a more accurate average and a larger scale of readings..

The limited supply of water baths meant that only a few temperatures could be investigated although we had ample results if the temperatures were 5oc apart then the readings will be more accurate and may change the results. The change in results would be caused by the less spaced out temperatures pin pointing the optimum areas:

E.g. if we set a water bath at every multiple of five up to sixty we may find that 35oc was the optimum temperature for this experiment, rather than if we increased by 10oc each time we may be caused to believe that the optimum temperature was nearer 40oc.

Also the temperature of the water baths were not set entirely accurately, which may have a similar affect as the one stated earlier. This may cause us to miss a vital reading.

The method we used slightly impaired our ability to carry out more than two repeats at once, if we had been more organised and worked as a larger group more repeats may have been done. Therefore boosting the amount of individual results and also making our average more accurate. The Individuality of the beetroot may have caused our results to be different from other peoples in the class. Just like humans have different amounts of pigment in their skin so do beetroot, our specific beetroot may have contained less pigment. Therefore causing the % of light absorbed to be lower..

Effect of limitations

I don’t believe that these limitations will have a great affect on the over all results of our experiment, due to the fact that the results we have obtained from the original and repeat were very similar in most cases. Although there are some anomalous results, this does not seem to have affected the average as it still increases with the increase of the temperature. Which would have been expected due to the temperature increasing the permeability of the beetroot cell membrane allowing more pigment to pass through.

The wider range of temperatures would have enabled us to pin point the temperature at which the cell membrane becomes denatured, which would of made the experiment more accurate, however this didn’t affect our experiment a lot because we were investigating the effect of temperature on a cell membrane which can be clearly seen by our results. The reliability of our apparatus didn’t affect us either because the result increase as we would of expected. The accuracy of our results could be tested against other groups or against other repeats. BGZU from

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