CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Oregano is one of the species of a perennial herb called marjarum (origanum vulgare). It is also called pot marjarum and oregany. It grows in abundance and highly available in the locality. It is very common to many households because of its medicinal value. The juice derived or squeezed from the oregano leaves contain ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Authoritatively, ascorbic acid contains low acidic effect just commensurate to prevent, weaken or reduce the severity of a disease, common cold.
Many people believed that common cold is caused by climate change. The sudden change of the weather and exposure to warm and cool conditions cause common cold and also the unsanitary condition of the environment and poor practice of personal hygiene as well. The principal cause of common cold is a group of virus called rhinoviruses. It is highly contagious the fact that it is an airborne disease. Once a person is infected with this virus, the disease will spread easily from person to person through close contact or association. It is probable that coughing and sneezing facilitate the spread.
It is the virus that is transmitted to another person and in such unprecautionary measures people will get common cold. Cough or coughing as appearing in the title is not a disease. It is a physiological manner in which air is forcibly expelled from the lungs. It is a body’s mechanism for cleansing the respiratory tract of irritants, foreign bodies, or excessive accumulation of secretions, phlegm. The primitive way of using oregano leaves for common cold is to boil them and let the patient drink a teaspoon full of oregano juice to cure common cold.
Young as he is, he refuses to take it because of its non-soothing taste and smell. Most likely the oregano medicinal juice will be wasted. Creatively, the oregano leaves extract should be made into a menthol candy under the supervision of a consultant Miss Leslie Joy Ariate, pharmacist of the South Star Drug, Ligao City, who has the expertise and full knowledge in the measurement, ratio and proportion of medicine and can test its effectivity and can prescribe it as a cure for common cold. The candy should be mentholated, with flavor so that the patient should experience and feel the freshness and delicious taste.
The oregano taste of this mentholated and flavored candy should stand prominently so that the patience shall be cured by the presence of ascorbic acid. Statement of the Problem There are two major problems which the researcher would like to come up with satisfactory answers. They are as follows: 1. Is ascorbic acid from oregano leaves effective against rhinoviruses causing cold and cough? 2. How much water, ascorbic acid and quantity of sugar and other ingredients are needed to process oregano as oregano menthol candy? Formulation of Hypotheses
This research experiment proposal has two hypotheses. One is positively stated and the other is negatively stated. They are as follows: 1. Ascorbic acid from oregano as menthol candy is effective against rhinoviruses causing cold and cough. 2. Ascorbic acid from oregano as menthol candy is not effective against rhinoviruses causing cold and cough. Significance of the Study Oregano is useful for people with cold and cough. But how can a child take a cup of boiled oregano having its non-soothing taste and smell? This study aims to make an oregano menthol candy for the use of everyone.
It will be tested if it can cure people with cold and cough. It can be of great help to anyone because of its delicious taste and at the same time can annihilate the virus that causes cold and cough. People are to be benefited of this study because it can locally be made and the oregano is abundant in the community. If the study is proven right, so why do we need to go to doctors? We just make this candy at our home and preserve it. The price of the ingredients is affordable. So people can eat the candy happily and at the same time curing their cold and cough.
Scope and Limitations Oregano contains ascorbic acid that can fight rhinoviruses causing cold and cough. It will be processed as oregano menthol candy to improve the primitive way of using oregano as medicinal herb. It will be made to cure people with the said disease and not advisable to take it if the person is not sick yet with cold and cough. The researcher aims to make a menthol candy out of oregano and prove that this product is effective against rhinoviruses. The study is to be conducted this year 2011-2012.
The process of making oregano menthol candy will be tested using the two populations: 5 white mice and 5 patients with cold and cough. They are to be observed daily by the researcher. Definition of Terms The writer of this research experiment proposal deemed it wise to give operational and contextual meanings to the words that follow in order to facilitate understanding of this experimental research that will be conducted. 1. Ascorbic Acid is the acid that is contained in the juice squeezed from the leaves of oregano plant. It prevents, weakens or reduced the severity of common cold. 2.
Airborne is associated with a disease caused by virus because such virus causing the disease is transmitted from person to person by air through sneezing or coughing. 3. Climate change refers to the weather condition obtaining in the Philippines, wherein there is an abnormal change of weather from warm condition to cool condition which cause serious effects or sickness on health of the people. 4. Common cold is a disease of the upper respiratory tract, that is, nose, throat and larynx. 5. Contagious is associated with disease that is easily transmitted from person to person like cold, the principal cause of which is virus. . Cough or coughing is the physiological act in which air is forcibly expelled from the lungs. It is a body’s mechanism for cleansing the respiratory tract of irritants, foreign bodies or excessive accumulation of secretions. 7. Disease is a disturbance or abnormal structure on the health of living organism or physiological action in the living organism as a whole. 8. Menthol candy is a special candy which has a freezing or cooling taste serving as attractant but containing ascorbic acid so that the child with common cold shall freely eat it to heal the cold caused by rhinoviruses. 9.
