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Describe the setting’s code of conduct and policies for meal and snack times. When it is snack or lunchtime, the children is asked to visit the toilet as well as to wash their hands, before coming to the table for their meals, in an orderly fashion. The setting used meal and snack times to encourage the children to develop independence through making choices, serving food and drink and feeding themselves. To protect children with food allergies, sharing or swapping of food between children are discourage.

Staff joins the children during lunch, and tries to make the occasion an enjoyable and sociable time for everyone and at the same time ensure there is not any rowdiness. The children is encourage either by words or action by the staff how good table manners are. For example, not talking when our mouths are full or stretching across the table to get something. When packed lunches are brought into the setting for lunch, parents are informed about our policy on healthy eating and is encouraged to put healthy items in their lunch boxes.

The setting reserve the right to return food considered unsuitable, to the parent as a last resort. 9. 3. 2Describe with examples ways of encouraging children and young people: Present food attractively Involved children in growing food Serve realistic portions Encouraging children to eat food provided for them Eat with children Respect reasonable likes and dislikes Negotiate realistic expectations Involved children in the shopping, making menus and preparing of food A colorful collection of fruits on a white plate, for e. g. contrasting strawberries against avocadoes, will present a more attractive display. In the summer where space allows it, children can grow vegetables e. g. potatoes, carrots and radishes.

It is also possible to grow salad indoors during the winter months in window boxes. Adults should eat with the children during lunch, making the meal an enjoyable and sociable occasion. This does not mean loud and noisy. Another way we could encourage the children and young people to eat the food provided for them is to involve them in all the stages it take for the food to get from the shop to the table. For e. g. , take the children shopping (maybe not literally) – set up a pretend shop in the setting and let the children have a go at ‘buying’ the things they might need to make, a muffin, perhaps.

Once the children have all the ingredients for the muffin, they can then start to cook/prepare it. If the staff in a setting has talked with the children’s parents regarding their dietary needs, they normally have an idea about the children’s likes and dislikes. The children should be encouraged to try new food but not if it becomes an issue. The staff should learn to respect the children wishes to a certain extend. If a child balks at eating his or her food, try to negotiate with them, encouraging them to take another bite or finishing her sandwiches before starting on her ‘sweets’.

Serving smaller portions seen to encourage children to finish what is on their plate. A plate pile high with food tends to put them off even before they start to 19. 3. 1Describe the food policy of the setting Before any children start attending the setting we check with their parents, their dietary needs, in terms of their religious belief, any allergic or intolerance to specific food or if they are vegetarians or vegans. We record all the information given in the children’s registration record and parents check it and sign that the information given is correct.

The record is regularly updated. Information concerning any child in the setting that has special dietary needs is displayed and every staff and volunteers is informed about them. The snacks menus are on display, for parents to see. The children are offered food that is considered healthy i. e. without excessive saturated fats, sugar, salt or artificial additives, preservatives or colourings. We also take into account a child dietary needs and preferences as per their parent’s wishes. We offered food that the children are used to, as well as introducing new ones.

The setting take care not to provide food containing nuts or nut products, and especially vigilant with any child know to have a nut allergy. Fresh drinking water is made available to the children. They are informed how to obtain the water and they know that they can ask for it any time during the day. We provide whole pasteurised milk for children who like and can drink it. There is a designated area in the setting where snacks and meals are to be eaten. We inform parents about the storing facilities for food available in the setting. 19. 2. 4Describe where to get advice on dietary concerns. British Nutrition Foundation (www. nutrition. org. uk) This agency provides nutrition information for teachers, health professionals, scientists and general public. * Food Standards Agency (www. eatwell. gov. uk) This agency gives advice about nutrition for children * The NHS (www. healthystart. nhs. uk) The NHS has the ‘5-a-day’ programme. * The Schools Food Trust (www. schoolfoodtrust. org. uk) This Trust gives advice on school meals, children’s food and related skills. * BBC (www. bbc. co. uk/health/treatments/healthy-living/nutrition) The BBC advises on diet and nutrition. The Caroline Walker Trust (www. cwt. org. uk) The Trust is dedicated to the improvement of public health through good food. It produces guidelines for carers and parents concerning babies and young children in early years settings. * Healthy Schools (www. healthyschools. gov. uk) Gives information concerning diets in schools. * National Children’s Bureau (www. ncb. org. uk) The Bureau promotes healthy lifestyles among children and young people. 19. 2. 3Describe how to recognize and deal with allergenic reactions to food. The following might happen when an allergic reaction happens.

Difficulty in breathing due to constriction of airways. The skin turns red and blotchy, like a rash. Skin gets itchy. Vomiting Stomach pain Diarrhoea Swelling around mouth, eyes and in the throat How to deal with allergic reactions to food. Make sure everyone in the setting, including parents, knows about the child’s allergy. Emphasis to everyone not to bring this food into the setting. Teach the child about his allergy so that he learns to recognize it and so avoid eating it. Where the reaction to the food is very severe the child should wear a medical alert bracelet and carry an auto-injector with him.

And a person in the setting should be taught how to administer the medication/injection. Always read food labels and ingredients list to find out if the produce contains any food that would cause an allergic reaction. Strictly avoid any such food or product. Let everyone knows that the setting is a nut-free zone. Inform parents not to provide food-containing nuts in their children’s pack lunches, or any food that their children might bring in. Make sure everyone, including parents, the seriousness of this policy. 19. 2. 2Describe the possible consequences of an unhealthy diet.

