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March on Washington The March on Washington was a march for jobs and freedom. It was estimated that quarter of a million people attended the march. The march was a peaceful demonstration to promote civil rights and economic equality for African Americans. The marchers marched down Constitution and Independence Avenues. Then they gathered in front of the Lincoln monument for speeches, songs, and prayers. It was televised to millions of people. The march consisted of all different kinds of people. There were blacks and whites, rich and poor, young and old, and Hollywood stars and normal everyday people.

There were many speeches that day but there were two major ones. One was from James Farmer, imprisoned in Louisiana, speech was read by Floyd McKissick, Farmer said the fight for economic and legal equality would not stop “until the dogs stop biting us in the South and the rats stop biting us in the North. ” King gave the last speech of the day and it was the famous “I Have a Dream “speech. The march ended 10 minutes before schedule. After the march leaders met with President Kennedy at the White House to discuss ideas. Montgomery Bus Boycott

The Montgomery Bus Boycott officially started on December 1, 1955. That was the day when the blacks of Montgomery, Alabama, decided that they would boycott the city buses until they could sit anywhere they wanted, instead of being relegated to the back when a white boarded. It was not, however, the day that the movement to desegregate the buses started. Perhaps the movement started on the day in 1943 when a black seamstress named Rosa Parks paid her bus fare and then watched the bus drive off as she tried to re-enter through the rear door, as the driver had told her to do.

Perhaps the movement started on the day in 1949 when a black professor Jo Ann Robinson absentmindedly sat at the front of a nearly empty bus, then ran off in tears when the bus driver screamed at her for doing so. Perhaps the movement started on the day in the early 1950s when a black pastor named Vernon Johns tried to get other blacks to leave a bus in protest after he was forced to give up his seat to a white man, only to have them tell him, “You ought to knowed better. The story of the Montgomery Bus Boycott is often told as a simple, happy tale of the “little people” triumphing over the seemingly insurmountable forces of evil. The truth is a little less romantic and a little more complex. When the boycott began, no one expected it to last for very long. There had been boycotts of buses by blacks before, most recently in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, in 1953. A one-day boycott, followed three months later by a week-long boycott, resulted in buses that were more desegregated but that still had some seats reserved for whites as well as some for blacks.

On Thursday, December 8, the fourth day of the boycott, King and other MIA officials met with officials and lawyers from the bus company, as well as the city commissioners, to present a moderate desegregation plan similar to the one already implemented in Baton Rouge and other Southern cities, including Mobile, Alabama. The MIA was hopeful that the plan would be accepted and the boycott would end, but the bus company refused to consider it. In addition, city officials struck a blow to the boycott when they announced that any cab driver charging less than the 45 cent minimum fare would be prosecuted.

Since the boycott began, the black cab services had been charging blacks only 10 cents to ride, the same as the bus fare, but this service would be no more. Suddenly the MIA was faced with the prospect of having thousands of blacks with no way to get to work, and with no end to the boycott in sight. In response, the MIA worked out a “private taxi” plan, under which blacks w ho owned cars picked up and dropped off blacks who needed rides at designated points.

The plan was elaborate and took a great deal of planning; consequently, the MIA appointed a Transportation Committee to oversee it. The service worked so well so quickly that even the White Citizens Council (whose membership doubled during one month of the boycott) had to admit that it moved with “military precision. ” Although the gains of the Montgomery Bus Boycott were small compared with the gains blacks would later win, the boycott was important start to the movement.

The lasting legacy of the boycott, as Roberta Wright wrote, was that “It helped to launch a 10-year national struggle for freedom and justice, the Civil Rights Movement that stimulated others to do the same at home and abroad. ” Manzanar In 1942, the United States government ordered more than 110,000 men, women, and children to leave their homes and detained them in remote, military-style camps. Manzanar War Relocation Center was one of ten camps where Japanese American citizens and resident Japanese aliens were interned during World War II.

After being uprooted from their homes and communities, the prisoners found themselves having to endure primitive, sub-standard conditions, lack of privacy, and having to wait in one line after another for meals, at latrines, and at the laundry room. Each camp was intended to be self-sufficient, and Manzanar was no exception. Cooperatives operated various services, such as the camp newspaper, beauty and barber shops, shoe repair, and more. In addition, prisoners raised chickens, hogs, and vegetables, and cultivated the existing orchards for fruit. Prisoners even made their own soy sauce and tofu.

On November 21, 1945, the WRA closed Manzanar, the sixth camp to be closed. Although the prisoners had been brought to the Owens Valley by the United States Government, they had to leave the camp on their own, with the WRA giving $25, one-way train or bus fare, and meals to those who had less than $600. While many left the camp voluntarily, a significant number refused to leave because they had no place to go after having lost everything when they were forcibly uprooted and removed from their homes. As such, they had to be forcibly removed once again, this time from Manzanar.

Indeed, those who refused to leave were generally removed from their barracks, sometimes by force, even if they had no place to go. After the camp was closed, the site eventually returned to its original state, and within a couple of years all the structures had been removed, with the exception of the two sentry posts at the entrance, the cemetery monument, and the former Manzanar High School auditorium, which was purchased by the County of Inyo. The County leased the auditorium to the Independence Veterans of Foreign Wars, who used it as a meeting facility and community theater until 1951.

After that, the building was used as a maintenance facility by the Inyo County Road Department. As of 2007, the site also retains numerous building foundations, portions of the water and sewer systems, the outline of the road grid, remains of the landscaping constructed by prisoners, and much more. And despite four years of use by the prisoners, the site also retains evidence of the ranches and of the town of Manzanar, as well as artifacts from the days of the Owens Valley Paiute settlement. Questions March on Washington 1. Q: What is the March on Washington?

A: A march for jobs and freedom 2. Q: When did it happen? A: Happened August 28, 1963 3. Q: Where did it take place? A: In Washington D. C. 4. Q: How many people attended the march? A: 250,000 people 5. Q: What is the most remembered speech from the march? A: Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. ’s “I have a dream” speech Montgomery bus boycott 1. Q: When was the Montgomery Bus Boycott? A: December 1955 2. Q: How did this event start? A: It started when Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a bus. 3. Q: Where did it happen? A: It happened in Montgomery, Alabama. . Q: Who were the good and bad guys in this event? A: The good guys were the African Americans fighting for their rights and the bad guys were the bus drivers and the government. 5. Q: Who was the major person in this event? A: Rosa Parks was the most important person in this event. Manazar 1. Q: What does “Manzanar” mean? A: “Manzanar” is the Spanish word for apple orchard. 2. A: What happened to all the buildings from the camp? A: After the war, all but three of the camp’s 800 buildings were dismantled or relocated.

Former Manzanar War Relocation Center buildings can be found throughout the Owens Valley. 3. Q: Do former internees come back to visit? A: Former internees come back to Manzanar frequently. 4. Q: Can I pick fruit from the historic orchards? A: Visitors may sample the fruit from the orchards. They may gather 1 quart or less per person and no more than 5 quarts per year. 5. Q: Did the prisoners have anything when they got out of Manzanar? A: No they lost everything when they were in the camp.



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