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There is truth to the popular belief that toddlers of 2-3 years old are the most difficult to deal with. This is so because during this phase, toddlers are exercising and consolidating their newly acquired motor and language skills. They tend to speak or babble a lot and also run about the space at home. Such behavior helps them discover the three-dimensionality of space and learn to master maneuvering through it. The incessant verbal output prepares them for social interaction that awaits them in subsequent stages of development. But the most dreaded part of ‘terrible 2s’ for parents is the tantrums thrown by toddlers. This is due to the beginnings of the process of decentralization whereby the ego-centric perception is slowly lost. The tantrums are partly a reaction to this ‘loss’. To compensate for this feeling of insecurity, toddlers resort to tantrums which bring them parental attention and ego-reinforcement.

References:

Herbert Ginsburg and Sylvia Opper (1979), Piaget’s Theory of Intellectual Development, Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-675140-7, p. 152

Santrock, J.W. (2008). A Topical Approach To Life-Span Development (pp.211-216). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill

Summary and Reaction to Chapter 3 (The Slow Hunch) of Steven Johnson’s book ‘Where Good Ideas Come From’

The main argument in the chapter is that great innovations are due to accumulative processes rather than spontaneous ‘eureka’ moments. Almost in any major technological or scientific innovation of modern times, the break-through was made possible by the robust base built by accrued prior knowledge.

A key idea put forward by Steven Johnson is that of ‘convergence’. This is the process of the gradual accumulation of information, concepts and their interrelationships that are precursors to the occurrence of ‘insight’. Although the decision to synthesize and analyze them is that of an individual, the fundamental facts and concepts can be fetched from a disparate range of sources. To this extent, though great innovations are not one-off events of brilliance, they are the result of ‘collective intelligence’. Collective .

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