Learning and reinforcement43 Values, Attitudes and Interest 53 Motivation 62 Team Building75 Conflict89 Personality Personality is a concept that we use continuously in our day-to-day routine, when dealing with people. We talk about people as having a good personality or a bad personality or arrogant and aggressive personality. Personality can be reflected in a person’s temperament and is a key factor influencing individual behaviour in organizations. Often the wrong type of personality of a superior proves disastrous in terms of worker unrest and protests.
Salvatore Maddi has defined personality as: “Personality is a stable set of characteristics and tendencies that determine those commonalities and differences in the psychological behaviour (thoughts, feelings and actions) of people that have continuity in time and that may not be easily understood as the sole result of the social and biological pressures of the moment. ” There are several aspects of this definition that need to be considered. The first aspect is that or relative stability of characteristics. These characteristics account for “consistent patterns” of behaviour.
The second aspect is the “commonalities and differences” in the behaviour of people. We are interested in understanding as to what an individual has in common with others as well as what sets that individual apart from others. Every person is in certain aspects, •Like all other people •Like some other people •Like no other person Personality Types There are two types of individual personality Type A and Type B. A person exhibiting Type A behaviour is generally restless, impatient with a desire for quick achievement and perfectionism.
Type B is much more easy going relaxed about time pressure, less competitive and more philosophical in nature. Some of the characteristics of Type A personality are given below. •Is restless, so that he always moves, walks and eats rapidly. •Is impatient with the pace of things, dislikes waiting and is impatient with those who are not impatient. •Does several things at once. •Tries to schedule more and more in less and less time, irrespective of whether everything is done or not. •Usually does not complete one thing before starting on another. •Uses nervous gestures such as clenched fist and banging on table. Does not have time to relax and enjoy life. Type B behaviour is just the opposite and is more relaxed, sociable and has a balanced outlook on life. Type A behaviour profile tends to be obsessive and managers with such behaviour are hard driving, detailed-oriented people with high performance standards. Five personality traits related to job performance •Extraversion •Agreeableness •Emotional stability •Openness to experience. Factors Contributing to Personality According to Maier, “knowledge, skill and language are obviously acquired and represent important modifications of behaviour.
Learned modifications in behaviour are not passed on to children, they must be acquired by them through their own personal experience. ” The probable consensus is that heredity and environment jointly affect personality development. The full potential of a person may or may not be achieved due to environmental constraints and requirements, but the potential for development, both physically and psychologically is determined by the complex set of genes. The factors affecting personality development are illustrated as follows: •Heredity •Culture •Family •Environment •Personality •Social •Situational Personality Dimensions
Some of the more important dimensions of personality that are closely linked with interpersonal and organizational behaviour are discussed as follows: Authoritarianism: Authoritarianism refers to blind acceptance of authority. Authoritarian people believe in obedience and respect for authority. Because of their beliefs in hierarchical order, they make good followers; work better under directive supervision and more productive within authoritarian organizational structure. A closely related term to authoritarians is “dogmatism” which refers to the rigidity of a person’s beliefs. Bureaucratic Personality:
A bureaucratic persons respect for authority is not total and blind, but is based upon respect for organizational rules and regulations. A bureaucratic person values subordination, rules, conformity, orderly processes in the organization and impersonal and formal relationships. Machiavellianism: Machiavellianism is a term associated with Niccola Machiavelli, a sixteenth century author who identified personality profiles of noble men. This personality merges in manipulating others for purely personal gains and gaining and keeping control of others. People with Machiavellianims have high self-confidence and high self-esteem.
They are cool and calculating and have no hesitation in using others or taking advantages of others in order to serve their own goals. Problem Solving Style: Individuals have their own style of making decisions and this style reflects their personality in certain ways. Some people are very through, meticulous and detail oriented. Others are impulsive and become easily swayed by what seems to be obvious. The problem solving style has two dimensions. One is the information gathering and the second dimension is evaluation of data and taking of decisions. Further, there are two styles involved in information gathering.
One is known as Sensation and the second style known as intuitive style, The evaluation style also has two dimensions. One style involves more emphasis on feeling while the other involves more emphasis on thinking. When the two dimensions of information gathering and the two dimensions of evaluation are combined, it results in four problem-solving styles. These are: 1. Sensation-feeling style. These people are dependable, friendly, social and approach facts with human concerns. They are pragmatic, methodical and like jobs that involve human contact and public relations.
Some suitable areas of jobs include teaching customer relations, social workers, and sales people. 2. Sensation-thinking style. They are practical, logical, decisive, and sensitive to details they also prefer bureaucratic type organizations. They are not highly skilled in interpersonal relations and are more suited to such technical jobs as those of production, accounting, engineering and computer programming. 3. Intuition-feeling style. These people are enthusiastic, people oriented, charismatic and helpful. Some of the professions suitable for this style are public relations, advertising, politics and personnel. . Intuition-thinking style. These people are creative, energetic, ingenious, and like jobs that are challenging in terms of design and analysis such as system design, law, research and development, top management and so on. Locus of Control Locus of control is the extent to which the individuals believes that: •They control their own lives, or •External forces control their lives, which are beyond their control. A person with a strong “internal locus of control” believes that he controls events concerning his own life and that his internal traits determine what happens in given situation.
A person with a strong “external locus of control” feels that outside forces are affecting the events in his life and he is at the mercy of destiny, chance or other people. He believes that “whatever will be, will be” and everything happens by the will of God. Introvert and Extrovert Personalities Introvert persons are basically shy, they prefer to be alone and have difficulty in communicating. Extroverts are outgoing, objective, and aggressive they also relate well with people. Self-esteem Self-esteem is the degree of respect a person has for himself.
Self-esteem is a measure of self-confidence and respect for one’s abilities and motivation. It is also a higher level need in Maslow’s model of hierarchical needs. Self-esteem is positively related to assertiveness, independence and creativity. The socialization process a)Organizational socialization – values, norms, behavior pattern. b)Characteristics of organizational socialization of employees •Change of attitude, values and behaviour. •Continuity of socialization over time. •Adjustment to new jobs, work groups and organizational practices. •Mutual influence between new recruits and managers. Criticality of early socialization period. Socializing new employees •Use of mentor or role model •Orientation and training program. •Reward system. •Career planning. Successful organizational socialization includes •Provide a challenging first job •Provide relevant training. •Provide timely and consistent feedback. •Select a good first supervisor to be in change of socialization. •Design a relaxed orientation program. •Place new recruits in work groups with high morals Emphasis on different characteristics. •Administrative skills •Work motivation •Interpersonal skill •Creativity •Social dominance •Maturity Independence Propositions – Chris Argyris I. There is lack of congruency between the needs of healthy individuals and the demands of the formal organization. II. The resultant of this disturbance are frustration, failre, short – time perspective and conflict. III. Under certain conditions the degree of frustration, failure, short – time perspective and conflict will tend to increase. IV. The nature of the formal principles of the organization cause the subordinate, at any given level, to experience competition, rivalry, inter – subordinate hostility and to develop a focus toward the parts rather than the whole.
V. The employee adaptive behaviour maintains self – integration and impedes integration with the formal organization. VI. The adaptive behaviour of the employees has a cumulative effect, feedback into the organization and reinforces itself. VII. Certain management reactions tend to increase the antagonisms underlying the adaptive behaviour. VIII. Other management actions can decrease the degree of incongruence between the individual and formal organization. IX.
Job or role enlargement and employee – centred leadership will not tend to work to the extent that the adaptive behaviour (propositions III, IV, V and VI) has embedded in organisational culture and the self – concept of the individual. X. The difficulties involved in proposition IX may be minimized by the use of reality oriented leadership. Personality Theories There are several theories but the more prominent among them are: (i) type, (ii) trait, (iii) psychoanalytic, (iv) social learning and (v) humanistic. Type Theories Type theories place personalities into clearly identifiable categories.