Food that is full of sugar and fats are considered unhealthy. Our bodies digest them more easily than fibre. This tends to make us feel hunger pains much more frequently. Subsequently this causes us to snack in between meals. Our body does not require that many calories so it will in turn be stored as fat. It seems a catch 22 situation. To burn off this excess fat we need to exercise but because we eat too much processed food, more fat are being stored in our bodies which makes us overweight. This makes exercise much more difficult, since we are carrying more weight. Being overweight is unhealthy.

It can make us obese and diabetic. With obesity comes a range of problems like high blood pressure, ache in joints, headaches, sleepiness, snoring, piles, gall bladder diseases, low self esteem which maybe due to our appearances and high cholesterol which can lead to heart problems. Diabetes in turn can cause blindness and gangrene. Life expectancy is reduced. 19. 2. 1Describe the benefits of healthy eating for children and young people. The benefits of healthy eating for children and young people are as follows: – The children energy level is high which helps them to be more active and keen to exercise.

High energy level also helps the children to be alert especially during school time, helping them in their study. Lack of sufficient fibre in a child’s diet can lead to irregular bowel movement, which can lead to illness. There are fewer chances for children becoming overweight, diabetic or contacting more serious illness. Hair will look shiny and healthy. The child will have healthy bones and teeth. This means fewer visits to the dentist, thereby letting them live a less stressful life. The child will sleep better which will help them look forward to the challenges in the day. It can also helps in reducing weight steadily.

And life expectancy increases. 19. 1. 3Describe how culture, religion and health conditions impact on food choices. Children and young people known to be suffering from diabetes, coeliac disease, food intolerance and food allergy are restricted in their food choices. Diabetic children need to avoid sugary food but required regular meals and snacks. Children with coeliac disease must avoid food with gluten. They must avoid food made from wheat, rye and barley for e. g. Bread, breakfast cereals, pastry and pasta. Some children are allergic or intolerance to certain foods i. e. they become ill if they eat them.

For example, lactose (products made from milk), eggs, nuts, certain food colourings and some fruits like strawberries and tomatoes. For religion reasons, Jews and Muslims eat meat slaughtered and prepared in a certain way, known as kosher and halal meat. They both fast at certain time of the year. Muslims do not eat pork but do eat fish and shellfish. Jews cannot eat any diary product at the same time as meat and eggs must not have blood spots. Sikhs and Hindus do not eat beef but Hindus are usually vegetarians and Sikhs do eat chickens, fish, shellfish and cheese but rarely pork.

Hindus and Jews both eat fish. For Hindus the fish has to have scales and fins but for Jews it also has to have a backbone. Hindus and Muslims do not eat diary products that contain rennet. Rastafarians eat lamb, beef and chicken but not shellfish. We have to keep in mind that not everyone follows these rules. Vegetarians and vegan do not eat meat of fish. Vegans do not eat anything that has come from animals for e. g. cheese, milk and eggs. So their diet consists mainly of nuts, fruits, vegetables, grains and cereals. 19. 1. 1Outline the nutritional requirements of a healthy diet for Children and Young people

For children to grow up healthy, they require 7 nutrients. They are as follows: – Protein – which builds the body, especially the brain, blood and skin tissues. Carbohydrates – which give energy and are mainly found in pulses, oats, and potatoes. Fats – which give energy but will be store as fat if eaten too much. Vitamins – which help maintain a healthy body. Fibre – which helps maintain healthy bowels and are normally taken from plant materials as well as from bread, pulses and oats. Minerals – which helps build bones and teeth. They come from the earth.

Though we do not require a lot, it will cause serious health problems if we do not have sufficient amount of minerals in our diet. Water – one of the essential elements in our diet. The human body is 60% water and to prevent dehydration we need to replenish any water lost through perspiring, breathing and urinating. We can find all the 7 nutrients in the following groups of food. 5 Groups of Food to give a Balance Diet Potatoes and Cereals – high-energy food, which provides bulk, vitamins, minerals, fibre and protein (5 portions a day) Fruit and vegetables – provide vitamins, minerals and fibre e. . Vitamin C, Vitamin A and Iron. (5 portions a day) Milk and diary products – rich in Calcium and also provide protein and Vitamin A and B. It is not recommended to give reduced-fat diary products to ‘under 5’s’. (3 portions a day) High Protein food – meat, eggs, tofu, quorn, pulses, nuts and seeds. They provide protein, Iron, Vitamin A and B. (2 portions a day) Oils and fats – high energy food but avoid saturated fats which comes mainly from processed food e. g. chips, pies, sausages. Use unsaturated fats where possible, making sure that this is not the bulk of a child’s diet. In moderation) It is important that children under 5’s get enough energy (calories) for growth and development. 29. 4. 1Explain the importance of personal hygiene at meal and snack times This applies to both the preparation and when the children sit down for their snacks and lunch. Before any adults start preparing food for snacks or lunch, they need to wash their hands to avoid any spread of germs to food to be passed on to the children. For the same reason rings and watches should be removed as well. Knives and plates need to be cleaned.

The children are sent to wash their hands before they sit down for either their snacks or lunch. This is to prevent infection and to avoid food poisoning. Reminding the children not to put back any food that they had picked up also helps in avoiding cross contamination. During snacks or lunchtime the children should try to remember not to sneeze or cough openly, to avoid the spreading of germs. Any plates or utensils used during meal times should be clean. And if any cutleries are dropped on the floor, they should be replaced with cleaned items, this will help in avoiding infections.