Stress is the abnormal reaction that the organism displays against treating environmental elements.
Stress, which is a general term used for pressure that people are exposed to in life and may be defined as the individual harmony effort that the person displays against a stimulant which has excessive psychological and physical pressure on the person. When a person feels insufficient in dealing with demands and challenges faced in life, she/he experiences stress. Being harmed by this situation or taking advantage it mainly depends on the person because stress may either be a factor threatening the organism physically or psychologically or a power which gives energy in dealing with life.
Sources of stress may be classified as individual, organizational and outside of organization or it is possible to divide them into two groups as individual and organizational components. Organizational stress, which is also called professional stress, is the interaction between working conditions and the working person in environments in which the work demand exceeds the skills of the worker (Ross and Altmaier, 1994). The elements that cause stress in organizations are environmental factors and the behavior formed as a result of the pressure of these elements on the individual.
These factors may be monotony, change of technology, excessive work load, job security, ergonomic, management problems, the hindrance of the drive of success, personal ambitions, the lack of harmony between person-role and individual characteristics, the feeling of insufficiency. Shortly, organizational policies, the structure and the climate of the organization, physical conditions and process are the basic factors of stress in the organization (Luthans, 1994). In addition, cultural and geographical factors such as climate and religion may shape factors of stress.
Stress in working people results in various feelings such as worry, fear and depression. The first symptoms of stress in workers are; tardiness, absenteeism at work and the decrease in performance and production. Distress results in loss of service in the organization, increase in costs, and loss of work of different types, dissatisfaction and loss of spirits in workers, lack of harmony between managers and workers, lack of productivity, burnout, lack of job satisfaction in addition to creating personal problems.
Apart from these, it is possible that workers may become ill or lose their lives. Distress is one of the most important hindrances in the realization of organizational aims. (Tatjana Atanasoska, and Figen Eres, 2011) There were significant differences in the work values of the Adventist secondary school teachers in Luzon by gender, civil status, type of college graduated from, church attendance, and religious beliefs and practices. Female teachers, for example, have a significantly greater preference towards Interpersonal and Religious work values than male teachers.
Teachers who graduated from non-Adventist schools have a greater preference for Managerial work values than those teachers who graduated from Adventist schools. Differences were also found related to religious practice and church attendance. There were significant differences in the teaching performance of the respondents by highest educational attainment, church attendance and religious beliefs and practices. There was no significant relationship between teaching performance and work values, or occupational stress of the respondents, but there were significant relationships between work values and occupational stress. Allida, V. B. (2005). a. Theoretical(conceptual framework) Stress is an occurrence that must be recognized and addressed in various professions- the teaching profession is no exception. In recent years, inclusive education has risen to prominence, which changed the traditional roles of teachers, from using a “talk and chalk” method, to being more pupil-centered. Within the South African context, learners traditionally seen as having special needs are accommodated within the inclusive education environment.
Research highlights that teacher’s experience with respect to inclusive education is very limited, and that they do not have the skill and disposition to handle diversity (Engelbrecht & Eloff, 2001). The role of teachers in mainstream schools has become more varied and challenging. Research has shown that casual factors for stress include role overload, poor learner behavior, lack of resources; the number of individuals for whom teachers are responsible, diversity in individuals with whom they have to work, resistance and lack of motivation of co-workers (Smylie, 1999). b. Statement of the problem
There is a reasonable understanding of the etiology of teachers? occupational stress, but little is known about the effects of reducing or mediating the impact of stressors. There are very few studies of effective interventions and none involving large samples or long-term follow-up. There are serious problems in generalizing finds from stress-management in other occupational sectors, as well as addressing these gaps in our understanding. Future research based on a social representations approach is needed to allow teachers and stress management practitioners a shared understanding of stress.
Teacher occupational stress is a serious issue facing school administrators today. In order to implement effective educational programs, schools need experienced teachers who are equipped to deal with such challenges. In response to increased work demands, and the challenge of educating a diverse student population, many teachers are leaving the field of education, citing factors which cause stress such as inadequate salaries, work overload, curriculum concerns stemming from federal, state and local mandates, lack of shared decision making and unsatisfactory relationships with stakeholders.
Lack of experience and training, low pay and difficult working conditions combined with stressors that are inherent in the teaching profession may cause teachers to perceive significant feelings of stress, which in turn may render them less effective in the classroom, or cause them to leave the teaching profession. Although the literature addresses stress factors in general, it is less known what stress factors are related to gender, grade level taught or years of experience.
Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify the occupational stress factors of teachers based on gender, grade level and work experience to determine similarities and differences in stress factors. This study will address the following overarching research question: To what degree do teachers experience occupational stress? The following sub questions will also be considered: 1: What is the relationship between occupational stress of teachers and years of teaching experience? 2: To what degree does the level of occupational stress of teachers vary based on grade level taught? . To what degree does the level of occupational stress vary based on gender? c. Basic assumption For an individual any environment has a certain degree of stress, though of varying duration. When stress is sustained for a long period of time, the problem becomes significant. Since laboratory high school has a lot of competent teachers that also experience stress within their jobs and such a situation only adds to the occupational stress. The higher secondary teacher is to go on periodic self-decreased vacations in the form of absenteeism.
School teachers are no exception to this. The individuals entering into teaching field are professionals. They enter into professions and then they professionalize themselves and so they find themselves at loggerheads. Further, in teaching jobs are structured in a way that a worker is simultaneously exposed to both overload and acute time pressure. Generally people under stress express their frustration through some common ways like excessive criticism of government and management and displaying inability to get along with others.
A general knowledge of this behavior in higher secondary school teachers increases the understanding of individuals as well as of groups became, if furnishes one with certain principles. These principles help in recognition of the symptoms of distress and indicate the kind of behavior one may expect so that steps can be taken to deliberately shape the environment to elicit expected responses. But, in the education department such individual behavior cannot be easily identified, as Individual performance cannot be quantitatively measured as precisely as in teaching field.
Symptoms of stress take a long time to erupt. Once it erupts, it not only affects the individual concerned but also the co-workers through strained interpersonal relations and ultimately affects the students education which forms the very core for the success of education department. Hence occupational stress situations and their perceived impact on higher secondary school teachers are taken up for the present study. d. Hypothesis Working in organizations not only provides individuals with life sustaining income but also exerts its own pressures on them.
This can ultimately have negative consequences both for achieving the goals of the organization and meeting the needs of the individuals working in them. Thus, the work environment is a source of social and psychological stress, which has harmful effects on the well-being of the employees. Stress in general and occupational stress in particular is universal and frequently disabling human phenomenon. Stress arising at work has detrimental effect on the behavior of people, which ultimately results in personal and organizational inefficiency.
Occupational stress can be described as a condition where occupation related factors interact with the worker to change (disrupt/ enhance) his or her psychological or physiological condition, so that the persons mind and/or body is forced to deviate from its normal way of functioning. e. Significance of the study The finding of the present study would help the educationists in their professional work in the following way such us; the results of the study would find out the student observation of occupational stress in teachers of CMU laboratory high school; the results of the study would give information egarding the occupational stress among teachers of CMU laboratory high school; the finding of study would provide the guideline to the future research investigation in the relation between the occupation stresses, job satisfaction, performance among to conduct further research in this field. f. Scope and limitation of the study This study is limited to identify the occupational stress situation and perceived behavior under such situations and also to assess the outcome of stress in the higher secondary teachers of Central Mindanao university laboratory high school.
A comparative study can be use by any student from Central Mindanao University. Further it can be extended to those who are working in rural and urban area to obtain their perception. g. Definition of terms * Excessive- Exceeding a normal, usual, reasonable, or proper limit. * Stress- is a person’s response to a stressor such as an environmental condition or a stimulus * Traumatic stress- disorder results after exposure to a severe trauma. * Dissatisfaction- the state or attitude of not being satisfied; discontent; displeasure. anxiety- is an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behavior * Colleagues- A fellow member of a profession, staff, or academic faculty; an associate. * Crouched- To stoop, especially with the knees bent * Occupational- Of, relating to, or caused by engagement in a particular occupation * Observation-The act of noting and recording something, such as a phenomenon, with instruments. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE a. Local Literature Stress among Public Elementary School Teachers
The study dealt on stress among the public elementary school teachers in Baguio City, Philippines. With a sample size of 320 and using descriptive-survey as methodology, the researcher found that the stress felt by the teachers is at normal level. Moreover, it was revealed that gender, age, and civil status do not have significant influence on the level of stress experienced by the teachers. It was recommended that stress awareness programs and activities be instituted by the public elementary schools of Baguio city to minimize the impact of stress among the teachers.
Involved in the conduct of the study were the teachers of the public elementary schools in Baguio City, school year 2008-2009, with a total sample size of 320. Samples from population of teachers were employed using the stratified random sampling procedure in order to have proportionate representation from each district. ( Chona C. Roxas, M. A, June 4, 2009 ) The Effects of Stress and Burnout On Librarians In Selected Academic Libraries In Metro Manila. Caguiat (2001) studied the effects of stress and burnout on librarians in selected academic libraries in Metro Manila .
The study was conducted to determine the level of burnout; identify the sources of job-related stress; determine the manifestations of stress; describe the level of burnout which affects job performance in relation to the following characteristics such as civil status, age, educational attainment, position/designation in the library, and length of employment in the library; and identify the individual coping mechanisms and stress reduction techniques provided by their organizations.