Kretschmer and Sheldon are credited with this classification. In type theories relationship was sought to be established between features of face or body and personality. Thus, a short, plumb person (endomorph) was said to be sociable, relaxed, and even tempered; a tall, thin person (ectomorph) was characterized as restrained, self conscious, and fond of solitude; a heavy set muscular individual (mesomorph) was described as noisy, callous, and found of physical activity. Although a person’s physique may have some influence on personality, the relationship is much more subtle than this sort of classification implies.
Thus classification of personalities on body basis is subjective. The second basis to type personalities is psychological factors. Carl Jung, divided all personalities into introverts and extroverts. These terms are normally associated with an individual’s sociability and interpersonal orientation. Extroverts are gregarious, sociable individuals, while introverts are shy, quiet and retiring. Trait Theories Trait theorists assume that a personality can be described by its position on a number of continuous dimensions or scales, each of which represents a trait.
Thus, we could rate an individual on a scale of intelligence, emotional stability, aggressiveness, creativeness, or any of a number of other dimensions. Psychologists working in a area of trait theory are concerned with (a) determining the basic traits that provide a meaningful description of personality, and (b) finding some way to measure them. Psychoanalytic theory is based on the in-depth study of individual personalities. Social Learning Theory There are two ways of learning : Learning through reinforcement – direct experience and learning by observing others, also called vicarious learning.
For social learning theorists reinforcement is not always necessary for learning. They believe that since an individual can make use of complex symbolic processes to code and store his observations in memory, he can learn by observing the actions of others and by noting the consequences of those actions. Some of the person variables that determine what an individual will do in a particular situation include the following : •Competencies •Cognitive strategies •Outcome expectations •Subjective value outcome •Self regulatory systems and plans The Humanistic Approach
The humanistic approach to the study of personality includes number of theories, although different in some respects, share a common emphasis on man’s potential for self direction and freedom of choice. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow are credited with the humanistic theory of personality. Rogers’ Self Theory Roger’s approach to personality is described as phenomenological. For Rogers, behaviour is utterly dependent upon how one perceives the world – that is, behaviour is the result of immediate events as they are actually perceived and interpreted by the individual. Such an approach to personality emphasizes the self and its characteristics.
Indeed, this theory is often, referred to as self theory of personality because the best vantage point for understanding behaviour is from the internal frame of reference of the individual himself. Maslow’s Self-Actualisation Theory Abraham Maslow is regarded as the spiritual father of humanism in American psychology. Humanistic psychology of Maslow radically differs from psychoanalytic and learning or behaviouristic theories. Humanistic psychology of Maslow, on the other hand, postulates man as self actualiser. By self-actualisation Maslow meant the development of full individually, with all parts of the personality in harmony.
Existential philosophy is concerned with man as an individual and each person alone is responsible for his own existence. This drive of man which is inherent in him, is called self-actualisation. * Also refer to “Personality Theories – Ziegler” for Freud’s Personality theory Assertiveness Meaning of Assertiveness Webster defines “assert” as “to state positively with great confidence”. It is the extent of forcefulness a person (or leader) uses with a view to express himself. Assertiveness is a term meant to describe the extent of control; the leader tries to exercise over both the followers as well as the situation.
It means expressing what you think or feel without endangering the ego of others. It is saying what you mean and having self-respect and respect for others. Assertiveness is a skill you can acquire – not a personality trait. It is an essential skill for a leader. The Assertive Personality According to Webster’s Third International Dictionary, the verb “assert” means “to state or affirm positively, assuredly, plainly or strongly. ” The assertive person possesses four characteristics: 1. He feels free to reveal himself. Through words and actions he makes the statement “This is me. This is what I feel, think and want. ” 2.
He can communicate with people on all levels – with strangers, friends and family. This communication is open, direct, honest and appropriate. 3. He has an active orientation to life. He pursues what he desires. In contrast to the passive person who waits for things to happen, he attempts to make things happen. 4. He acts in a way that he respects himself. Aware that he cannot always win, he accepts his limitations. However, he always strives to make the good try so that win, lose or draw, he maintains his self-respect. Characteristics of Assertive Behaviour When we are assertive, we tell people what we want, need, or would prefer.
We state our preference clearly and confidently, without belittling others, or ourselves without being threatening or putting other people down. Assertive people can initiate conversation, can compliment others and receive compliments gracefully, can cope with justified criticism – and can give it too. It is a positive way of behaving, that doesn’t involve violating the rights of other people. Above all, assertive behaviour is appropriate behaviour. This can mean that it is appropriate on occasions to be angry, or it can mean choosing not to be assertive in a particular situation or with a particular person. . Promotes equality in human relationship •It keeps both parties in all situations on an equal footing. •It confers personal power and restores balance of power. •It promotes win – win situations in dyadic relationships. 2. Enabling us to act in our own best interests It assists us to : •Make decisions about career, relationships, lifestyles, time schedule. •Take initiative in starting conversations, activities, groups •Trust our own judgment •Set own goals and work to achieve them •Ask help from others •Participate socially 3. To stand up for ourselves without undue anxiety Saying “No” •Setting limits on time and energy •Responding to criticism, put-downs, anger •Expressing, supporting or defending an opinion 4. To express honest feelings •To disagree •To show anger, affection, friendship •To admit fear or anxiety •To express agreement or support 5. To exercise personal rights. •Competency as citizen, consumer, member of an organisation, company, school, workgroup. •As participant in public events to express opinions •To work for change •To respond appropriately to violations of own or others’ rights. 6. Without denying others’ rights. To accomplish the above without unfair criticism of others without hurtful behaviour towards others, without name-calling, intimidation, manipulation and controlling. Assertiveness: Principles Whatever your problem, there are certain basic principles for being assertive: •Reveal as much of your personal self as is appropriate to the situation and the relationship. •Strive to express all feelings, whether angry or tender. •Act in ways that increase your liking and respect for yourself. •Examine your own behaviour and determine areas where you would like to become more assertive.
Pay attention to what you can do differently rather than how the world can be different. •Do not confuse aggression with assertion. Aggressiveness is an act against others. Assertion is appropriate standing up for yourself. •Realize you may be unassertive in one area, like business, and assertive in another area, like marriage. Apply the techniques you use successfully in one area to the other. •Practice speaking up with trivia. If you can say “Go to the end of the line” to a woman at the supermarket, you can eventually announce “No I don’t want to do that” to your spouse. Do not confuse glib, manipulatory behaviour with true assertion. •Understand assertion is not a permanent state. As you change, life situations change, and you face new challenges and need new skills. Assertive Behaviours Assertiveness is a set of congruent behaviours one can learn through persistence and practice. 1. Think and talk about yourself in a positive way It may help you take time to compile a list of your qualities, gifts, and strengths. 2. Feel comfortable expressing honest compliments You surely appreciate certain things about other people – something they do, they wear, the way they work, what that say. . Accept compliments without embarrassment Others too appreciate certain things about you, and it is good that they express their appreciation through honest compliments. 4. Express yourself directly and spontaneously The feelings you actually experience, and the thoughts you think worth expressing both positive, as well as negative, with due respect for the other person. 5. Ask for what you want Clarify yourself about what you want and express it appropriately either as a suggestion or a request or a command, depending on the situation 6. State honest disagreement with ease
When you disagree with what someone says, stick to the issue without attacking the person. If you are deficient in this behaviour, you may begin with small issues and gradually move on to bigger ones. 7. Be able to say “No” Specially so if you honestly think others take advantage of you. In saying ‘No’ there is no need to be rude, neither is it necessary to give many explanations. Make it clear that you are saying ‘No’ to the request, not to the person, and be ready to be misunderstood. 8. Insist on fair treatment This will often involve you and a person ‘in charge’.
