The main result of the bloodiest military conflict of the history of humanity was the distinct formation of the mutually hostile alliances. Former allies in the war against Nazi Germany were heading these alliances. The illusion of the temporal accord between the USA and the USSR disappeared very soon and the new confrontation known as the Cold War grasped the superpowers. It was paradoxically but in the confrontation of the secret services, US CIA and FBI versus KGB the Soviet special service achieved more substantial results due to several factors and the ideological one was the most important among them.
Ideologically the Soviet Union was created from the very beginning on the Marxism-Leninism theory of the global Communism as the final aim. That means all alliances with the capitalist superpowers were temporal and sooner or later they were supposed to be transformed into the hostile confrontation. In totalitarian Soviet Union there was only one secret service subordinate to the Communist Party leaders, KGB. There was also GRU, military intelligence but it was also subordinate to the Central Committee of the Communist Party.
In the United States there were several secret services, FBI, CIA and others. All of them had their own missions. From the very beginning the elimination of the communism was not the ideological basis of the USA. While Soviet Union was formed on the ideals of the “global revolution”, the ideology of the US Founders was to create the society of freedom in a particular country.
The post-WWII arms race was the main tool of the US – USSR confrontation. The Manhattan Project, a program of the nuclear weapon development helped the Soviet leaders to consolidate the society in the anti-American hysteria based on the American military threat. At the same time due to the closeness of the Soviet society it was very difficult to perform the intelligence activity on the territory of the USSR. The Soviet system put almost every citizen under the control of the KGB.
While speaking about the KGB it is worth noting that all secret services of the Warsaw Treaty countries were somehow subordinate to the Soviet secret service, at least communication between them unlike that between the American ones was perfect. Apart from this the system of financial support of the Communist Parties worldwide by the Soviet authorities provided almost legal opportunities to run the intelligence activity throughout the world including the USA. The Communist parties supported by the USSR were the agencies of the KGB.
McCarthyism of the 50’s gave the Soviet leaders additional chances to facilitate their ideological activity explaining the McCarthyism policy as a new threat to the Soviet regime. The US “Domino Theory” was opposed by the Soviet support of developing countries in Africa and Asia and this also benefited the global influence of the USSR via KGB.
There were several factors which caused the failure of the American secret services in the counterintelligence activity. First of all it is a democratic regime within the US. The activity of the FBI was restricted by the democratic legislation. Secondly, the closeness of the Soviet Union led to underestimation of the intelligence threat. Though it was a paradox but the ideology of the socialism with the strong social programs in the totalitarian state happened on a certain stage to be stronger than the ideology of the free society. The Soviet KGB succeeded to acquire its agents mainly on the ideological basis and using discrediting while American secret service could recruit its agents on the financial basis only. This American approach was unviable because big money did have any significance in the USSR. A person who lived according to the standards higher than commonly accepted would immediately get under the suspicion of the KGB.
There was strict legislation against the ideological opponents of the Soviet regime in the USSR. That means those who could share the American ideological values were either deported or imprisoned. This explained the lack of basis of recruiting the secret agents in the USSR.
The main achievement of the Soviet KGB and failure of the CIA was the Cuban missiles crisis when Soviets succeeded to establish pro-Soviet regime in the US neighborhood first and then place secretly missiles which could easily reach the territory of the USA. The Caribbean crisis was the culmination of the Cold War which put the mankind to the edge of the global nuclear conflict. The Soviet and American leaders succeeded to find the political solution of the problem and rescue the world from the global nuclear catastrophe.