Job stress and burnout among librarians in selected special libraries in Metro Manila was another study conducted by Mohammad (2001). This study looked into the prevailing conditions of job stress and burnout among special librarians. The data were obtained through questionnaire. Majority of the respondents (59. 5%) were found to be experiencing stress, while 27 percent were distressed or strained. Three (8. 1%) respondents were found to be burned out. (Caguit C. A, 2001) b. Foreign Literature
A Study on Personality Factors Causing Stress among School Teachers The study focuses on the factors causing stress among teachers. At one point or other everybody suffers from stress, relationship demands, physical and mental problems, pressure at workplace, traffic, meeting deadlines, growing-up tension-all of these conditions and situations are valid cause of stress. Stress therefore is not only the subject of psychology, management studies, HRM, and organizational behavioral studies.
Medical field also study the dynamics of stress. Research on work-related stress was conducted by the European agency for safety and Health at Work OSHA in the year 2000. The study in detail discuses on the experience of stress at work which has undesirable consequences for the health and safety of individuals and health of their organization. The study of OSHA is more general compared to study of Friedman and Rosenman 2000 who tried and discovered link between stress and coronary heart disease.
The sample was small yet it was a representative one and further the study proves that middle aged men who show symptoms of stress are more likely to develop depression . ( Frone, 1999 ) Occupational Stress of Teachers: A Comparative Study between Turkey and Macedonia The aim of the study is to determine the stress level of Turkish and Macedonian teachers living in different socio-cultural and economic situations. The scale used in the study has been developed by researches. 416 Turkish teachers and 213 Macedonian teachers have participated in the study.
At the end of the study it was seen that Turkish teachers have mild stress levels and Macedonian teachers have moderate stress levels. There is a meaningful difference in the stress level points of Turkish and Macedonian teachers. Policy makers are advised to analyze the teacher training and assessment system with the assumption that personal and social characteristics and working conditions may have an effect on teacher stress. Implications for further research are also discussed. ( Dr. Figerb Eres, June 1,2011 ) c. Local Studies
Stress and strain in teaching: A structural equation approach School teaching seems to be particularly stressful. The stress model of Lazarus and colleagues and its adaptation to educational settings by Kyriacou and Sutcliffe is the basis for an analysis of antecedents’ and consequences of teacher stress. The first aim was to test the theoretical model of teacher stress on large sample using structural equation statistics (study I). The results should then be cross-validated and the model enlarged by additional operationalisations (study II). R. Van, Dick, 2001 ) Teacher and Work – Related Factors: Their Relationship to Stress Coping Techniques of English Teachers In Thai Nguyen Province School Year 2008-2009 This study attempted to determine teacher and work-related factors and its relationship with stress coping techniques of the teacher respondents from six (6) elementary schools, nine (9) secondary schools and eight (8) high schools in Thai Nguyen province. There were a total of 112 English teacher respondents. The tudy was conducted during the first semester of the academic year 2008 -2009. Descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, ranking, and weighted mean were used to describe the profile, work – related factors and extent of stress coping techniques of the teachers – respondents. The correlations between variables were measured by using the Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation (Pearson’s r). The significance of differences between variables was tested by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). (Pthi, Phoung, 2009) b. Foreign Studies
Sources of Occupational Stress For Teachers, With Specific Reference To The Inclusive Education Model In The Western Cape In recent years, inclusive education has risen to prominence, becoming a dominant issue within education across a range of national contexts. Within the South African context, inequalities resulting from apartheid and economic deprivation have had a significant impact on the provision of education for learners traditionally seen as having special education needs (Forlin, Douglas & Hattie, 1996; National Department of Education, 2001).
Despite the achievements of Australia (Forlin et al. , 1996) and Great Britain (Wearmouth, Edwards & Richmond, 2000), research (Engelbrecht et al. , 2001) indicates that teachers’ experience in South Africa with respect to inclusive education is very limited. They conclude that the separate general and special education programmes in teacher education have not provided teachers with the necessary training and experience to develop the necessary skills and dispositions to handle diversity.
The widespread concern regarding teacher stress has led many researchers to focus on this area. Furthermore, there has been an increasing recognition of the link between mental and physical health and occupational stress, and indeed concern to improve the working lives of teachers. (Williams & Gersch, 2004) Work Stress of Teachers from Primary and Secondary Schools in Hong Kong Stress could simply be defined as an unpleasant emotion, which arises when people worry that they could not cope with excessive pressures or other types of demand placed upon them .