Explore your alternatives: voicing your dissatisfaction in polite, firm terms may be enough; if it is not, then increase the forcefulness of your expression. Whatever the outcome you’ll feel better for having stood up for your rights. And recognise the limitations of the situation, that is, when you have done all you can, learn to live peacefully with the results. 9. Keep in touch with friends Valuable friendships often decline because neither party acts to keep it going. Waiting for the other to take the initiative does not always have the desired effect. 10. Take the first step in forming new friendships
Friendships are important. So a reasonable thing to do is to take the first step when you meet someone you would like to know better. If you wait for them to act, you assume they are capable of taking risks. Risks are risks no matter who takes them. Ask no more of others than you ask of yourself. Components of Assertive Behaviour You will recognize the following components of assertiveness: •Giving information •Seeking information •Expressing feelings •Accepting feelings •Change desired (in self or other) Assertiveness is a balance between being passive and aggressive.
However, there are different types of assertion; different ways of expressing your own rights assertively: State – Your rights: A straightforward statement that stands up for your rights by clearly and reasonably stating your needs, wants, beliefs, opinions or feelings. Ask – The other person: A question or questions designed to clarify where the other person stands; what are his / her needs, wants, opinions and feelings. Empathize – Both parties: This is a behaviour that contains an element of understanding for the other person as well as a statement of your own needs and thoughts.
Level – Both parties: A statement that openly explains the adverse effect a person’s behaviour is having on you. This is the strongest form of assertion and should only be used when the other types have been tried. Assertive Behaviour at Work Assertive behaviour in the workplace gives everyone a better chance of influencing the system and participating in changes. Relationships are more open and working climates are more genuine. Overtly aggressive or manipulative behaviour can bring immediate results, but credibility and integrity are put at risk.
When people feel defensive and have to use their energy for political maneuvering, everyone in the organisation suffers. People behaving assertively make good line mangers. They will say clearly what they want, but equally be supportive of staff and take the needs of others into account. They can compromise and negotiate. The introduction of assertive behaviour into the workplace, whether it is a school, an office or shop floor, will probably involve an intense transition period. Expressing negative feelings or standing up for your rights can be interpreted as ‘out of order’ or ‘insubordinate’.
Often, unassertive people are ‘institutionalized’ and need a great deal of support before they can ‘come out from under’ and begin to value their role and appreciate that their participation is sought. Assertive behaviour is so important to self-esteem and proactive behaviour that it needs to be particularly supported and endorsed in young workers or school children and students. Advantages of Assertive Behaviour •Close working relationships: Assertion tends to breed assertion, so people work more happily with us than against us.
We are then, with their help, more likely to achieve our objectives in a conflict situation. •Greater confidence in yourself: We develop a strong regard for ourselves and a high level of self esteem, reducing the chance of boastfulness (aggression) and hopelessness (passive). •Greater confidence in others: We have a healthy recognition of the capabilities and limitations of others as opposed to seeing them as inferior (aggression) or superior (passive). •Increased self responsibility: We take responsibility for ourselves, our wants, opinions, needs etc. ather than blaming others (aggression) or excusing ourselves (passive) •Increased self-control: We can channel our thoughts and feelings to produce the behaviour we want, rather than being controlled by outside events or people, or inner emotions. •Savings in time and energy: We can take decisions more swiftly based on their individual merit and save time when handling disputes. A lot of time and energy is wasted on worrying and scheming. If we are not worried about upsetting people (passive) or scheming how not to miss out (aggression) then we can save ourselves a lot of stress. An increased change of everyone winning: Assertiveness increases the likelihood that all parties will see their needs met, their ideas and opinions heard and considered and their abilities put to good use. Blocks Of Assertive Behaviour Following are some of the blocks in the personality that are faced by the individual in being assertive: •The timid soul. You allow yourself to be pushed around, cannot speak up, and remain passive in all situations. If someone steps on your foot, you say, “I’m sorry. ” No matter how great your timidity and irresolution, there is always a point from which you can start to change. The person with communication difficulties. Assertion processes four behavioral characteristics. Openness and directness, honesty and appropriateness. You may be deficient in any or all three of these areas, but often you lack assertion in just one: -Indirect Communication. You tend to be wordy, a characteristic often accompanied by shallowness of feeling, lack of clear-cut desires, and difficulty with close relationships. -Dishonest or pseudo assertive communication. You seem to be open and honest, generally appropriate, often extroverted, but this seeming assertiveness hides a basic lack of honesty. -Inappropriate communication.
Unaware about the realities of social relations, you say what you think is the right thing at the wrong time. •The split assertive. People may fail at one area of assertiveness and succeed at another. You can be able to openly express your tender feelings and yet not be able to show your angry feelings – and vice versa. A man can be the epitome of passivity at the office, and behave like a tyrant at home. The range for split assertive behaviour can be very narrow. You may be assertive in a one-to-one relationship, but not in groups. In general, the narrower the area, the easier it is to change with Assertiveness Training. The person with behavioral deficits. You can’t make eye contact or small talk, handle a confrontation, or start a conversation. These assertive skills can be learned. •The person with specific blocks. You know what you should do, and have the skill to accomplish it, but your fears of rejection, anger, scrutiny, criticism, closeness, tenderness, inhibit you from carrying out the action. •You possess incorrect ideas. You don’t comprehend the difference between aggression and assertion. You know what and how of what has to be done, but question your right to do it. •You have a wrong concept of social reality.
You don’t understand that different kinds of relationships exist with different people. You think you’re supposed to treat a stranger as a friend. It never occurs to you to treat the stranger as a stranger and the friend as a friend. •You have an erroneous idea of psychological reality. You worry about worrying, become anxious about being anxious, not realizing that the life situation provides problems where anxiety is the appropriate reaction. •You don’t grant independence to other people. You think as long as you’re being reasonable, the other person should go along with you.
But very often, the other person, because of his own needs, feelings, and hang-ups, just won’t. You feel that as long as you do the right things, you should win them all. If you don’t there’s something wrong with you. Reality doesn’t work that way. You can demand a raise and deserve it, but the economic state of your firm may prohibit a salary increase. Assertiveness Techniques The Three techniques for Assertiveness are: •Mental Ai-Ki-Do •Information Building •Echoing •Mental Ai-Ki-Do This technique can help you to accept criticism comfortably without becoming defensive. Ai-Ki Do is a martial art. Visualize a man holding up his hand n front of you. He asks that you to hit his upheld hand with your fist. With all your force, you hit his hand. Since he did not move his hand when you hit it, he stops the forward motion of your swing. Again you are asked to hit his hand with your fist. This time, in a split second before you’re about to punch him, his fingers wrap around your fist. He then backs his hand away, while still holding on to yours controlling the force you just threw. He accomplishes two things. First, by offering no resistance to your job, he feels no pain. Second, by directing the momentum of your punch, he is in control of what’s happening.
Use mental Ai-Ki-Do (control) when any negative feedback (mental fist) comes your way. Do not fight the feedback. Instead, accept the feedback by allowing it to come to you. Stay in control by deciding whether you agree to what is said. Then you use your focused listening skills. Try your best to stay even – tempered. Once you explode or hide, you start to lose control by giving in to the force. •Information Building This technique will help you initiate and build relationships by sharing information about yourself. One of the ways trust is built between associates is by the amount of knowledge that is shared by and about each other.
Providing information about yourself first will encourage others to share their thoughts and feelings with you. You do not have to discuss something of mutual interest. Nor should you restrict sharing information just because the other person has not disclosed much during your conversation. Remember, building relationships takes time. Before meeting with someone, plan what kind of information would be appropriate to share. After sharing your thoughts and feelings, use humor and open-ended, non-leading questions to elicit feedback and to keep the conversation relaxed and flowing.