Oregano is one of the species of a perennial herb wherein the extracts from its leaves contain ascorbic acid that can cure common cold. 10. Rhinoviruses are the kinds of virus that cause common cold. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Oregano is also known as Wild Marjoram, Mountain Mint, Origanum, Wintersweet and Winter Marjoram. This erectly spreading plant has strong aromatic characteristics, with leaves and stems that are fleshy. The leaves of oregano are heart-shaped, with toothed edges, and which, grow for up to 9 meters in length. In other countries, the plant is primarily used as a culinary ingredient.
However, in countries like the Philippines, Oregano is a known herbal medicine for its strong anti-oxidant properties. Oregano contains a rosmarinic acid compound, thymol, and carvacrol that are responsible for its anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant, anti-fungal and anti-viral properties. Oregano also contains flavinoids, triterpenoids, sterols, vitamin C, and vitamin A. Its anti-bacterial properties have been proven by recent studies to treat infections of the reproductive tracts, and which make it ideal to be given to women who have just given birth.
The volatile oils in oregano and its properties are believed to be responsible for slowing the process of spoilage of food and thus minimizing the risk of ingesting harmful bacteria, parasites and fungi. The anti-oxidant properties of oregano helps fight free radicals in the body that cause cellular damage and accelerate ageing. Free radicals are believed to be involved with many degenerative diseases like osteoarthritis, atherosclerosis and heart diseases, to name a few. The most useful parts of this plant are its leaves. The extracts and juices of such are used for asthma, dyspepsia, chronic coughs, bronchitis, and rheumatism.
Ear aches have also been proven to be cured by the infusion prepared from its leaves. The leaves relieve painful swellings, boils, and sprains, when their poultices are applied directly to the affected area. 1 According to Tamid Ahmad, oregano is a natural herb found in Mediterranean hills and basically its leaves are utilized to take out the oil. The oil of oregano can be preserved for longer and hence it is preferred as oil. It is widely used for complex diseases to cure, and it has many simple and common uses for regular occurring diseases. It works marvelously in cold and cough.
It is an antibiotic and hence is preferred for cold and cough. 2 According to Allah Camacho, one of the benefits of the extract of oregano is that it helps boost our bodies’ immune system. A sound and healthy immune system is our best defense against harmful microorganisms that carry diseases and illnesses. A good immune system can be achieved with a healthy lifestyle, balanced diet, stress free and clean environment, proper rest and including two drops of wild oregano oil in your drink everyday. 3 According to Paul L. Garrett, there are some vitamins and minerals that can be used as natural cold remedies.
These nutrients include vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc oxide. Vitamin C is good for a lot of things, but more than 1200 milligrams can sometimes result in diarrhea. Large amount of vitamin C at the beginning stages of an outbreak can provide relief and reduce the attack of the virus. Vitamins and minerals certainly strengthen the immune system, but becareful not to take more than the recommended daily dose. 4 According to Barbara Hillary, PhD, cold and cough medications should not be used for children under 6 years of age. This is because there is not enough evidence to prove the effectiveness of these medications in young children.
Moreover, single-ingredient or combination cold and cough medications do not relieve cold and cough symptoms in children under 6 years. 5 According to Susan Melgren, she was doubtful that oregano would have any effect when she first heard of its healing properties, but she took it anyway and was very pleased with the results. She used oregano to treat colds rather than as preventive measure. 6 _______________________ 1 Pinoyfarmer, “Medicinal Plants: Oregano (Origanum vulgare),” 2011, (accessed July 31, 2011) 2Tamim Ahmad,“Oregano Oil – An Unmatched Herbal Remedy for Number of Diseases,” n. . , (accessed July 13, 2011). 3Allah Camacho, “Boost Your Immune System With the Wild Oregano Oil,” n. d. ,(accessed July 13, 2011). 4Paul L Garrett, “Natural Remedy for Cold Sores – Strengthen Your Immune System to Fight Cold Sores,” n. d. , (accessed July 13, 2011). 5Barbara Hillary, PhD, “Cold and Cough Medicines Don’t Work,” n. d. , (accessed July 13, 2011). 6 Susan Melgren, “Immune Boosters: Elderberry, Echinacea, Garlic and Oregano,” 2010, (accessed July 13, 2011). CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY Since this research is tough to undertake, arrangement has already been made with the consultant.
In so far as the researcher is concerned the necessary materials needed in the processing of oregano menthol candy will be prepared. Method of Research This research will use the experimental method. It will experiment on the effectivity of ascorbic acid in curing cold and cough. Since ascorbic acid is an acid it will be tested on five white mice in different proportions. If the result shows that the five white mice maintain their normal life then the said proportion is beneficial. Method of Collecting Data The researcher will be using experimentation and observation as the method of collecting data under the supervision of the consultant.