Kyriacou and Sutcliffe  had exhaustively defined teacher stress as a response to negative effect such as anger or depression by a teacher, usually accompanied by potentially pathogenic, physiological and biochemical changes resulting from aspects of the teacher’s job, and mediated by the perception that the demands made upon the teacher constitute a threat to his or her self-esteem or well-being and by coping mechanisms activated to reduce the perceived threat. ( Alan H. S Chan, K. Chen, and Elaine Y. C Chong, March 17-19,2010 ) 50-59 46. 9 >60 8. 0 Years of service in this school <=3 27. 3 4-6 16. 2 -10 20. 5 11-15 16. 7 >15 c. Description of instrument to use The instrument designed for the study, the HPS. Description of respondent sample been plainly elucidated and strategies suitable for practical use within schools. Teachers and students often use the most advanced technologies. Observation measure to assess changes in the nature of teaching and student achievement will be assessed by administering selected Iowa Tests of questionnaire as well as a nationally normed instrument, the Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI). Instrument used will be the Teacher Stress Questionnaire- a reliable and valid stress. . Data gathering procedure Data analyses and information gathering procedures will used. This included a stress questionnaire, MBI surveys, staff interviews, and observations. Observation measure to assess changes in the nature of teaching and gathered baseline data on student outcomes using validated measures that. Questionnaire as well as a nationally normed instrument, the Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI) in press), the team designed a portfolio evaluation procedure which will be. For data collection, occupational stress inventory will only be used.
Environments will be often indications of satisfied teachers of EBD students. Researchers have observed that gender is not significant when examining stress. 3. 1. 2 TOOLS For the collection of data it is quite necessary to adopt a systematic procedure. In the observed classrooms students are often found to be working in small … with special responsibility for the quantitative data collection and analysis. Study procedures . change, or moving from one job to another, everyone must keep learning study on teacher quality stressed the importance of active learning for. e.
Statistical treatment to be applied A Meta-analysis for Exploring the Diverse Causes and Effects of Stress in Teachers. 1 We will use the term teacher stress and not student teacher stress since most of the strong feelings of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with his or her job and life situation more. Statistics since they had 1 numerator degree of freedom. The concept of Occupational stress is often confused with challenge, but these of the experience of stress and distress in employment and to use this analysis. Environments will be often indications of satisfied teachers of EBDstudents.
Researchers have observed that gender is not significant when examining stress. For data collection, while t-test and F-test are used for statistical analysis. Teachers with an experience of 6-10 years face occupational stress the most. Remuneration; lack of involvement in decision-making; student recalcitrance study in Bahrain by Al-Khalefa (1999) observed work conditions, salaries and bonuses. Project Timetable| Activity| Start Date| Target Date| Completion Date| Select topic| JULY 11, 2013| JULY 12, 2013| | Select readers| JULY 15, 2013| JULY 16, 2013| |
Obtain literature| JULY 24, 2013| JULY 25, 2013| | Complete lit review| JULY 25, 2013| JULY 25, 2013| | Develop research question| JULY 25,2013| JULY 29,2013| | Complete proposal| JULY 29,2013| JULY 31, 2013| | Develop research methods| AUGUST 1,2013| AUGUST 5,2013| | Revise proposal| AUGUST 5,2013| AUGUST 8,2013| | Submit Human Subject| AUGUST 8,2013 | AUGUST 12,2013| | Proposal approved| AUGUST 12,2013| AUGUST 16 ,2013| | Human Subjects approval| AUGUST 16,2013| AUGUST 21,2013| | Collect data| AUGUST 21, 2013| AUGUST 26, 2013| |
Analyze data| AUGUST 26, 2013| SEPTEMBER 6, 2013| | Finish first draft of paper| SEPTEMBER 6, 2013| SEPTEMBER 11, 2013| | Submit revised draft| SEPTEMBER 11, 2013| SEPTEMBER 17,2013| | Final Defense| SEPTEMBER 17,2013| SEPTEMBER 19,2013| | Printing of final work| SEPTEMBER 21,2013| SEPTEMBER 24, 2013| | Finalization of book, soft bound| SEPTEMBER 25, 2013| SEPTEMBER 27, 2013| | STATEMENT OF EXPENSES CATEGORIES| AMOUNT| Transportation| ? 150. 00| Supplies| ? 300. 00| Equipment| ? 100. 00| Computerization| ? 250. 00| Editing | ? 250. 00| Extra Expenses| ? 500. 00|
Total Amount| ? 1550. 00| 7. Bibliography/ References http://www. accessmylibrary. com/article-1G1-75433932/sources-occupational-stress-teachers. html http://etd. uwc. ac. za/usrfiles/modules/etd/docs/etd_init_9096_1180439697. pdf http://www. lotsofessays. com/viewpaper/1705661. html http://www. collegetermpapers. com/viewpaper/1304170801. html http://www. highbeam. com/doc/1P3-947811301. html http://www. aana. com/newsandjournal/Documents/p443-452. pdf http://iosrjournals. org/iosr-jbm/papers/Vol7-issue5/I0756376. pdf http://www. fed. cuhk. edu. hk/en/cuma/91mllam/content. htm