Depending upon how well you know the person and your own comfort level, start out with general information and work up to sensitive, need-to-know information. •Echoing This technique will strengthen your ability to say “no” respectfully without regrets. Use this technique only after exhausting these strategies: -Inform whoever is requesting your services that you are unable to do the job as it is not into your priorities. -Suggest a more suitable person to take on the assignment. -If appropriate, offer some assistance or time to help with part of the project or task.
Mention other possible ways to complete the work. If these strategies do not work, and you are still being ordered or intimidated to handle a request, then use the echoing technique. The technique is similar to an echo because you repeat what you desire. Stay composed and state over and over again what you want; in the process, you will teach others that you are serious and determined. Some people feel this technique is a rude one because it requires you to be domineering. The technique certainly is used to get your way, but it should not be used exclusively.
When it is inappropriate for you to budge on a certain point, the echoing technique will help you hold your ground with an associate, peer, supervisor, vendor, and even an irate and unreasonable customer. Expressing One’s Feelings The following are some of the points that are taken into consideration while expressing assertive feelings 1. Know What You Want To Say: You won’t appear confident if you are unsure of what you want. You could appear foolish by asking of something that you eventually realize is not what you want. 2. Say It: Don’t hesitate or beat about the bush, come right out with it!
Practise before you say it and check for appropriateness. 3. Be Specific: Say exactly what you want or do not want, so that there can be no confusion. Begin with the word “I”. No long explanations are necessary. 4. Say It as Soon as Possible: Do not let too much time pass, as this builds up apprehension. On the other hand, do not say it at the peak of your anger. Wait for that to pass. 5. Look the Person in the Eye: People feel more comfortable if you look directly at them. If you simply look shifty and cannot look them in the eye, you certainly will not come across as someone who knows what they want. 6.
Look Relaxed: You’ll convey anxiety by shifting from one foot to another, waving your arms around, or conversely being too rigid. Practise looking relaxed in a mirror – it’s not as contradictory as it sounds! 7. Avoid Laughing Nervously: Smile if it’s appropriate, but if you giggle or laugh you won’t look as if you mean what you say. This will confuse the person you are speaking to. 8. Don’t Whine or be Sarcastic: Be direct and honest. Whining and pleading can either annoy the person or make them feel guilty. It is being manipulative. Being sarcastic, on the other hand, communicates hostility as you put the other person down.
Perception “If everyone perceived everything the same way, things would be a lot simpler” -Moorhead & Griffin In its simple sense perception is understood as the act of seeing what is there to be seen. But the perceiver, the object, and the environment influence what is seen. The meaning of perception will be complete when all the three aspects are stressed. A few definitions of perception are given below: “Perception can be defined as a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environments. “Perception includes all those processes by which an individual receives information about his environment – seeing, hearing, feeling, tasting, and smelling. The study of these perceptional processes shows that their functioning is affected by three classes of variables – the objects or events being perceived, the environment in which perception occurs, and the individuals doing the perceiving. ” Perceptual Process Perception, as revealed by the definitions, is composed of six processes, viz. , receiving, selecting, organizing, interpreting, checking, and reacting to stimuli.
These processes are influenced by the perceived and the situation. Process of Receiving Stimuli The human organism is structured with five sensory organs, viz. , vision, hearing, smell, touch and tasting. There is the sixth sense about which much is speculated and nothing is known. We receive stimuli through the organs. Secondary organs receive not only physical objects; they receive events or objects that have been repressed. We may not be able to report the existence of certain stimuli but our behaviour reveals that we are often subject to their influence.
Similarly, stimuli need not be external to us. They may be inside also. Process of Selecting Stimuli Myriads of stimuli seemingly clamour for our attention at any given time. We need to filter or screen out most of them so that we may deal with the important or relevant ones. Two sets of factors govern the selection of stimuli: external and internal. External Factors Influencing Selection The external factors influencing selection are: Nature: By nature we mean, whether the object is visual or auditory, and whether it involves pictures, people or animals.
Location: The best location of a visual stimulus for attracting attention is directly in the front of the eyes in the center of a page. When this location is not possible in a newspaper or a magazine, a position in the upper portion of a page in more favourable than one in the lower portions, and the left hand side receives more attention than the right hand side. Intensity: Stimuli of higher intensity are perceived more than the objects with low intensity. A loud noise, strong odour, or bright light will be noticed more than a soft sound, weak odour, or dim light.
Size: Generally objects of larger size attract more attention than the smaller ones. The maintenance engineering staff may pay more attention to a big machine than to a small one, even though the smaller one costs as much and as important to the operation. Contrast: The contrast principle states that external stimuli which stand out against the background, or which are not what people are expecting, will receive their attention. Movement: The principle of motion states that a moving object receives more attention than an object that is standing still.
Repetition: The repetition principle states that a repeated external stimulus is more attention drawing than a single one. Novelty and Familiarity: The novelty and familiarity principle states that either a novel or a familiar external situation can serve as an attention getter. New objects in familiar settings or familiar objects in new setting will draw the attention of the perceiver. Internal Factors Influencing Selection Internal factors influencing selection of stimuli include learning, psychological needs, age differences, interests, ambivalence, and paranoid perception. These factors relate to oneself.
Learning: Learning, a cognitive factor, has considerable influence on perception. It creates expectancy in people. People tend to perceive what they want to perceive. Psychological Needs: Needs play a significant role in perceptual selectivity. Unreal things often look real because of deprived needs. Age Difference: Older senior executives complain about the inability of the new young to take tough decisions concerning terminating or resigning people and paying attention to details and paper work. The young managers in turn complain about the “old guards” resisting change and using paper and rules s ends in themselves. Different perceptions of old and young executives are due to their age differences perceptions. Interest: The interests of the perceiver unconsciously influence perception. An architect will notice many details of buildings that he passes only once. It has been argued that, in their influence on perception, interests cannot be distinguished from needs. That is, the person with a particular interest has a need to involve himself in activities pertaining to it. Yet there is some value in conceiving the two as distinct. Once they have been satisfied, most needs no longer influence perception.
But if the person has a special interest, his perception is likely to be selective at any time. Ambivalence: Another factor in perceptual selection is ambivalence or mixed feelings about a situation. Paranoid Perception: When the person’s perception is so selective that he can find little common ground for communication with others, he is likely to be paranoid. The Organizing Process The perceptual selection related to the discussion of external and Internal factors which helped gain the perceiver’s attention. This aspect of forming bits of information into meaningful wholes is called the perceptual organization.
There are three dimensions to the perceptual organization, viz. , figure ground, perceptual grouping, and perceptual constancy. Figure Ground: Figure ground is considered to be the most basic form of perceptual organization. The figure ground principle states that the relationship of a target to its background influences perception. In other words, according to the principle, perceived objects stand out as separable from their general background. Perceptual Grouping: The principles of grouping first defined by gestalt psychologists include similarity, proximity, closure, and continuity.
Perceptual Constancy: A more subtle part of perceptual organization is constancy, our ability to perceive certain characteristics of an object as remaining constant, despite variations in the stimuli that provide us with our information. Such constancy amidst changing stimuli is indispensable if we are to adjust to our world. There are several aspects of constancy such as shape, size, colour. The Process of Interpreting After the data have been received and organized, the perceiver interprets or assigns meaning to the information. In fact, perception is said to have taken place only after the data have been interpreted.
Several factors contribute towards what has been interpreted. More important amongst them are Perceptual Set Previously held beliefs about objects influence an individual’s perceptions of similar objects. This is called perceptual set. Attribution Attribution refers to the process by which the individual assigns causes to the behaviour he conceives. There are critics who argue that perceptual distortion occurs because of attribution. As too much credit or blame for behaviour is placed on persons rather than on environment. Factors such as status, intentions, and consequences influence the attribution process.