The researcher will be the one to conduct the testing and be the one to observe. To be more authentic, cellular phone will be used as instrument to take pictures of the condition of the white rat and will be presented to the consultant as well as to the human patient. To be more specific, a sample of the data if a human patient will be used as the medium the following data shall be gathered from him. a. name, sex, age, weight and address of the patient b. body temperature, blood pressure c. extent of the cold and cough whether mild or severe d. intake of the oregano menthol candy d. number of candy per day d. 2 number of days of intake e. observation of the patient by the researcher for reporting to the consultant pharmacist. f. date the researcher will bring the patient to the consultant pharmacist and his condition for check up g. result of the findings of the consultant pharmacist. Sampling Design In the selection of five patients with cold and cough, the PURPOSIVE way of sampling will be followed. Two patients with slight cold and cough, one with moderate cold and cough and the remaining two patients with severe cold and cough. This is more illustrated in the following figures:
Patients Number Nature of cold and cough Number of candy intake per day No. of days intake 1 Slight 1 5-7 2 Slight 1 5-7 3 Moderate 1 5-7 4 Severe 1 5-7 5 Severe 1 5-7 The result will be ranked as to what number of patient will get well for a given period of days treatment. This illustration shows the expediency the patient shall be given attention for treatment. Due to time constraints the research is being conducted, the PURPOSIVE sampling will be used because there is limited/ no more time to conduct a survey to get the number of the whole population of Binatagan with cold and cough.
Similarly, the effect of the treatment the fact that the respondents are very few, the effect of the treatment shall be done by observing the patients of the effect of the treatment daily and through asking questions about his feeling and healing effect of the treatment. 1 1In an interview conducted with Dr. Marivic Diaz, EPSI, Values Education/Guidance and Research and Evaluation I, Division of Ligao City on August 5, 2011 at 2:30 in the afternoon by Mr. Antonio J. Rabe, retired Elem. Sch. Principal I. Materials
The researcher will use the following materials in the preparation of oregano menthol candy like oregano leaves, Bunsen burner, beaker, tripod, stirring rod, triple beam balance, Erlenmeyer flask, filter paper sugar, menthol, vanilla for flavoring, wrapper, measuring spoon, cheese cloth, porcelain mortar and pestle, evaporating dish, sterilized bottle with cover properly labeled and friend baking powder. For the materials concerned in testing the effectivity of the product, the researcher will need 5 white mice and the candy (in liquid) will be injected in the mice with their allotted proportions.
If the researcher got the right proportion, it will be used for making the menthol candy using the laboratory apparatuses. 5 patients with cold and cough will now take the oregano menthol candy to know whether the product is effective for curing cold and cough. Procedures 1. For testing of the product: The researcher has made two tables showing the two types of populations that will be used for the method of experiment. In the mice population, it includes the proportions of ascorbic acid and distilled water that will be used by injecting the said proportion in each mouse. The proportion is shown as follows: White mice umber Proportion Ascorbic Acid to Distilled Ascorbic Acid Distilled water 1 70% 30% 2 75% 25% 3 80% 20% 4 85% 15% 5 90% 10% Whatever proportion will come out beneficial will be the proportion that will be used in making the oregano menthol candy. For the second population having five people with cold and cough, should the researcher know the nature of their cold and cough whether mild or severe by taking these patients in the consultant pharmacist. The researcher will ask them questions as shown in the method of collecting data. The table is shown as follows: Patients Number Nature of cold and cough Number of candy intake per day No. f days intake 1 Slight 1 5-7 2 Slight 1 5-7 3 Moderate 1 5-7 4 Severe 1 5-7 5 Severe 1 5-7 2. For making the product After knowing the right proportion of ascorbic acid to be used in making an oregano menthol candy, get and wash the correct grams of oregano leaves. Prepare the ingredients for the making of oregano menthol candy with Bunsen burner, beaker, tripod, stirring rod, triple beam balance, Erlenmeyer flask, filter paper, forceps, sugar, menthol, vanilla for flavoring, wrapper, measuring spoon, evaporating dish and sterilized bottle with cover properly labeled.
The researcher will use the triple beam balance to measure the mass of the oregano leaves in grams. Use a porcelain mortar and pestle to pound the oregano leaves and use a clean cheese cloth to separate the juice from the pulp. After getting the juice, the researcher will place the amount of distilled water in the Erlenmeyer flask followed by placing the juice inside the Erlenmeyer flask with a filter paper at the top of it.
After these, the researcher will get the tripod and the Bunsen burner and place the flask at the top of the tripod and put the right quantity of ingredients for making the mentholated candy inside the flask. Should the researcher know the right temperature for mixing the ingredients to the solution as per advised by the consultant pharmacist. These will now be placed in an evaporating dish. Allow the candy to be cooled. Once cooled, it will now be placed in a wrapper by using forceps and seal the wrapper. Finally, place it inside the sterilized bottle with cover and properly labeled.