Stereotyping Stereotyping is the tendency for a person’s perceptions of another to be influenced by the social group to which the others belong. In perceiving another, a person is likely to categories the other according to some silent characteristic such as sex, race, religion, nationality, occupation, or organizational affiliation. The individual’s experiences with others in the category in which he has placed them lead him to believe that they have certain traits in common. Thus, he is ready to perceive the other as possessing the same trait. Halo Effect
The halo effect refers to the tendency of perceiving people in terms of good and bad, and ascribing all good qualities to one who is liked and all bad qualities to another who is disliked. Perceptual Context The context in which an object is placed influences perception. The visual stimuli by themselves are meaningless. Only when the doodles are placed in a verbal context do they take on meaning and value to the perceiver. Perceptual Defence According to the principle of perceptual defence, an individual is likely to put a defence when confronted with conflicting, unacceptable or threatening stimuli.
The defence mechanisms put up by the perceiver may assume any of the four forms: outright denial, modification of the data received, change in perception but refusal to change, and change in perception itself. Implicit Personality Theory In judging and making inferences about others, an individual’s perceptions are influenced by his belief that certain human traits are associated, with one another. Projection Under certain conditions, people tend to see in another person traits that they themselves posses. That is, they project their own feelings, tendencies, or motives into their judgement of others.
This may be particularly true regarding undesirable traits, which the perceiver possesses but fails to recognize himself. The Process of Checking After data have been received and interpreted, the perceiver tends to check whether his interpretations are right or wrong. One way of checking is for the person himself to indulge in introspection. He will put a series of questions to himself and the answers will confirm whether his perception about an individual or object is correct or not. Another way is to check the veracity about the interpretation with others. The Process of Reacting The last phase in perception is the reaction.
The perceiver shall indulge in some action in relation to his perception. The action depends on whether the perception is favorable or unfavorable. The action is positive when the perception is favourable. It is negative when the perception is unfavourable. Factors Influencing Perception The perceiver, the perceived and situation are some of the factors that influence perception. Characteristics of the Perceiver A perceiver needs to have, past experience, habits, personality, values, and attitudes, which may influence the perception process. He should be someone with a strong need for ego satisfaction.
Characteristics of the Perceived The physical attributes, appearance, and behaviour of persons in the situation also influence how a situation is perceived. We tend to notice the physical attributes of a person in terms of age, sex, height, and weight. Characteristics of the Situation The physical, social and organizational settings of the situation or event in question can influence perceptions. Perception and Organisational Behaviour In an interview for the selection of a candidate, the interviewers’ judgement about the suitability or otherwise of a candidate depends on how his behaviour is perceived by them.
A rejected applicant might feel that he was wronged by the interview though he deserved selection. But the fact is that interviewers generally form an early impression that becomes quickly entrenched. If the inadequacies of the candidate are exposed early, they weigh against him in the final selection Specific applications in organization •Employment interview •Performance expectations •Performance evaluation •Employee effort •Employee loyalty Managing the Perception Process •Have a high level of self-awareness. •Seek information from various sources to confirm or disconfirm personal impressions of a decision situation. Be empathetic – that is, be able to see a situation, as others perceive it. •Influence of perceptions of other people when they are drawing incorrect or incomplete impressions of events in the work setting. •Avoid common perceptual distortions that biased in our view of people and situations. •Avoid inappropriate attributions. Five reasons why a person misperceives – Zalkind and Costello •You are influenced by cues below your own threshold i. e. , the cues you don’t know you perceived •You respond to irrelevant cues to arrive at a judgment. •You are influenced by emotional factors, i. e. what is liked is perceived as correct. •You weigh perceptual evidence heavily if it comes from respectable sources. •You are not able to identify all factors, i. e. , not realizing how much weight is given to a single item. Learning “ You cannot teach a man anything. You can only help him discover it within himself. ” – Galileo Learning can be defined as a “relatively permanent change in behaviour or potential behaviour as a result of direct or indirect experience”. There are two primary elements in this definition that must both be present in order to identify the process of learning.
First is the element that the change must be relatively permanent. This means that after “learning” our behaviour must be different, either better or worse as compared to our behaviour prior to this experience of learning. The second aspect of the definition is that this change must occur due to some kind of experience or practice. This learning is not caused by biological maturation. Theories of Learning There are four general approaches to learning – classical conditioning, operant conditioning, cognitive learning and social learning. Classical Conditioning
The most well known experiments on classical conditioning were undoubtedly conducted by I. P. Pavlov with dogs, and he established a Stimulus-Response (S-R) connection. This means that certain responses can be predicted which continuously result from certain induced stimuli. Classical conditioning introduces a simple cause-and-effect relationship between one stimulus and one response. It also makes the response reflexive or involuntary after the stimulus-response relationship has been established. This leaves no ground for making choices, which differentiates human beings from dogs.
Under certain situations classical conditioning does explain human behaviour. Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning induces a voluntary change in behaviour and learning occurs as a “consequence” of such change. It is also known as reinforcement theory and it suggests that behaviour is a function of its consequences. It is based upon the premise that behaviour or job performance is not a function of inner thoughts, feelings, emotions or perceptions but is keyed to the nature of the outcome of such behaviour. This relationship is built around two principles.
First, that behaviour which results in positive rewards tends to be repeated and behaviour with negative consequences tends not to be repeated. Second, based upon such consequences, the behavior can be predicted and controlled. Hence, certain types of consequences can be used to increase the occurrence of a desired behaviour and other types of consequences can be used to decrease the occurrence of undesired behaviour. From an organizational point of view, any stimulus from the work environment will elicit a response. Cognitive Learning
Learning is considered as the outcome of deliberate thinking about the problem or situation both intuitively and based upon known facts and responding in an objective and goal oriented manner. “Cognitive learning is the result of listening, watching, touching or experiencing. ” Cognitive learning is a powerful mechanism that provides the means of knowledge, and goes well beyond simple imitation of others. Cognitive learning is defined as the acquisition of knowledge and skill by mental or cognitive processes —; the procedures we have for manipulating information ‘in our heads’.
Cognitive processes include creating mental representations of physical objects and events, and other forms of information processing. Social Learning It is recognized that learning does not take place only because of environmental stimuli (classical and operant conditioning) or of individual determinism (cognitive approach) but is a blend of both views. It also emphasizes that people acquire new behaviour by observing or imitating others in a social setting. In addition learning can also be gained by discipline and self-control and an inner desire to acquire knowledge or skills irrespective of the external rewards or consequences.
This process of self-control is also partially a reflection of societal and cultural influences on the development and growth of human beings. Transfer of Learning Berelson and Steiner suggested that learning can be transferred from one situation to another. If a person experiences a similar situation that he dealt with before, then some of his previous experience would be transferred to the new situation and his learning time in the new situation would be considerably decreased. There are two concepts that help in explaining the transfer of learning. These are as follows:
Generalization No two situations are exactly alike. However, responses to certain situations can be applied to similar but different situations. Because of the principle of generalization, the individual can adjust to new learning situations more smoothly because of the previous learning experiences. Discrimination While generalization is a reaction to “similarities” of stimuli or responses, discrimination is the ability to differentiate between relatively similar stimuli where generalization would yield negative consequences. Principle of Reinforcement
Reinforcement is the process by which certain types of behaviours are strengthened. Thus a “reinforcer” is any stimulus that causes certain behaviour to be repeated or inhibited. Some reinforcers work by their application to a situation, while other reinforcers work by their removal from the situation. Thus these reinforcers work as behaviour modifiers. Positive Reinforcement A positive reinforcement is a reward for a desired behaviour. The reward should be sufficiently powerful and durable so that it increases the probability of occurrence of desirable behaviour.
Money is probably the most powerful reinforcement for positive behaviour, since money can be used for a number of other resources too. Negative Reinforcement Also known as “escape conditioning” or “avoidance learning”, it is also a method of strengthening desired behaviour. However, unlike the positive reinforcement where an employee works hard to gain financial and other rewards, under avoidance conditioning, the employee works hard to avoid repercussion, reprimand and other negative aspects of the organizational environment. Extinction
This type of reinforcement is applied to reduce undesirable ‘behaviour, especially when such behaviours were previously rewarded. This means that if rewards were removed from behaviours that were previously reinforced, then such behaviours would become less frequent and eventually die out. The method involved is a suitable form of punishment in the form of withholding the positive enforcement or simply ignoring the undesirable behaviour. Punishment Punishment is the most controversial method of behaviour modification and involves delivering an unpleasant consequence contingent upon the occurrence of an undesirable behaviour.
The punishment process is similar to the extinction process in that both have the effect of decreasing and eliminating the undesirable behaviour, but technically there is a difference. In the extinction process, we withhold rewards for behaviour that has previously been rewarded because the behaviour was not undesirable previously. The punishment process, on the other hand consists of “application” of an undesirable consequence or “withdrawal” of a desirable consequence for an undesirable behaviour, which has never been associated with the reward before.
Schedule of Reinforcement While it is necessary to know as to which type of reinforcement would be most effective in a given situation, it is equally important to examine the various ways or “schedules” of administering these techniques of reinforcement. The various ways by which the reinforcement can be administered can be categorized into two groups. These are continuous and partial reinforcement schedules. Continuous Schedule A continuous schedule is the one in which the desirable behaviour is reinforced every time it occurs and the reinforcement is immediate.
This results in fast acquisition of the desired response and the learning is rapid. However the behaviour learned by continuous reinforcement strategy tends not to persist for which such reinforcement is applied less frequently. Partial Reinforcement Schedule A partial reinforcement schedule rewards desirable behaviour at specific intervals. It is believed that “behaviour tends to be persistent when it is learned under conditions of partial and delayed reinforcement. There are four kinds of partial reinforcement schedules. There are: 1. Fixed Interval Schedule
In this type of schedule, a response is reinforced at fixed intervals of time. 2. Variable Interval Schedule In this type of schedule, the reinforcement is administered at random times that cannot be predicted by the employee. 3. Fixed-ratio Schedules In a fixed-ratio schedule, the reinforcement is administered only upon the completion of a given number of desirable responses. 4. Variable-ratio Schedule It is similar to fixed-ratio schedule except that the number of responses required before reinforcement is determined, are not fixed but vary from situation to situation. Limitations of Behaviour Modification
While in general, some of the behavioural modification techniques, as discussed previously are effective in eliciting desirable behaviours from employees in work situations, there are some limitations that make these techniques ineffective in certain situations. 1)Behaviour modification is an overall structure and ignores individual differences. , 2)Behaviour modification programs assume that extrinsic rewards are the key factors in behaviour modification and they ignore the fact that employees can be intrinsically motivated. 3)Behaviour modification is that it ignores prevailing work-group norms.
It is important for the management to recognize the power of work-group norms. The simple rules of leaning are: 1. The capacities of learners are important in determining what can be learned and how long will it take to learn it. 2. Te order of presentation of materials to be learned is very important. 3. Showing errors is how to do something can lead to increase in learning. 4. The rate of forgetting tends to be very rapid immediately after learning. 5. Repetition of identical materials is often as effective in getting things remembered as repeating the same story but with variations. 6.
Knowledge of results leads to increase in learning. 7. Learning is aided by active practice rather than passive reception 8. A passage is more easily learned and accepted if it does not interfere with earlier habits. 9. The mere repetition of a situation does not necessarily lead to learning. Two things are necessary – “belongingness” and “satisfaction”. 10. Learning something new can interfere with the remembering of something learned earlier. Values, Attitudes and Interest “When you prevent me from doing anything I want to do, that is persecution; but when I prevent you from doing anything you want to do, that is law, order and morals. – George Bernard Shaw Values Is capital punishment right or wrong? The answer to this question is value laden. Some might argue, for example, that capital punishment is right because it is an appropriate retribution for crimes like murder or treason. However, others may argue, just as strongly, that no government has the right to take anyone’s life. Values represent basic convictions that “a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence. They contain a moral flavor in that they carry an individual’s ideas as to what is right, good, or desirable. Value systems represent a prioritizing of individual values in relation to their relative importance. In other words, we all have a set of values that form a value system. This system is identified by the relative importance we assign to such values as freedom, pleasure, self-respect, honesty, obedience, equality, and so forth. We all have values and, as you will see, what we think is important influences our attitudes and our behaviour. Importance of Values
Values are important to the study of organizational behaviour because they lay the foundation for the understanding of attitudes, perceptions, personality, and motivations. Individuals enter an organization with preconceived notions of what “ought” and what “ought not” to be. Of course, these notions are not value-free. On the contrary, they contain interpretations of right and wrong. Further, they imply that certain behaviours or outcomes are preferred over others. Types of Values The most important early work in categorizing values was done by All-port and his associates.
They identified six types of values: 1. Theoretical – Places high importance on the discovery of truth through a critical and rational approach. 2. Economic – Emphasizes the usefulness and practicality of the situation. 3. Aesthetic – It places the highest value on form and harmony. 4. Social – Here the highest value is given to the love of people. 5. Political – It places emphasis on acquisition of power and influence. 6. Religious – It is concerned with the unity of experience and understanding of the cosmos as a whole.
More recent research suggests that there is a hierarchy of levels that are descriptive of personal values and life-styles. One such study identified seven levels. Level 1. Reactive. These individuals are unaware of themselves or others as human beings and react to basic physiological needs. This is most descriptive of newborn babies. Level 2. Tribalistic. These individuals are characterized by high dependence. They are strongly influenced by tradition and the power exerted by authority figures. Level 3. Egocentrism. These persons believe in rugged individualism.
They are aggressive and selfish. They respond primarily to power. Level 4. Conformity. These individuals have a low tolerance for ambiguity, have difficulty in accepting people whose values differ from their own, and desire that others accept their values. Level 5. Manipulative. These individuals are characterized by striving to achieve their goals by manipulating things and people. They are materialistic and actively seek higher status and recognition. Level 6. Sociocentric. These individuals are characterized by striving to achieve their goals by manipulating things and people.
They are materialistic and actively seek higher status and recognition. Level 7. Existential. These individuals have a high tolerance for ambiguity and people with differing values. They are outspoken on inflexible systems, restrictive policies, status symbols, and arbitrary use of authority. Attitudes Attitudes are evaluative statements – either favourable or unfavourable – concerning objects, people, or events. They reflect how one feels about something. When I say “I like my job,” I am expressing my attitude about work. Attitudes are not the same as values.
Values are the broader and more encompassing concept. So attitudes are more specific than values. Values also contain a moral flavor of rightness or desirability. The statement that “discrimination is bad” reflects one’s values. “I favor the implementation of an affirmative action program to recruit and develop women for managerial positions in our organization” is an attitude. Source of Attitudes Attitudes, like values, are acquired from parents, teachers, and peer group members. In our early years, we begin modeling our attitudes after those we admire, respect or may be even fear.
We observe the way family and friends behave and we shape our attitudes and behaviour to align with theirs. People imitate the attitudes of popular individuals or those they admire and respect. In organizations, attitudes are important because they affect job behaviour. Type of Attitudes But OB focuses our attention on a very limited number of job-related attitudes. These job-related attitudes tap positive or negative evaluations that employees hold about aspects of their work environment. Typically, there are three primary attitudes that are of concerned to us i. e. job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment.
Job satisfaction refers to an individual’s general attitudes toward his or her job. A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitudes toward the job, while a person who is dissatisfied with his or her job holds negative attitudes about the job. When people speak of employee attitudes, more often then they mean job satisfaction. In fact, the two are frequently used interchangeably. The term “job involvement” states that job involvement measures the degree to which a person identifies with his job, actively participates in it, and considers his performance important to his self-worth.
Organizational commitment expresses an individual’s orientation toward the organization by tapping his or her loyalty to, identification with, and involvement in the organization. Individuals who express high commitment see their identity as closely attached to that of the organizations. Attitudes and Consistency People seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and behaviour. This means that individuals seek to reconcile divergent attitudes and align their attitudes and behaviour so they appear rational and consistent.
When there is an inconsistency, forces are initiated to return the individual to an equilibrium state where attitudes and behaviour are again consistent. Changing attitudes: Some basic techniques a)Persuasive messages: Hearing sometimes is believing i)Comunicator’s Characteristics •Attractiveness •Style •Credibility ii)Content of persuasive message •Receiver’s characteristics •Intelligence •Self – esteem/ confidence iii)Enhance persuasion •Build personal attractiveness •Enhance credibility •Use social pressure •Design appeal with care •Repetition can always help b)Dissonance: when attitude and behaviour don’t match )Providing new information d)Use of fear e)Influence of family, friends and peers f)Barriers to changing attitudes Interest You are driving your automobile, and the continued roar it makes does not hold or divert or attract your attention. But presently a new element, perhaps of relatively low intensity, enters into the complex stimulation, and your attention is at once attracted; you notice the new sound and begin to wonder what it means; while your friend by your side, who perhaps is a familiar with the roar as yourself, fails to notice the new element, even when you ask him to direct his attention to it.
The difference between you (manifested in the fact that your attention is drawn to the sound, while his is not) is that you are “interested” in the sounds made by the automobile and he is not. It is sometimes alleged that “interest” in any object or topic depends upon, or consists in, the possession of appropriate knowledge or (in terms of the “idea” theory) of mass or system of “ideas” related to the object or topic. We are interested only in those things that evoke in us one or other (or several) of the instinctive impulses.
We acquire a great variety of new interests through the building up of sentiments for a great variety of objects. “Interest,” being essentially conative, is a matter of the enduring setting of our conative tendencies or impulses, and is therefore determined by our instincts and our sentiments. Knowledge about an object is not in itself a condition of “interest”; though such knowledge favours thus sustaining attention: without such knowledge our attention to any object, determined by conative interest, soon wanes; because we quickly exhaust upon it our limited power of discriminative perception.
Thus a naturalist and a layman may discover some strange plant or animal; it excites the curiosity of both, and both are interested in it; but the attention of the naturalist is more sustained, as well as more effective; for he has the knowledge, or cognitive mental structure, that enables him to examine it systematically and in detail, noticing a hundred features which entirely escape his companies. That “interest” is conative rather than cognitive; that it depends upon the strength of the conative tendencies excited, rather than upon the extent and variety and systematic organization of the cognitive systems of the mind ( knowledge).
To have an “interest” in any object is, then, to be ready to pay attention to it. Interest is latent attention; and attention is interest in action. The essential condition of both interest in and attention to any object is that the mind shall be so organized, either natively or through experience, that is can think of the object, and that such thinking shall evoke some impulse or desire which maintains a train of activity in relation to the object. Motivation “Motivation is getting people to do what you want them to do because they want to do it” – Dwight D.
Eisenhower Today, virtually all people including lay people and scholars have their own definition of motivation. Usually one or more of the following words are included in the definition: “desires,” “wants,” “wishes,” “goals,” “needs,” “drives,” “motives,” and “incentives. ” Technically, the term motivation can be traced to the Latin word movere, which means, “to move. ” This meaning is evident in the following comprehensive definition: “A motive is an inner state that energizes, activates, or moves and that directs or channels behaviour toward goals.
The key to understand motivation, it appears, lies in the meaning of, and relationship between, needs, drives, and goals. Needs Drives Goals (Deprivation)(Deprivation with direction) (Reduction of drives) In a systems sense, motivation consists of three interacting and interdependent elements: needs, drives and goals. 1. Needs. The best one-word definition of a need is deficiency. In the homeostatic sense, needs are created whenever there is a physiological or psychological imbalance. 2. Drives. With a few exceptions drives or motives are set up to alleviate needs. A drive can be simply defined as a deficiency with direction.
Drives are action-oriented and provide an energizing thrust toward goal accomplishment. They are at the very heart of the motivational process. 3. Goals. At the end of the motivation cycle is the goal. A goal in the motivation cycle can be defined as anything, which will alleviate a need and reduce a drive. Thus, attaining a goal will tend to restore physiological or psychological balance and will reduce or cut off the drive. Primary Motives Physiologists do not totally agree on how to classify the various human motives, but they would acknowledge that some motivates are unlearned and physiologically based.
Such motives are variously called physiological, biological, unlearned, or primary. The last term is used here because it is more comprehensive than the others. The use of the term primary does not imply that this group of motives always takes precedence over the general and secondary motives. General Motives A separate classification for general motives is not always given. Yet such a category seems necessary because there are a number of motives, which lie in the gray area between the primary and secondary classifications. To be included in the general category, a motive must be unlearned but not physiologically based.
Although not all psychologists would agree, the motives of competence, curiosity, manipulation, activity, and affection seem best to meet the criteria for this classification. An understanding of these general motives is important to the study of human behaviour – especially in organizations. They are more relevant to organizational behaviour than the primary motives. The Competence Motives While proposed a new conceptualization based upon the assumption that all organisms, animal and human, have a capacity to interact effectively with their environment.
He called from activities which, though playful and exploratory in character, at the same time show direction, selectivity, and persistence in interacting with the environment. ” Thus defined, the competence motive is the most inclusive general drive. The other general drives of curiosity, manipulation, and activity can be considered more specific competence drives. The Curiosity Manipulation, and Activity Motives It is generally recognized that human curiosity, manipulation, and activity drives are quite intense; anyone who has reared or been around small children will quickly support this generalization.
Although these drives often get the small child into trouble, curiosity, manipulation, and activity, when stifled or inhibited, the total society might become very stagnant. The Affection Motives Love or affection is a very complex form of general drive. Part of the complexity stems from the fact that in many ways love resembles the primary drives and in other ways it is similar to the secondary drives. For this reason, affection is sometimes placed in all three categories of motives, Secondary Motives
Whereas the general drives seem relatively more important than the primary ones to the study of human behaviour in organizations, the secondary drives are unquestionably the most important. As a human society develops economically and becomes more complex, the primary drives, and to a lesser degree the general drives, give way to the learned secondary drives in motivating behaviour. With some glaring exceptions that have yet to be eradicated, the motives of hunger and thirst are not dominant among people living in the economically developed Western world.
In particular, the learning principle of reinforcement is conceptually and practically related to motivation. The relationship is obvious when reinforcement is divided into primary and secondary categories and is portrayed as incentives. Some writer’s regards reinforcement and motivation as equivalent. Once again, however, it should be emphasized that although the various behavioural concepts can be separated for study and analysis, in reality concepts like reinforcement and motivation do not operate as separate entities in producing human behaviour. The interactive effects are always present.
A motive must be learned in order to be included in the secondary classification. Numerous important human motives meet this criterion. Some of the more important ones are power, achievement, and affiliation, or as they are commonly referred to today, n Ach, and n Aff. In addition, especially in reference to organizational behaviour, security and status are also important secondary motives. The Power Motives It is the need to manipulate other or the drive for superiority over others – Adler developed the concepts of inferiority complex and compensation. The Achievement Motive Characteristic of high achievers. 1. Moderate risk taking.
Taking moderate risks is probably the single most descriptive characteristic of the person possessing high n Ach. 2. Need for immediate feedback. Closely connected to high achievers’ taking moderate risks is their desire for immediate feedback. 3. Satisfaction with accomplishment. High achievers find accomplishing a task intrinsically satisfying in and of itself, or they do not expect or necessarily want the accompanying material rewards. A good illustration of this characteristic involves money, but not for the usual reasons of wanting money for its own sake or for the material benefits that it can buy. 4. Preoccupation with the task.
Once high achievers select a goal, they tend to be totally preoccupied with the task until it is successfully completed. The Affiliation Motive Affiliation plays a very complex but vital role in human behaviour. Sometimes affiliation is equated with social motives and / or group dynamics. As presented here, the affiliation motive is neither as broad as is implied by the definition of social motives nor as comprehensive or complex as is implied by the definition of group dynamics. The Security Motive One the surface, security appears to be much simpler than other secondary motives, for it is based largely on fear and is avoidance-oriented.
In reality, security is much more complex than it appears on the surface. Gellerman notes that this special drive for security is largely unconscious but that it greatly influences the behaviour of many people. The Status Motive Status can be simply defined as the relative ranking that a person holds in a group, organization, or society. Three key areas of responsibility A. Performance definition (Set Objectives) •Goals •Measures •Assessment B. Performance facilitation (provide resources) •Elimination of roadblocks to performance •Providing means and adequate resources for performance (finance, material, infrastructure, HR etc. •Carefully selecting personnel C. Performance encouragement (Provide timely rewards) •Values of rewards •Amount of rewards •Timing of rewards •Likelihood of rewards •Fairness of rewards Various approaches to job design Appropriately designed job – higher employee satisfaction and quality of performance a. Job enrichment – making jobs more meaningful, interesting and challenging. b. Job enlargement – adding more tasks to the job for variety. c. Job rotation – doing different jobs for variety. d. Social technical approach – making a group or a team responsible for the ob and balancing social and technical aspects of the job. e. Job engineering – concentrates on the efficiency of the job through time and motion analysis of person – machine interfaces. f. Goal – setting – building goals, feedback and incentives into the structure of the job. Job characteristics approach to Job Design – Hackman & Oldham Equation Motivating (MPS) = Skill variety + Task identity + Task Sign x autonomy x feedback Potential score 3 Goal Setting theory •The cognitive based work was given by locke et. al. •The theoretical background a.
Role of intention in human behaviour. b. Scientific Management – Talyor – forerunner of goal setting. c. Importance of values or valence and consequences. d. Emotions or desires are the ways person experiences values. e. People strive to attain goals in order to satisfy their emotions and desires. f. Goals provide direction to behaviour. Goal – Setting theory Values and value Emotions and Intentions or Responses Consequences Judgments desires goals action or Feedback or Performance reinforcement Valid and practical – useful •No commitment to work – Goal setting will not work. Theories of Motivation There is no simple formula to motivate people. But if you look at the theoretical emphasis of the behavioural scientists who have been studying motivation, there is a surprising degree of agreement. Maslow Hierarchy of Needs or Deficient Theory of Motivation Needs are arranged in a definite sequence of domination i. e. , unless the needs of lower order are reasonably satisfied, those of the higher order do not dominate. Lower/primary order needs includes basic physiological needs & safety and security.
Higher/secondary needs are belonging or social needs, esteem and self-actualization needs. Self-actualization Esteem Belonging Safety Physiological McClelland Achievement Theory of Motivation •We have three basic social needs: affiliation, power & achievement. •Need for achievement : The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed. •Need for affiliation : The drive for friendly and close interpersonal relationships. •Need for power : The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation
In the first category are Maintenance or Hygiene factors, which are necessary to maintain a reasonable level of job satisfaction. Absence of these factors may dissatisfy the employee but will not demotivate them. In the Second category are the Motivators since they seem to be effective in motivating people to superior performance. Hygiene/Maintenance Motivators •Company policy & Adm. •Relationship with supervisor •Working conditions •Salary •Relationship with peers •Personal life •Relationship with subordinates •Status •Job security •Technical supervision•Achievement •Recognition •Work •Responsibility •Advancement Growth McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Theory X emphasizes on discipline, incentive programs, welfare measures, close supervision, pension and other benefit programs. Theory Y represents the democratic approach and gives to the employees scope for creativity and responsibility. It stresses man’s need for work, responsibility and involvement in serious endeavour; work force is a reservoir of untapped imagination, intelligence and commitment. Team Building Twenty years ago, the decision of companies to introduce teams into their production processes made news because no one else was doing it. Today, it’s just the opposite.
It’s the organisation that doesn’t use teams that has become newsworthy. Evidence suggests that teams typically outperform individuals when the tasks being done require multiple skills, judgment, and experience. As organizations have restructured themselves to compete more effectively and efficiently, they have turned to teams as a way to better utilize employee talents. Management has found that teams are more flexible and responsive to changing events than are traditional departments or other forms of permanent groupings. Teams have the capability to quickly assemble, deploy, refocus, and disband.
Why Have Teams Become So Popular? Effective teams produce outstanding results and succeed in achieving despite difficulties. Members feel responsible for the output of their team and act to clear difficulties standing in their way. A team, therefore, is more than a collection of individuals. It is in part an emotional entity, rooted in the feelings as well as the thoughts of its members; they actively care about their team’s well being. Definition: An energetic group of people who are committed to achieving common objectives, who work well together and enjoy doing so, and who produce high quality results.
According to the definition, a team consists of individuals who relate directly together to get things done. This suggests a practical limitation on size, because rarely in practice can more than nine people function as single team. It is imperative to take note of the following key terms to understand the definition of a team. •Interdependence, in which each team member makes individual contributions. Other members depend on those contributions and share work information with one another. •Shared responsibility. Responsibility for team’s purpose and goals is shared and understood by all members. All members share outcome, accountability for team outcomes, which identifies the focus for the team’s activities and includes both services and products. The Stages of Team Development When a group of people come together to achieve an objective they will go through a series of stages, leading hopefully to a final ‘mature’ stage that equates to effective team functioning. Woodcock presented “Developmental model” in his Team Development Manual. The main stages can be summarized as follows: Stage 1 – The Undeveloped Team: The ‘Forming’ Stage The features of this stage are: Facilitate ‘getting to know you’ exercise, stimulating greater personal knowledge. •Demonstrate openness by example. •Invite members to share their concerns and problems. •Encourage consideration of individual strengths and weaknesses. •Make team activities enjoyable. •Give maximum support. Stage 2 – The Experimenting Team: The ‘Storming’ Stage The features of this stage are: •Encourage greater openness. •Begin to involve team members in review of team performance. •Build bridges between individuals. •Allow conflicts to surface. •Question decision making and problem solving methods. Find opportunities to experiment. •Give high level of support. •Encourage individual team members to ‘air their grievances’. •Seek common ground. Stage 3 – The Consolidating Team: The ‘Norming’ Stage The features of this stage are: •Develop problem-solving skills. •Develop decision-making strategies. •Develop individual skills. •Develop a capacity for the team to compensate for individual weaknesses. •Encourage people to share strengths. •Celebrate successes. •Clarify objectives. •Regularly review performance and plan improvements. •Give moderate support.
Stage 4 – The Mature Team : The ‘Performing’ Team The features of this stage are: •Build bridges with other teams. •Experiment with different forms of leadership •Allow leadership to change with the needs of the task. •Clarify values. •Consider the possibilities of enhanced inputs into the organisation. •Encourage informal communications. •Fight insularity. •Expose team functioning to external scrutiny. •Give minimal support. Stage 5 – The Disbanding Team: The ‘Mourning’ Stage The features of this stage are: •Competence has been established at a high level. •Commitment may surge or dip.
Implications There are certain implications of these five stages. Forming: awareness of the formation process means encouraging discussion on issues such as : •Why are we here? •What’s our real purpose? •What holds us firmly together? •What are we prepared to do and NOT do together? •What are our rules for working together? •What do we expect from one another? •How will people outside this group respond to us? •What’s the best and worst that could happen if we continue down this route together? Storming: during this stage, which can be exciting and difficult, encourage